ECO. 362—-2-6-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 7—Informal Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Economy)

  1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria? 
     2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy? 

     3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society? 

Tony Orji

Tony Orji

Dr. Tony Orji is the founder and owner of Success Tonics Blog. He is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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  1. MADUKO MAUREEN ADAEZE says:

    MADUKO MAUREEN ADAEZE
    2017/249049
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    —————————————————————————

    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY??

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for -65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.
    Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need.
    Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient, and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy.
    Historically, stakeholder interventions in the informal sector have been focused on how to regulate businesses, and effectively integrate them into the formal economy. Limited emphasis has been given to identifying the drivers of growth in the various sub-sectors within, and the challenges experienced by participants.
    Policy interventions to support the sector must therefore be two-fold. Firstly, efforts should be made to create more formal jobs to draw workers out of the informal sector. Secondly, policies should be introduced to address identified challenges in the informal sector towards improving productivity and incomes of informal sector players.
    Current Bank of Industry interventions in the informal sector include both training and financial support for market women, artisans, traders (through the FG’s“Government Economic Empowerment Programme “GEEP product”) and artisanal miners (through the Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners–“ASM Fund”). A critical look at these interventions show Bank Of Industry adopting a hybrid model that prioritizes the attainment of both economic growth (GEEP) and development (ASM Fund).
    In the formal sector, Bank of Industry continues to provide funding and capacity building to enterprises, towards business expansion, inevitably leading to job creation.
    Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety standards, amongst others.
    However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services.
    With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered.
    Consequently efforts must be made to understand the dynamics of the sector and how best to tap the latent potential that lies within.

    MAJOR OBSTACLES THE INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY .
    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    Covid 19: Implications on the Informal Sector ,Nigeria is the largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. Following the global financial crisis of 2008-09, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation improved. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by the growth of agriculture, telecommunications and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant reduction in poverty levels; as more than 62% of Nigeria’s 180 million people still live in extreme poverty .The outbreak of the new corona virus (COVID-19) in China has changed the world tremendously, as it has become a major pandemic and affects millions of people around the globe regardless of geographical location, age, race, gender, etc. While this crisis is primarily a public health issue that has claimed the lives of thousands of people worldwide and is still counting, the economic impact will undoubtedly be overwhelming and likely to lead to major economic crises both in the formal and informal sector. Statistics on the informal sector are unreliable by virtue of the subject, yet they can provide a tentative picture of its relevance (Oluranti, Odunaike & Jawando, 2015). The Nigerian Ministry of Labour and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the nation’s economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job openings in Nigeria. In the same vein, the Lagos office of Federal Ministry of Labour declared that the informal sector accounts for 80 per cent of non-agricultural employment, 60 per cent of urban employment and over 90 per cent of new jobs in Nigeria . Arguably, the informal sector constitutes the largest employer of labour and a source of living for many Nigerian. It therefore, contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of employment and income sourcing. In Nigeria, the Bank of Industry (BoI) has declared the informal sector an important economic factor that contributed to about 65% of the
    country’s GDP in 2017. With a pervasive informal sector and outbreak of Covid-19, the Nigerian economy is expected to drop drastically. It was opined that COVID-19 crisis is causing all components of aggregate demand, except for government purchases, to fall in different dimensions. First, the fall in household consumption is as a result of full/partial restrictions on movement, thus causing consumers to spend primarily on essential goods and services. Restrictions on movement not only reduced the consumption of non-basic products in general, but also affected the ability of these groups to generate income, thus reducing their consumer spending. The restrictions on movement have rendered many people jobless, as all economic activities have slowed down. Those that will be most affected are the informal businesses, as small enterprises that may have difficulties adapting to the virtual means of doing business will be left out. Of the unemployed, the worst blow is the daily wage whose livelihoods are based on daily income. Therefore, many people will experience unemployment during this period, and paying bills like house bills, food and school will be almost impossible.
    Second, corporate investments will be hurt mainly by the uncertainty that comes with limited knowledge from the pandemic about the duration of the outbreak, the effectiveness of policy measures and the response of economic agents to these measures – as well as negative investor sentiment which are causing a stir in the capital markets of the world. Indeed, the crisis has led to a massive decline in stock prices, as the Nigerian Stock Exchange has recorded its worst performance since the economic crisis of 2008, which eroded investor wealth. Given the plague-related uncertainty and negative earnings outlook for potential investment projects, firms may delay long-term investment decisions .
    Unfortunately, government acquisitions will increase as governments, which can usually afford to manage budget deficits, utilize fiscal stimulus measures to counteract the decline in consumer spending. However, for commodity-dependent governments, the fall in global demand for goods stemming from the epidemic will significantly increase their fiscal deficit. In Nigeria’s case, Brent’s crude oil price was just over $ 26 a barrel on April 2, while Nigeria’s budget assumes $ 57 a barrel and would still amount to a $ 2.18 trillion deficit ($ 6.05 billion). Similarly, when oil accounts for 90 percent of Nigeria’s exports, the fall in oil and oil prices will adversely affect the volume and net export value. Indeed, the steep decline in oil prices associated with the pandemic is forcing the Nigerian government to cut planned spending,also reiterated that restrictions on movement of people and closing borders heralded a decline in exports. Already, countries around the world have closed their borders to non-essential movements, and global supply chains have disrupted. Although exports of the least depreciated countries due to falling commodity prices (such as Nigeria) will become cheaper, the limited markets for non-essential goods and services eliminate the expected positive impact on net exports.

    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ROLE IN THE SOCIETY
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. NGOs are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights. These play a very crucial role in the well-being of mankind as they help in addressing the various problems of society by providing a relevant and effective solution. As NGOs are defined to work on social evil they help people in outbursting their hindrances and fight against the same in a very sound manner.

    The importance of NGO in society are:
    a)They are involved in working for social cause without seeking any gains in return.
    b)These plays an essential role in the development of society. They help people in the development of all spheres.
    c)They not only involve themselves in helping people with materialistic things but also provide financial help. They focus on educating people by bringing the insight of various benefits of being knowledgeable.
    d))As they are not operated by any government one can bring no harm to anyone and can continuously work for the betterment of society at a larger level.
    e)The development and growth of a country and even for the rural areas depend on the work of NGOs. The supporters of NGO work for the betterment and for the bright future of the country
    f)By campaigning NGOs, individual spread awareness of a specific program at a larger level. This mainly emphasis on creating issues at national as well as international level for helping the people by creating a skillful youth in the country.
    g)By paving way for many lower-class people to find a source of income. NGOs help them in becoming self-dependent by exploring the desires of their life. The supporters of NGO focus on making people rely on the sources and encourage them to live a happy and wealthy life.
    h)NGOs also provide healthcare facilities which help them in dealing with problems like malnutrition and other health-related issues. The medicinal help contributes a lot in saving the lives of people.

  2. IJIGA CHRISTIAN ADAKOLE
    2017/241255
    EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    TOPIC: INFORMAL SECTOR AND NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO)
    NGO is an acronym for nongovernmental organization, which refers to any organization that is not created, operated, or unduly influenced by government or business. NGOs are created to serve some social good, the welfare of society.
    NGOs are a key part of civil society, the so-called third sector:
    Government
    Business
    Civil society
    Each NGO tends to have a focus or mission of either:
    Advocacy.
    Providing services that help to fill gaps in services provided by government and business.

  3. OKONKWO CHIDINMA ALISA
    2017/243086
    ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL

    ANSWER
    QUESTION ONE
    The informal sector helps in the provision of employment opportunities as the formal sector tends not to employ enough people. That is, the informal sector helps in absorbing excess labour from the formal sector.
    The informal sector also contributes to economic growth.

    QUESTION TWO
    The informal sector though helps in the provision of employment opportunities also faces it’s own obstacles. Some of which are:
    1. No access to credit facilities from the government. This implies that those who work in the informal sector like the newspaper vendors, traders, carpenters, tailors, etc. are not given the opportunity to access credit facilities like loans and grants from the government.
    2. Lack of capital. Some of these informal workers tend not to have startup capital for their businesses. This is a major problem faced by many in the sector as they want to start a business but do not have the capital and can not access it from the government.
    3. No Minimum Wage Policy. This is in the interest of those who earn low or those that are underemployed or are working poor in the sense that, their wage is actually based on what the work they have done or the service they have rendered.

    QUESTION THREE
    Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are establishments that are not in direct link with the government of a country. They function free from the government. They could have the aim of working towards a social, political, environmental goal of the sort in the country. Their functions are as follows:
    1. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    2. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    3. They are not profit-oriented therefore aim to pursue social welfare.

  4. UGORJI IJEOMA JUDITH says:

    Name: Ugorji Ijeoma Judith
    Reg no: 2017/243088
    Department: Economics.

    Nigeria’s informal sector is vast and encompasses a host of activities ranging from agricultural and food production, small scale building and construction to street trading and vending, small and medium scale enterprises. The informal sector is that section of the economy that does not require any legal procession, any formal mode of entry or registration, or strick governmental control to function. Informal sector can be referred to the shadow economy or underground economy. This is because as the name implies, they are “almost” free from government regulations especially in terms of tax payment.
    The informal sector is majorly characterised by low entry and capital requirements, involved in small scale operations, doesn’t require any formal education or professional qualifications to start operating, it is often based on household ownership and the business is carried out among family members, no formal wage contact between the employer and the employee and no strict government control.
    The contributions of the informal sector to economic growth and development in Nigeria can not be overemphasized given that it makes up 65% of the size of the economy. According to (ECA, 2005), the informal sector has been noted to account for about 21% of total employment in sub-saharan, and about 38% of the gross domestic product GDP, in Nigeria (FOS, 1999). Since then, the informal sector has been experiencing massive expansion in not just Nigeria, but other developing countries forming a safe haven for employment and income generation for the middle class and poor masses that makes up a larger portion of the country’s population.
    Informal sector in Nigeria encompasses a wide range of economic activities that tend to be ignored and most times not properly accounted for in the country’s GDP because it is assumed that all these activities are often carried out in small unit establishment that requires small capital. Generally speaking, the contributions of the informal sector to nigeria’s economic development are evident in areas of employment creation and hence income generation through efficient utilization of local technology and resources, training entrepreneurs, capital savings and mobilisation and strong linkage with other sectors in terms of providing raw materials for further production.
    Albeit the expanding nature of the informal sector, it is still plagued with some challenges which includes but not limited to;
    1. Lack of proper regulations from the government which keeps the sector relegated to the background and most of it’s economic activities not accounted for despite it’s major contribute to economic growth.
    2. Lack of start up capital: this is usually a major problem for the teaming poor who are not able to get job in the formal sector and wish you start up something. Accessing loans from financial institutions and grants from government is usually difficult.
    3. Insecurity is another obstacle faced by enterprises in thid sector although insecurity is a general issue of concern. It affects the people at the grassroot level more.
    4. Poor knowledge of modern technology can impedes efficiency in production and utilization of resources.
    Non governmental organisations are non profit making organization, they are voluntary citizen’s group which could be formed for the welfare benefit of certain group of vulnerable people. NGOs operate at local, national and international levels. It is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities. NGOs are established by individuals or group of individuals (usually wealth persons who pull their resources together), firms or groups who are people’s welfare oriented with a common interest of rendering humanitarian services to the masses, bringing citizen’s concern to government, advocating and monitoring policies and encourage political participation through proper information dissemination.
    International non governmental organisations in Nigeria provides analysis and expertise service as an early warning mechanism and helps monitor the implementation of international agreement. They also help to ensure that the burseries or quota due to the nation from any international NGO is properly recurved and disbursed to the eligible beneficiaries.
    Some Local NGOs in Nigeria include:
    * Female leadership forum
    * BAOBAB for women human right
    * Pathfinder international
    * Voluntary work camps Association of Nigeria.
    * Global women empowerment of Nigeria, GLOWEM.
    * Afro centre for Development of Peace and Justice.
    * Children of Farmers Club, CFC. to mention a few.

  5. OZUEM DEBORAH OGHENEKEVWE says:

    NAME: OZIEM DEBORAH OGHENEKEVWE
    REG NO: 2017/249572
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: deborah.ozuem.249572@unn.edu.ng

    QUESTION 1:
    The informal sector of the economy is that sector of the economy where economic activities are not regulated, monitored or supervised by the government of the country either through tax or other regulatory measures. The major contribution of the informal sector to economic growth is the creation of paid employment to a large population of the country. As a matter of fact, the informal sector in most developing countries make up a significant portion of the economies. Since they are not taxed, not accountable to any authority, they are not included in the country’s GDP. However, they offer variety of employment opportunities to the poor and low class citizens in the country.

    QUESTION 2:
    Due to the nature of the informal sector, they are faced with a number of challenges that includes but not limited to:
    1. They are exposed to long working hours, harsh working environment and low remuneration.
    2. They is no job satisfaction and lack of job security.
    3. Absence of social welfare packages.
    4. Women particularly receive lower wages and are more vulnerable to abuse.
    5. It is difficult to fight for or exercise rights e.g fighting against physical and verbal abuse and discrimination of women.

    QUESTION 3:
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, non-profit organizations that are totally independent of government influence. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and can are instrumental in environmental, social, and Human Rights issues. Their major roles in the society are:
    1. They are engaged in a number of community development projects such as health education, sanitation awareness, child rights law, fight against child or forced labour, etc.
    2. They act as pressure groups to influence government decisions on issues affecting the majority.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination
    5. They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level.

  6. Ali Chukwuemeka Japhet says:

    NAME: ALI CHUKWUEMEKA JAPHET
    REG. NO: 2017/242427
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    1. An informal sector is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    They ensure free flow of resources. They are the major contributors of national output in the economy. They also assist the government in providing jobs.

    2. The challenges faced by the informal sector of Nigeria, includes institutional inadequacies, unsafe working conditions, poor enforcement and the non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making.

    3. Non – Governmental Organization are any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level usually task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, brings citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

  7. Chikeleze Chigozie Noel 2017/243815 says:

    According to Altman (2008), the first and foremost point on the proportion of employment in the
    informal sector is that the share of employment in small informal enterprises tends to fall as a country’s
    per capita income rises. Amin (2002) observes that the proportion of the labour force engaged in the
    informal sector fell by between 60 and 70 percent of the labour force in low income South Asian
    economies, by between 30 and 50 percent in middle-income South-East Asian countries, and by about
    25 percent in high-income Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore. It was also pointed out however, that in Sub￾Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, 78 percent of non-agricultural employment is found in
    informal-sector firms, accounting for about 21 percent of total employment, including domestic workers
    (ECA, 2005).
    Considering the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many
    African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus
    for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of
    job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the
    years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a
    period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of self￾employment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian
    informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the
    average earnings between the formal and informal sector.
    Though Nigeria does not, at present, have accurate statistics on the proportion of labour force in the
    informal sector, the CBN/NISER/FOS survey of 1998 indicates that informal manufacturing enterprises
    are small. The average number of persons employed in an enterprise was about 2. By implication, bulk
    of the informal employment in Nigeria can be found in non-manufacturing activities such as street
    trading, barbing saloons, restaurants, and other informal sector activities. The 1998 survey of the
    Nigerian informal sector gives some interesting nsights on size of the labour force employed in the
    informal manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria.
    2.Problems faced by the informal sector.
    a. Lack of basic amenities
    b. Lack of skills
    c. Lack of credit facilities.
    d. Illiteracy
    e. Insecurity

    3.First of all looking at the meaning of NGO, it is an acronym representing the “Non-governmental Organization”.

    Now emphasizing on the connotative meaning of NGO, A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level.it is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities (that is to say, it was not established for profit-making).

    It is Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGO perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

  8. Ezeh Martha Kelechi, reg no:2017/244943, Education Economics says:

    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them.ie they don’t pay taxes to the government. Informal sector includes both illegal and legal activities, such as drug pushing and smuggling and cleaning or washing car, windshields at traffic lights or doing construction work respectively etc.
    This sector includes situations where people must work without receiving any pay. It also includes sectors in which individuals work and in exchange receive something other than money.
    Unlike the formal economy, economists do not include the informal sector’s components in GDP computations. This means that countries are probably richer than official statistics suggest. sector – features
    The informal sector generally has the following features:
    Easy Entry: people who wish to join can usually find work.
    Unstable: in this sector, job security simply does not exist.
    Industrial Relations: there is no stable employer-employee relationship.
    Scale: all operations are small scale.
    Skills: in the majority of cases, it is unskilled work. The skills needed for this type of work are gained outside of formal education.
    People who participate in the informal sector are not typically classified as unemployed. The type of work ranges from unpaid family labor to self-employment and includes street vendors,junk collectors, shoe shiners, car cleaners, car watchers, gardeners, etc.
    Wide range of activities
    The informal sector covers a wide range of activities that combine two main groups, whose reasons for being in it are quite different:Coping Strategies: also known as survival activities. Individuals and families work in an economic environment where opportunities are extremely scarce.These include unpaid jobs, temporary jobs, casual jobs, subsistence agriculture, and holding multiple jobs simultaneously.
    Deliberate Strategy: the rational behavior of entrepreneurs who do not wish to pay taxes and want to escape state regulations.
    They want to avoid labor regulations and other institutional or government regulations. They do not want to register their business or pay tax. Some of these activities are criminal.
    The informal sector plays a controversial and important role. It provides jobs, reduces unemployment and underemployment, and probably helps combat malnutrition in many parts of
    the world.However, it is typically low-paid, and job security is non-existent.Even though it bolsters entrepreneurial activity, it does so to the detriment of regulation compliance, particularly labor and tax regulations.Its role in most countries increases during a recession and declines when the economy is healthy and growing.
    Question 2: Non Governmental Organization and it’s role in the society;

    The Role of Non-Governmental Organisations in Community Development: Focus on Edo State–Nigeria
    Community development entails the provision of infrastructural facilities to the people. The provision of these social amenities can be attained through a number of ways and/or organizations which includes, the government, community development associations, Non-Governmental Organisations . Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. This paper examines some of the strategies for community development in Nigeria, with a particular emphasis on the role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). The methods of study include interview, observations, intensive local field studies and extensive travel throughout the state. The beneficiaries of NGOs activities and donor agencies – students, teachers, NGO functionaries, fire burnt victim and head of house holds were interviewed.
    The findings includes:
    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.
    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  9. Okorie Judith Onyinye says:

    Name: Okorie Judith Onyinye
    Reg number: 2017/241450
    Department: Economics Major

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to the economic growth in Nigeria
    The informal economy Simply put is a wide range of economic jobs,enterprises and workers that are not protected by the state.
    And it contributes to economic growth in the following ways

    a. The informal economy to a large extent acts as a safety net for individuals who Cannot find formal jobs thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.

    b. The informal economy also helps to reduce the crime levels in the economy such as armed robbery, theft, kidnappings etc by engaging these individuals in menial jobs that they can engage in to earn a living.

    c. The informal sector Lowers prices of commodities. informal activities take place in the backyard where rent is cheaper and cheap labour is used which usually result in lower costs such that lower prices are charged for their commodities. This is a benefit to the consumers since higher price charged in the formal sector reduces the consumer surplus.

    d. The informal economy contributes to economic growth although it is not taxed officially, informal sector complements the formal sector through indirect taxes such as Value Added Tax (VAT).

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria

    A. The informal sector in Nigeria results in lower tax revenues that hinders the government’s ability to spend on social programs and investment. This means the individuals that are most in need of social programs and public infrastructure may not receive them because they are not protected by the government

    B. Due to its lack of formality, the informal sector in Nigeria is usually overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities.

    C. They are very prone to external shocks such as financial crisis or pandemic because they do not have built in reserves or insurance against loss of income or unforeseen contingencies

    3. What are non governmental organizations and their major roles in the society

    Non governmental organizations also known as NGO’s are organizations which are independent of government involvement and are non-profit by definition. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.
    Non governmental organizations are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.
    NGOs rely on a variety of funding sources from private donations and membership dues to government contributions in the form of grants etc.
    There are two broad types of non governmental organizations which are
    a. Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    b. Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy.
    Some examples of non governmental organizations in Nigeria are : Rural Urban Development, Action Aid for the Unemployed, the la buena vida project, Human Rights & Empowerment Project etc

    B. The major role non governmental organizations play in the Society are :

    i. They help to improve the life of the people by providing different services free of charge. Such services might include humanitarian aid in the form of providing food to the less privileged, Providing access to clean water, sanitation, housing, quality education etc

    ii. NGO’s ensure that everyone has accessible healthcare, legal support, human rights activism by providing information about human rights to the public and fighting human rights violations in courts and on the streets.

    ii. NGO’s provide data-driven support to government bodies, and also empower local communities to move towards a sustainable form of living.

    iv. NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations.

  10. Ugwu Chidimma Joy says:

    Name: Ugwu Chidimma Joy
    Reg no: 2017/249584
    Department: Economics

    QUESTION ONE:
    An informal economy is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable.
    The informal economy is efficient and resilient, creating jobs. It is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower-income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP. It exists separately from the formal economy.
    1) creating more ‘decent’ jobs, preferably formal;
    2) registering informal enterprises and regulating informal jobs;
    3) extending state protection to the informal workforce, especially the poor;
    4) increasing the productivity of informal enterprises and the income of the informal workforce.
    5) Some employers pay well because company owners do not have many tax obligations. Employee effort is directed towards achieving profit rather than satisfying irrelevant routines.
    6) The informal sector, creates a form of relationship between the employer and his employer. There can be a close and direct relationship with the employer, therefore making it easy to get permission when in need of time off.
    7) You are saved the hassle of paying Pay As You Earn tax.
    8) There’s no red tape when it comes to dealing with personnel issues which are expressly handled either by the employer him/herself, or a senior manager.
    9) Sometimes employment is done on the spot with little emphasis on attending lengthy job interviews and countless aptitude tests.

    QUESTION TWO
    While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.
    Some employees under the informal sector are faced with some challenges;
    1) long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions;
    2) low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    3) inadequate social security regulation;
    4) difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination;
    5) vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);
    6) lack of representation.
    7) Lack of capital
    8) no protection from the formal sector

    QUESTION THREE
    Organizations which are independent of government involvemen are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.
    Examples;GSO – it stands for the Grassroots Support Organization

    MANGO – It refers to the market advocacy NGO

    CHARDS – It is a short form for Community Health and Rural Development Society

    Roles Of NGOs;
    NGOs play a critical role in all areas of development. People and policy makers are agree on one thing that NGOs play a very important role in development. Role of NGOs vary over the years as the policy of government changes. NGOs are almost dependent on polices of government. Socio economic development is a shared responsibility of both i.e. government and NGOs. Role of NGOs are complementary but vary according to polices of government. If we closely pursue the voluminous literature on NGOs many roles can be found according to the expectations of people. The major development roles ascribed to NGOs are to act as:

    Planner and implementer of development programmers,

    Mobiliser of local resources and initiative,

    Catalyst, enabler and innovator,

    Builder of self reliant sustainable society,

    Mediator of people and government,

    Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes, etc.,

    Agents of information,

    Factor of improvement of the poor, and

    Facilitator of development education, training, professionalisation, etc.

    Basically NGOs role is to prepare people for change. They empower the people to overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress.

  11. 1) The informal sector is a sector of the economy that is not taxed and it is not regulated by the government.
    The informal sector contributes to economic growth mainly by providing job opportunities for the unemployed citizens in the country, it also provides a form of self employment.
    2) some challenges faced by informal sector include:
    Inadequate security- a great number of them are robbed
    Long working hours
    Low paid or undervalued jobs
    Lack of start up capital
    3) NGOs are organizations which are independent of government intervention, they are usually non profit organizations and many of them are active in humanitarianism.
    Their roles include :
    Developing the society
    Improving communities
    Promoting citizenship participation.

  12. Okoye Amblessed Amarachi says:

    The informal sector is the sector of the economy in which economic activities are not registered by the government.
    It comprises of traders, subsistence farmers, SMEs, service providers such as: hairdressers, barbers, tailors etc.
    The importance of the informal sector are but not limited to the following;
    a. It creates job opportunities for those who couldn’t be absorbed into the formal sector.
    b. It creates a means to maneuver the economic hardship and poverty faced by the citizens if a country.
    c. The informal sector makes enormous contributions to the national output and income of a country, since there is relatively large of number of people gainfully employed there.

    2. Over the years the informal sector in Nigeria has been encumbered by so many problems they include the following:
    a. Lack of adequate credit facilities.
    b. Absence of job security.
    c. Insecurity problems and poor security systems.
    d. Lack of amenities and social welfare packages.
    e. Poor and inadequate institutional facilities.
    f. Presence of little or no renumeration.
    g. Very low wages for women.

    3. The roles and impact of NGOs in a nation whether locally, nationally and internationally cannot be understated.
    Meanwhile an NGO is a non profit group that functions independently of the any form of government involvement. They are sometimes referred to as civil societies.
    The importance of NGOs are:
    a. NGOs advocate for protection of the fundamental human rights of the people living in a country.
    b. They protect the rights of the minority by acting as pressure groups.
    c. They act as watch dogs to the government ensuring that they provide the basic necessities for its citizens.
    d.They engage in community development projects such as building of health centers, schools modern markets, roads, bridges etc.
    e. They ensure that grants, foreign aids and bursaries due for a nation from international NGOs are disbursed adequately.

  13. Ezeugwu Charles Nnanna says:

    The informal sector is the sector of the economy in which economic activities are not regulated by the government.
    It comprises of traders, farmers, SMEs, service providers such as: hairdressers, tailors, plumbers etc.
    The importance of the informal sector are but not limited to the following;
    a. It creates job opportunities.
    2. It delivers the citizens from economic hardship and poverty.

    2. In the recent times, the informal sector in Nigeria has been faced with so many problems they include the following:
    a. Inadequate credit facilities.
    b. Insecurity challenges.
    c. Inadequate institutions
    d. Little or no renumeration.

    3. The roles of NGOs in a nation whether locally, nationally and internationally is very obvious
    An NGO is a no-profit organization that functions independently of the government.
    The roles the NGOs play are:
    a. protection of the fundamental human rights of the citizens.
    b. Acting as pressure groups.
    c.They provide social amenities such as building of health centers, schools modern markets, roads etc.

    • Ezeorah chukwuebuka Emmanuel says:

      Ezeorah chukwuebuka Emmanuel
      2017/249508
      Economics
      emmanuellescot32@gmail.com
      QUESTION ONE
      The informal sector helps in the provision of employment opportunities as the formal sector tends not to employ enough people. That is, the informal sector helps in absorbing excess labour from the formal sector.
      The informal sector also contributes to economic growth.
      Question 2

      The Nigerian Informal sector faces a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development. Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety .
      3. The roles of NGOs in a nation whether locally, nationally and internationally is very obvious
      An NGO is a no-profit organization that functions independently of the government.
      The roles the NGOs play are:
      a. protection of the fundamental human rights of the citizens.
      b. Acting as pressure groups.
      c.They provide social amenities such as building of health centers, schools modern markets, roads etc.

  14. Name:Meteke Joy Orimusue
    Reg.no:2017/242430
    Department:Economics
    Website: metekejoy01.blogspot.com
    Email:joymetex2000@gmai.com

    (1) INFORMAL SECTOR AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY
    Since its “discovery” in the early 1970s, the informal sector and its role in economic development have been seriously debated.The International Labour Organization (ILO)released the first-ever estimates of the world’s informal sector labour force in 2018: 61% of the world’s workers earn their livings in the informal sector.The informal sector is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the government of a state. The concept originally applied to self-employment in small unregistered enterprises.The informal sector is also refered to as “illegal”, “underground”, “black market” or “grey market”. It is often called the “shadow economy” and characterized as illegal or inethical activity.It plays a significant role in the global economy and when supported,in can help in reducing poverty and inequality. The informal economy does not, however, offer a “cushion” during economic crisis. The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. According to BOI)Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.
    Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is able to adapt to economic difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those in need. A fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. The fact that private incorporated and public enterprises employ informal workers does not mean that the contribution of these workers is not taken into account in the output of the firms (unless the goods or services produced are illegal by nature). However, it has an impact of the value added: supply and use tables by products are the instrument by which national accountants attempt to balance production and its uses (consumption, investment).

    (2)MAJOR OBSTACLES OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR FACING THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY
    While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    Adequate technology will help in increasing productivity of the informal sector as result increase the level of GDP.But with lack of technology,the informal sector will suffer a decreasing level of income.Lack or limited capital can hinder the performance of the informal sector by reducing the size of productivity thereby reducing outcome .Also lack of inadequate education of informal sectors players affects its outcome or results.For instance , in Nigeria several businesses have little or no formal education .This largely hinders the informal sector in means of keeping records of transactions.Lack of skills can also be another challenge of informal sector. Players of this sector in Nigeria have low or no skill at all.This is bad for profit and in general GDP.
    (3) NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ROLES
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, or non-governmental organizations, play a major role in international development, aid and philanthropy.The World Bank defines NGOs as “private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services or undertake community development”. An NGO is an organization established with the primary aim of providing for the people in the society rather than for profit. Some examples of NGOs in Nigeria includes;
    a.Old Peoples Support International
    b.Global Peace Development
    c.Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation
    d.Action Aid for the Unemployed
    This provision includes protection of human rights, poverty reduction and gender equality amongst others.It is also seen as a tool for tightening democracy.NGOs play key roles in the economy.These roles includes (1) social development, (2) sustainable community development, (3) sustainable development, and (4) sustainable consumption.
    Social Development: NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI) (n.). One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institutional independence and political neutrality. Even though NGOs need to collaborate with governments in numerous instances, failure to maintain neutrality and autonomy may severely compromise the NGOs’ legitimacy.
    Sustainable Community Development :NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations.
    Sustainable Development :NGOs have played a significant role in promoting sustainable development at the international level. NGOs are going beyond their primary focus on governments and starting to address large corporations. In this vein, NGOs have focused attention on the social and environmental impacts of business activity, helped in part by advances in information and communications technology.
    Sustainable Consumption :NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption.

  15. Elendu Esther Ogechi 2017/243875 Education economics says:

    Question 1
    With the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of self- employment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the average earnings between the formal and informal sector.

    Question 2

    The Nigerian Informal sector faces a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development. Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety .

    Question 3

    An NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

    Roles of non governmental organizations

    Here are some roles of NGO :
    1. Development and Operation of Infrastructure:
    Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.
    2. Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:
    NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
    3. Facilitating Communication:
    NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.
    NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people tot he government and downward from the government tot he people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.

    4. Technical Assistance and Training:
    Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    5. Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:
    Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
    6. Advocacy for and with the Poor:
    In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor.

  16. Name: Agbo Precious Chinaza
    Reg No:2017/249477
    Department: Economics

    According to the International Labour Organisation, in Nigeria, over 80% of working people are employed in the informal sector. The informal economy is described as the sum total of economic activity that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing. An unpublished survey in 2008 suggested that the informal sector in Nigeria accounted for about 90% of new jobs in the country, about 80% of all non-agricultural employment and about 60% of urban jobs created, earning it the description of being the backbone of the formal sector. In spite of these percentages records indicate that its contribution to the national revenue in the form of tax is minimal.

    The Nongovernmental Organization:
    NGOs, or non-governmental organizations, play a major role in international development, aid and philanthropy. NGOs are non-profit by definition, but may run budgets of millions or up to billions of dollars each year. As such, NGOs rely on a variety of funding sources from private donations and membership dues to government contribution. on-governmental Organizations (NGOs) play an important role in the economic development of developing countries. They provide services to society through welfare works for community development, assistance in national disasters, sustainable system development, and popular movements.

  17. NWANKWO BASIL CHUKWUEMEKA says:

    NWANKWO BASIL CHUKWUEMEKA
    2016/233850
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal sector is that sector of the economy that doesn’t receive government funding thereby they are not regulated by the government…
    For a country like Nigeria with a failed government, the informal sector provides much economic boost for the nation by various means such as:
    Provision of job opportunities or employment
    Provision of social amenities by the rich individuals

    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    Some of the threats facing the informal sector are;
    Insecurity
    Long hours of work with little or no pay
    Lack of basic amenities by the government I.e roads
    Lack of capital to start up
    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    NGOs are non governmental organizations, they operate without the involvement of the government
    Some of their roles are
    Protection of human right
    Protection of the girl child
    Creating awareness on some specific areas or events I.e aids
    Helping in building community projects I.e borehole

  18. Nwachukwu Maryjane says:

    NAME: NWACHUKWU MARYJANE
    REG.NO. 2017/249533
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL:. 300

    THE INFORMAL SECTOR
    The informal sector is the part of the economy that exist with little or no government aid. The informal sector can be defined base on the Economic activity, level of employment, and employment enhancing potentials, however, Becker (2004) defined the informal sector as the unregulated or non formal part of the market economy which produces goods or services for sales or for other renumeration purposes. CBN/NISER collaboration 2001 workshop defined the sector as that which operates without binding official regulations, as well as one who operates understand official regulations that do not compel rending of official returns on it’s operation or production process.

    Contributions of the informal sector to Nigeria economy

    The Nigeria informal sector has played a vital role in the Economic revamp over the years, the following are areas where the sector has played and is still playing a notable role in employment creation contributing about 65 percent of the economy’s employment and also playing key roles in the manufacturing sector. The areas of high competency include: beverage manufacturing, tubaco manufacturing and food production.

    Obstacles/ Challenges of the Nigeria informal sector

    1. Poor funding: The sector is known for the nature of it’s funding, it is characterized by the use of personal savings, loan from families and friends and on a very rare cases grants from government.

    2. Unavailability of credit facilities: the informal sector find it difficult to access loans from the banks to finance their projects, this is as result of the small nature of the business and sometimes the inability to provide collateral for bank loan. More also because of illiteracy which is another challenge in the sector many of the operators or actors in the informal sector lack awareness on available credit for them.

    3. LOW PRODUCTIVITY: The sector is known to produce below expectations because of the small size of the business. Since they lack funds for expansion, as a result low production become the other of the day.

    4. POOR INFRASTRUCTURE: There is no good infrastructures like good road, good electricity supply, portable water supply for those that use water as their raw material and all this contribute to low productivity and lack of expansion.

    5. LACK OF TECHNICAL KNOW HOW/ SKILL: Some of the business owners in the informal sector lack the basic skills needed to sustain a business and this sometimes leads to termination of the business.

    THE NGOs
    The NGOs are none governmental organizations whose activities are neither influence none control by the government. They are also voluntary individuals who share common goals for the benefit of the masses and are regarded as not for profit organization.
    The role of NGOs are community development, creation of awareness, encouraging citizens participation in politics, acting as a watch dog of the masses in politics and poverty alleviation through encouragement of favourable government policies.

    Some of the NGOs in Nigeria are
    – old people support international
    – Care unit
    – The Tony Elumelu foundation
    – Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie foundation
    – Action aid for the unemployed
    – Global peace development
    E.t.c.

  19. ANENE VICTORIA CHIOMA
    2017/242435
    Economics
    Victoria.anene.242435@unn.edu.ng
    Toria20@simplesite.com
    1)The informal sector acts as a support for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty which helps boost the state of economic activities which In turn enhances development. The informal sector also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates.
    2)Unskilled labour employment: The informal economy tends to employ lower-skilled and less productive workers. As a result, workers in the formal economy earn more than workers in the informal economy
    2b) Economic polices: policy changes that could affect the activities of the informal sector. Polices are passed for the greater good of the economy and this could be balanced by stronger safety nets, greater labor and product market flexibility, and better access to resources for informal firms. In addition, policies such as tax reformation which is used to spur economic development in general can help reduce informality.
    3)Non governmental organizations are legally constituted non-profit organisations or institutions whose membership is voluntary and that are free from government involvement and interference
    3b) They provide information and technical expertise to governments and international organizations (such as specialized agencies of the UN) on various international issues, often supplying local information unavailable to governments.
    *NGOs may advocate on behalf of specific policies and they may provide humanitarian relief and development assistance
    *NGOs may also monitor human rights or the implementation of environmental regulations

  20. MMADU JOY UKAMAKA says:

    NAME : MMADU JOY UKAMAKA

    REG. NO : 2017/249528

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    EMAIL : joymmadu5@gmail.com

    The Various Ways in Which The Informal Economy Contributes to the Economic growth in Nigeria.

    Nigeria is a large populated country with over 200 million people which 60% of the working population among them are not opportuned to find a job in the formal sector. Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for most of these unpriveledged population most especially women who are potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. When poverty is reduced through the increase in the income of these people who work in the informal sector, it will lead to increase in their consumption level and there by increasing demand for goods and services produced in the formal sector where their impact on the GDP can be captured since the informal economy is not directly captured in the GDP of a country because they do not pay tax to the government. This particular function of poverty reduction by the informal economy is in line with poverty and gender related targets enshrined in the
    Sustainable Development Goals one and five for Agenda 2030 which seeks to eradicate poverty in all its forms.

    The MAJOR obstacles facing informal sector in Nigeria’s economy
    The informal sectors in Nigeria are faced with so many challenges which are explained below.
    Unavailability of Credit : unavailability of credit is a constraint they are facing in their activities. The unavailability of finance revealed was in the form of limited loan received from the various banking institutions.
    Lack of capital equipment : They are faced with lack of capital equipment as a constraint in undertaking their activity. These category of workers were mainly in the service provision activity (hairdressers and seamstresses).
    Difficulties with existing regulations : They are faced with a constraint such as difficulties with existing regulations (such as payment of property licence, container licence and yearly medical screening for food vendor).
    Taxes and licence fees : High taxes and licence fees is a constraint
    to informal sector activity . Taxes are important sources of revenue to
    government and a great channel that enables the economy to grow while at
    the same time, it aids in the provision of socio economic welfare of citizens.
    There are ample evidence that the costs of formalization and the local tax burden inhibit many entrepreneurs attempting to start new small enterprises. However, it also has the potential of being a stumbling block to the growth of small businesses or economic activities. This is the situation many of the workers encounter. it became clear that metropolitan authorities impose high taxes on Informal Sector workers.

    THe Non GoVermental organizations and their role in the society
    NGOs are defined by the World Bank as “private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, orundertake community development”.
    Examples of these Non Govermental Organizations include ; National NGOs include organizations such as the Red Cross, YMCAs/YWCAs, International NGOs range from secular agencies such as REDDA BARNA and Save the Children organizations, OXFAM, CARE, UNDP, UNICEF, Fordand Rockefeller Foundations to religiously motivated groups.
    Roles of the NGO’s in the Society;
    Non Governmental organizations function in the following areas of uplifting the lives of the underprivileged.
    Health, Housing and Food – Providing for basic facilities
    Gender Inequality Issues in Developing countries
    Care for HIV -AIDS affected children and adults
    Elder Care – A large proportion of elders are being neglected and many NGOs and private donors have built orphanages for elders and senior citizens
    Mediatorr of people and government,
    Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes.
    Agents of information,
    Factor of improvement of the poor, and
    Facilitator of development education, training professionalisationn,
    Basically NGOs role is to prepare people for change. They empower the people to overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress.

  21. Ideba Tochukwu Emmanuel says:

    Idea Tochukwu Emmanuel
    2017/241435
    Economics

    Question 1
    According to Altman (2008), the first and foremost point on the proportion of employment in the informal sector is that the share of employment in small informal enterprises tends to fall as a country’s per capita income rises. Amin (2002) observes that the proportion of the labor force engaged in the
    the informal sector fell by between 60 and 70 percent of the labor force in low income South Asian
    economies, by between 30 and 50 percent in middle-income South-East Asian countries, and by about
    25 percent in high-income Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore. It was also pointed out, however, that in Sub￾Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, 78 percent of non-agricultural employment is found in
    informal-sector firms, accounting for about 21 percent of total employment, including domestic workers
    (ECA, 2005).
    Considering the ongoing economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many
    In African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation f
    jobs for both rural and teaming urban populations in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over some time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of self-employment and home-based family workers. It, therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the average earnings between the formal and informal sectors.
    According to the IMF, the
    Nigerian informal sector accounted for
    ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP, the Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a
    a major contributor to the Nigerian
    economy, accounting for a significant a
    a portion of employment and national
    GDP

    Question 2

    Enterprises in the informal economy are facing obstacles that are some￾times similar to those experienced by formal enterprises. However, informal enterprises are much more vulnerable to these problems.
    – Infrastructure issues
    – Poor infrastructure such as transport, storage facilities, water,
    electricity.
    – Lack of working premises.
    – Poorly developed physical markets.
    – Institutional issues
    – No access to formal training and, as a result, lack of skills in particular as regards basic economic skills and managerial expertise.
    – Lack of formal schooling sometimes even resulting in illiteracy.
    – Limited access to land and property rights.
    – Limited access to formal finance and banking institutions.
    – Reliance on self-supporting and informal institutional arrangements.
    – Too restrictive or cumbersome taxation systems and labor laws.
    – Excessive government regulations in areas such as business start-up, in particular as regards cumbersome, time demanding, and
    costly procedures for business registration.
    – Limited access to employers´ organizations, i.e. limited possibilities
    to exercise influence.
    – Lack of access to official social security schemes.
    – Lack of information on prices, the viability of products, etc.
    – Fewer market opportunities are due for instance to non-compliance to
    international standards.
    – Economic issues
    – Excessive registration and transaction costs of starting or operating
    businesses.
    – Limited access to technology.
    – Lack of opportunities for bulk purchase of inputs.
    – Low incomes or lack of regular income as household consumption
    competes for the use of business earnings.
    – Lack of working capital: credit has to be obtained from informal
    sources such as friends or relatives or non-banking financial
    agencies with unfavorable terms.
    – Insufficient funds do not allow for further investments.

    Question 3

    The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.

    Roles
    1. Sustainable Community Development:
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition,
    such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable development (Nikkhah & Redzuan, 2010).
    The five dimensions of sustainable community development are as follows:
    1. Increasing local economic diversity
    2. Self-reliance: development of local markets, local production, local
    processing, greater co-operation among local economic entities
    3. Reduction in the use of energy combined with recycling and management of waste products
    4. Protection and enhancement of biological diversity and stewardship of
    natural resources
    5. Commitment of sustainable communities to social justice. (Bridger &
    Luloff, 1999)

    2. Sustainable Development:
    NGOs have played a significant role in promoting sustainable development at the international level. NGOs are going beyond their primary focus on governments and starting to address large corporations. In this vein,
    NGOs have focused attention on the social and environmental impacts of
    business activity, helped in part by advances in information and communications technology. The brands of multinational corporations have also been vulnerable to pressure from activists and NGOs on the corporation’s labor, environmental, or human rights record. As the downstream customers are targeted, even the supply chain partners and suppliers are feeling the pressure (Hall-Jones, 2006).

    3. Sustainable Consumption :
    NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption. Some of the instances where this partnership has been successful are in categories such as product development, sustainable housing, labeling, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), green purchasing, marine stewardship, and so on. The basic premise is, can
    Do NGOs influence behavioral change? Specifically, two questions need to be asked: (1) How are NGOs educating households to change
    their consumption behavior, and (2) how can NGOs be potential partners
    to businesses in promoting sustainable consumption (Kong, Saltzmann,
    Steger, & Ionescu-Somers, 2002)?

  22. Likibe Gita Cassandra says:

    LIKIBR GITA CASSANDRA
    2017/241429
    Economics
    300lv

    INFORMAL SECTOR AND NON ORGANIZATIONAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIAN ECONOMIC

    The informal sector helps in providing job and employment opportunities as the formal sector tends not to employ enough people, the informal sector helps in absorbing excess labour from the formal sector.
    The informal sector also contributes to economic growth. Such as ;
    No access to credit facilities from the government. This implies that those who work in the informal sector like the newspaper vendors, traders, carpenters, tailors, etc. are not given the opportunity to access credit facilities like loans and grants from the government.
    Lack of capital. Some of these informal workers tend not to have startup capital for their businesses. This is a major problem faced by many in the sector as they want to start a business but do not have the capital and can not access it from the government.
    No Minimum Wage Policy. This is in the interest of those who earn low or those that are underemployed or are working poor in the sense that, their wage is actually based on what the work they have done or the service they have rendered.

    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGOs) are establishments that are not in direct link with the government of a country. They function free from the government. They could have the aim of working towards a social, political, environmental goal of the sort in the country.
    Their functions are;
    They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    They are not profit-oriented therefore aim to pursue social welfare.

  23. Uwode Joy Ogheneyonle says:

    NAME: Uwode Joy Ogheneyonle
    REG NO: 2017/241451
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    EMAIL: yonlejoyuwode@gmail.com

    QUESTION 1:
    The informal sector of the economy is that sector of the economy where economic activities are not regulated, monitored or supervised by the government of the country either through tax or other regulatory measures. The major contribution of the informal sector to economic growth is the creation of paid employment to a large population of the country. As a matter of fact, the informal sector in most developing countries make up a significant portion of the economies. Since they are not taxed, not accountable to any authority, they are not included in the country’s GDP. However, they offer variety of employment opportunities to the poor and low class citizens in the country.

    QUESTION 2:
    Due to the nature of the informal sector, they are faced with a number of challenges that includes but not limited to:
    1. They are exposed to long working hours, harsh working environment and low remuneration.
    2. They is no job satisfaction and lack of job security.
    3. Absence of social welfare packages.
    4. Women particularly receive lower wages and are more vulnerable to abuse.
    5. It is difficult to fight for or exercise rights e.g fighting against physical and verbal abuse and discrimination of women.

    QUESTION 3:
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, non-profit organizations that are totally independent of government influence. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and can are instrumental in environmental, social, and Human Rights issues. Their major roles in the society are:
    1. They are engaged in a number of community development projects such as health education, sanitation awareness, child rights law, fight against child or forced labour, etc.
    2. They act as pressure groups to influence government decisions on issues affecting the majority.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination.
    5. They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level.

  24. Onyekanma Chidinma Cynthia says:

    Onyekanma Chidinma Cynthia

    2017/249569
    Assignment
    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal economy is described as the sum total of economic activity that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing. The informal sector provides employment, gender equality, a poverty deduction strategy, and crime rate reduction strategy. With the informal sector, although not accounted for, helps to boost economic growth and development in the country.
    Informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    a. Low capital for business, which makes it slow to expand the business
    b. Lack of basic infrastructure i.e. light, water, good road. All adding to the cost of production
    c. Lack of innovation due to limited knowledge, leading to miniature production
    d. Inadequate social security regulation
    e. Low-paid or undervalued jobs especially for women
    f. Lack of representation
    g. Low job security
    h. Government neglect on the sector

    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that was not founded by a state and, therefore, is typically independent of governments. Examples include;
    • Global Women Empowerment Association (GLOWEM)
    • C.Y.E.
    • Initiative for Basic Rights of Nigeria Citizens (IBRONC)
    • Centre for Community Empowerment for underprivileged
    • Voluntary Work camps Association of Nigeria
    • Grace Center
    • Female Leadership Forum
    • BAOBAB for Women’s Human Right
    • Stelben Foundation on VVF/STIs
    • Pathfinder International
    • Torjir-Agber Foundation
    • Women Solace & Enablement Foundation
    • Civil Society Coalition for Poverty Eradication
    • Women Environmental Programme (WEP)
    • Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Center (CISLAC)
    • Research and Training for Real Empowerment
    • Aya International Development Indigenous Knowledge Initiative Nigeria
    • Challenged Children Foundation (3CF)
    • Rahi Medical Outreach
    • Center for Peace building and Socio Economic Resources Development
    • Global Network for Peace and Anticorruption Initiative
    Major roles of NGO
    Roles of Non governmental organization include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  25. Okafor Festus Obinna says:

    Name:Okafor Festus Obinna
    Dept: Economics
    Reg No: 2017/249550

    No: 1, ANSWERS
    The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government. Unlike the formal economy, pactivities that are engaged in the informal economy are not included in the gross national product and gross domestic product of a country. The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour. Other concepts which can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market, the agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books” and “working for cash”. Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries – about 41% in 2000 according to the official GNI metric – it is often stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However the informal sector provides critical economy opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s.
    Though the informal sector have significantly impacted positively to economic growth yet is being neclected, giving little or no attention to. Some of the ways through which informal sectors have impacted on the Economy is as follows;
    1. Creation of Employment: There is no doubt that that the informal sector has tremendously created job opportunities for the unemployed and thereby reducing unemployment in the Economy.
    2: poverty reduction: Poverty has been reduced to some certain extent, by the informal sectors.. When individuals engage in one Economic Activity or the other, there in a long way reduce poverty by having more disposal income.
    3.Curtail Insecurity: When people are enged and get busy with their work which they earn a living with..the tendency of one involving him or herself in criminal activities which might lead to insecurity seems to be at minimal.

    No: 2 ANSWERS

    Considering the fact that the informal sector is not being taxed and its activities regulated, its success have greatly been hindered by so many factors which could have ensure smooth running of the informal sector if present. Some of this factors include;
    – Inadequacy of technology
    -Education
    -Markets
    _Land and physical Infrastructure
    -Limited Access to Finance
    -Limited Access to Skill development.

    NO:3. ANSWERS

    The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.
    Many NGOs around the world dedicate their efforts to protecting human rights and ending human rights abuses. Their mandate is to promote the public interest and serve the public good rather than to make a profit or advance the interests of a narrow group of individuals. Their independence enables them to monitor government performance and advocate for improvements.”
    In summary, the role of many NGOs can be to check, monitor and criticise the actions of Governments and private bodies, to supplement and complement the role of Government in combating discrimination and to help individuals and groups assert their rights.

  26. IWUALA CHIOMA FAVOUR says:

    IWUALA CHIOMA FAVOUR
    2017/249520
    300L
    ECONOMICS

    Question 1
    The informal economy tends to be stigmatized as “illegal”, “underground”, “black market” or “grey market”. It is often called the “shadow economy” and characterized as illegal or inethical activity.
    The generalization is unfair. The vast majority of informal workers are trying to earn an honest living against great odds. Rather than working in the shadows, a great many work in public spaces and make huge contributions to communities and economies.However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job
    creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more
    accessible goods and services.With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that
    any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and
    inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are
    adequately considered.

    Question 2

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of
    technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    Policy interventions to support the
    sector must therefore be two-fold.
    Firstly, efforts should be made to create
    more formal jobs to draw workers out of
    the informal sector. Secondly, policies
    should be introduced to address identified challenges in the informal sector towards improving productivity
    and incomes of informal sector players.

    Question 3

    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society.
    It is task oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGO perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
    A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from
    donor agencies. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.
    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  27. Uduma Ikechukwu Obasi says:

    Uduma Ikechukwu Obasi
    Economics
    2017/241441
    ikechukwuuduma9@gmail.com

    The informal sector in Nigeria

    Nigeria is the largest country in Africa, and the largest concentration of black people in the world — with a land area of close to 1 million square kilometers, and a population of well over 125 million. Estimates at the turn of the 21st century suggest that 43.5% of the population were living in urban areas, up from 39% in 1985, with projections that the urban population will reach 50% by the year 2010, and 65% by 2020. The rate of urban population growth is thought to be 5.5% annually, roughly twice the national population growth rate of 2.9%. More than seven cities have populations that exceed 1 million, and over 5,000 towns and cities of various sizes have populations of between 20,000 and 500,000. Greater Lagos, the former national capital, has grown from 1.4 million in 1963 to 3.5 million in 1975; it is currently over 6 million, and is projected to be 24 million by 2020.
    Information on the size and employment structure in the informal sector is hard to obtain, but estimates suggest that the sector accounts for between 45% and 60% of the urban labor force, up from about 25% in the mid-1960s. Life expectancy at birth is about 52 years; infant mortality rate is as high as 19.1 per 1000; and the per capita income is thought to be US $274.

    Challenges of the informal sector:

    The informal sector — labor and business that is hidden from monetary, regulatory, and institutional authorities — accounts for about a third of GDP and 70 percent of employment (of which self-employment is more than a half) in emerging market and developing economies. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    Addressing the challenge of pervasive informality will require comprehensive policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Initiatives to boost long-term development might include measures aimed at reducing regulatory and tax burdens, expanding access to finance, improving education and other public services, and strengthening public revenue frameworks.

    Non governmental organization and there roles:
    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in Article 71 in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence (although they may receive government funding).
    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  28. NDEM NNEKA GRACE
    2017/249529
    ECONOMICS
    NNEKAGRACE.BLOGSPOT.COM

    Informal economies are those economic activities that is not fully managed, organized and regulated by the government.
    It is that part of an economy that is either taxed, monitored by the government officials.
    Question 1: in what ways does the informal sector contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    1. Provision of significant job opportunities: The informal sector makes jobs available for a large number people. People who are poor or does not have any qualification for employment engaged in their own work in order to make ends meet. Examples are street traders, Hawkers, Barbers, carpenters etc. this has helped to keep people engaged, which has at the same time reduce the crime rate in the society.
    2. Income generation: the informal sector has helped different individuals to generate income from their different engagement of one thing or the other, especially the rural areas. People in the rural areas who might not be opportune for white collar jobs are engaged in one thing or the other like; knitting of mat, making of shoes, hawking different things on the street so as to generate income used in feeding the family.

    Question 2: What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigerians economy?
    Enterprises in the informal economy are facing obstacles that are sometimes similar to those experienced by formal enterprises. However, informal enterprises are much more vulnerable in relation to these problems.

    1. Infrastructure issues
    a. Poor infrastructure such as transport, storage facilities, water, Electricity.
    b. Lack of working premises.
    c. Poorly developed physical markets.

    2. Institutional issues
    a. No access to formal training and, as a result, lack of skills in particular as regards basic economic skills and managerial expertise.
    b. Lack of formal schooling sometimes even resulting in illiteracy.
    c. Limited access to land and property rights.
    d. Limited access to formal finance and banking institutions.
    e. Reliance on self-supporting and informal institutional arrangements.
    f. Too restrictive or cumbersome taxation systems and labor laws.
    g. Excessive government regulations in areas such as business startup, in particular as regards cumbersome, time demanding and costly procedures for business registration.
    h. Limited access to employers´ organizations, i.e. limited possibilities to exercise influence.

    3. Economic issues
    a. Excessive registration and transaction costs of starting or operating businesses.
    b. Limited access to technology.
    c. Lack of opportunities for bulk purchase of inputs.
    d. Low incomes or lack of regular income as household consumption competes for the use of business earnings.
    e. Lack of working capital: credit has to be obtained from informal sources such as friends or relatives or non-banking financial.

    These obstacles are more or less interlinked and create vicious circles of poverty and high risk. For instance, the main reasons for the lack of funds or skills is that the informal economy enterprises cannot access resource institutions generally available to the formal economy such as banks and other financing institutions, training and education institutions, marketing and consultancy firms, etc. In fact, all these various obstacles create an overall context that in itself constitutes a barrier of entry into the formal economy.
    These obstacles will of course be more or less serious depending on the phase in which the business is, on the type of enterprise and on the level of development of the society in general. In fact, these constitute major barriers to growth mainly for the group of enterprises that belong to the dynamic/modern informal economy described in section 3.2.6. Many scholars seem to agree on that micro enterprises can become effective creators of employment, innovation, income and growth.
    However, micro enterprises do mostly not realize their full potential because they lack access to markets, finance, and technology and business skills. Production is becoming increasingly knowledge-based and entrepreneurs therefore need to become innovative and to develop an extensive knowledge of markets and technology.

    Question 3: What are the non-governmental organizations and their major roles in the society
    • Greenpeace
    • Amnesty International
    • Mercy Corps
    • Doctors Without Borders
    • International Rescue Committee
    • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
    Other types/ forms of nongovernmental organization
    • BINGO – A “big international” NGO, such as the Red Cross. These are also called “business-friendly” NGOs.
    • INGO – An international NGO such as Oxfam.
    • ENGO – An environmental NGO like Greenpeace.
    • RINGO – A religious international NGO such as Catholic Relief Services.
    • CSO – A civil society organization like Amnesty International.
    • GONGO – A government-organized organization like International Union for Conservation of Nature.
    Roles of the nongovernmental organization
    NGO’s are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.
    Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have played a major role in pushing for sustainable development at the international level. Campaigning groups have been key drivers of inter-governmental negotiations, ranging from the regulation of hazardous wastes to a global ban on land mines and the elimination of slavery.
    NGOs ought to develop local products and local markets; develop social, capital, and human resources; encourage and motivate people to participate in activities; and act as network liaisons between community and systems.

  29. IJE VORDA GOODNESS says:

    NAME: IJE VORDA GOODNESS
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/249514
    EMAIL: vordagoodness78@gmail.com
    COURSE: ECO 362

    Question 1
    Because of the inability of the Nigerian formal sector to absorb the entire labour force. Nigeria has a large informal sector. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimate that the informal sector constitute 60% of the Nigerian economy i.e $240bn. It will interested you to know that According to Statistics SA, the informal sector accounted for 5.2% of South Africa’s GDP in 2015 and employed 2 641 000 individuals (17% of all employed) in 2016. Other estimates place it as high as 15% to 18% of GDP.
    The informal sector however contributes to the Nigerian economic growth in the following ways:-
    ▪️ Increase in Nigeria’s GDP: Studies have shown that in many developing countries the informal sector contribute about 30% of non-agricultural GDP. Although the informal sector informal sector is not referenced in GDP calculation it contribute a great deal to the economy as the money generated are used for more productive activities.
    ▪️ Employment and poverty reduction: The informal contribute to reducing the unemployment levels in Nigeria as it absorbs individuals that cannot be absorbed by the formal sector. It employs about 48million Nigerians.
    ▪️ Boost ones self-esteem and confidence: One can at least fend and cater for ones basic needs and there’s a feeling of fulfillment from working and earning.
    ▪️ Empowering women and better standard of living: It’s interesting to note that the majority of those employed in the informal sector are females. Intend of dependency they can now take care of themselves and contribute to family income leading to improved living standards for themselves and their families.
    ▪️ Reduction in crime rates: The informal economy also helps to reduce the crime levels in the country such as armed robbery, theft, kidnappings and what have you by engaging these individuals in production employment and menial jobs that they can engage in to earn a living.
    ▪️ It also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    ▪️ Building entrepreneurial spirit in the nation.
    Question 2
    The informal sector with all it’s potential for development still encounters some obstacles to it’s development. It’s been observed that the Nigerian government policies are typically lopsided in favor of the formal economy.
    ▪️ Credit accessibility: workers in Nigeria’s informal economy have raised concerns over credit accessibility as the traditional banking system are skeptical about giving them loans. They seek this funds in order to buy equipments and tools useful for their production. Low interest loan will be very useful for them.
    ▪️ The informal sector is vulnerable as they are more prone to exploitation and other risk.
    ▪️ Poor infrastructural base is a key obstacles to the proper functioning of the information sector as people who need electricity and other basic infrastructure have to resort to generators and other substitute that increase their cost of production and reduce profit.
    ▪️ It lacks formality and so therefore is prone to be overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities even though they are lots of youths doing positive wonders in the informal sector.
    ▪️ long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions.
    ▪️ Insecurity and uncertainties.
    ▪️ Poor access to technology use to ease business.
    Question 3
    Non Government organizations include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government interference and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives. Their major aim is not to make profit but to render service to the society.
    ▪️ Many NGOs around the world dedicate their efforts to protecting human rights and ending human rights abuses.
    ▪️ Provide basic social amenities for communities lacking it.
    ▪️ They try to act as mediators between the ruling class and the masses.
    ▪️ NGO’s help educates those section of society which was left behind in the society since its inception and never enjoyed benefits that government has facilitated them with. Such as women’s education.
    ▪️ Educate people on societial ills and environmental degradation.
    ▪️ NGOs can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies.
    ▪️ They act as advocate for the poor by trying to influencing government policies.
    ▪️ NGOs Provide technical institutions that can assist government in fighting corruption.

  30. Ijara Peter Elochukwu says:

    Name: Ijara Peter Elochukwu
    Department: ECONOMICS
    Reg no: 2017/ 249513
    EMAIL: petochris86@yahoo.com
    Eco 362.
    1.
    The informal sector act as a safe haven for people who are not employed in the formal sector due to inability of the formal sector to absorb them or underqualification. It’s imperative to note that the informal sector contributes greatly to economic growth in Nigeria. The following are a few ways.
    I. The informal sector ensures that there’s a reduction in the crime rate in the country as people are now gainfully employed.
    II. It contributes to the GDP of the nation as money gotten from the informal sector still circulate in the economy for the production of more wealth.
    III. One can now fend for oneself by producting in the informal sector and it enhances self confidence.
    IV. Empowering women: women who are not employed in formal sector can generate money to take care of themselves and better standard of living for their families.
    V. It creates employment opportunities for people in Nigeria as about 48 million Nigerians are employed in the informal sector.

    2.
    The informal sector in Nigeria is therefore prone to more attack than the formal sector. The following are a few of the obstacles the informal sector in Nigeria faces:-
    I. Poor working conditions and meager income. The workers in the informal sector can be greatly exploited and maltreated.
    II. The poor infrastructural facilities in the country has great affect the informal sector as they need electricity and other basic amenities.
    III. In adequate access to credit facilities as the banks may not wish to grant them loan since they are extremely vulnerable.
    IV. Insecurity
    V. Poor access to technology.

    3.
    Non government organizations are organizations whose mandate is to promote the public interest and serve the public good rather than to make a profit or advance the interests of a narrow group of individuals.
    They however perform vital function in the society.
    I. Through advancing and promoting democracy and human rights.
    II. They try to provide basic amenities in areas lacking.
    III. They act as a mediator between society and government.
    IV. NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    V. They help to facilitate communication between adequate authorities and the people.

  31. Metu Sandra C says:

    Name: Metu Sandra C
    Department: Economics
    Reg number: 2017/249526
    Email address: sandra.metu.249526@unn.edu.ng
    Course: eco 362

    The informal sector are the parts of the economy that are not regulated by the government. The informal sector however contributed to the development of the Nigerian economy. However the informal sector has contributed a great deal to the Nigerian economy.
    1. The informal sector contributes to economic growth through employment opportunities for individuals who could not be absorb by the formal sector for various reasons like underqualification, slow formal sector growth etc.
    2. Reducing the crime rate in the country since people not employed in the formal sector can be employed in the informal sector.
    3. Increase in GDP of Nigeria: studies have shown that the informal sector contributes to growth in Nigeria ( although it’s not formally referenced in the GDP calculation.
    4. Employment opportunities for women and a lift in their standard of living.

    Question 2
    The informal sector are exposed to so many risk the following are a few that inhibit it’s proper functioning.
    1. They are usually sidelined and hardly considered in the policy formation of the government and lawmakers.
    2. They are hardly able to access loans from banks to expand.
    3. They are not protected and are therefore prone to attack and uncertainties that the formal sector.
    4. No funds to purchase higher technology to ease production.
    5. It’s prone to be overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities.
    6. Poor working conditions and low pay.

    Question 3
    Non government organizations has the mandate to promote the public interest and serve the public good rather than to make a profit or advance the interests of a narrow group of individuals. They are largely free from government interference. They however perform some key roles in the society.
    1. Provision of basic amenities like water facilities to communities lacking.
    2. Protection of human rights and encouraging democracy.
    3. They act as a mediator between society and government.
    4.NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    5. They help to relay information to and from the government to the people.

  32. Ezeke nnenna says:

    Ezeke Evarista Nnenna
    2017/249506

    Question 1:
    The informal economy represents all work by individuals or businesses which, by law or practice, is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements.
    Examples include food and flea markets, street vendors, laundry mats and the like, mostly in rural or informal areas. It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty good example is the period of lockdown now a lot of people involved in a lot of informal business there by creating income for their selves and with this people where able to take care of themselves there by reducing high poverty that would have occurred during this period and also increasing the GDP rate of a nation. That is creating more ‘decent’ jobs, preferably formal;
    Question 2:
    1: The informal economy tends to employ lower-skilled and less productive workers, as some of these employers may not be able to pay people who are more skilled.
    2: Informality, poverty, and income inequality, now there Is no policy backing the employees in an informal sector so there are many of these people are usually underpaid.
    3: Policy changes that could affect vulnerable groups can be balanced by stronger safety nets, greater labor and product market flexibility, and better access to resources for informal firms. But on this note polices could change which would affect the businesses of people involved in informal sector.
    Question 3:
    1: They are engaged in a number of community development projects such as health education, sanitation awareness, child rights law, fight against child or forced labour,
    2: They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level. They engage in community development projects such as building of health centers, schools modern markets, roads, bridges etc.
    3: They help to improve the life of the people by providing different services free of charge. Such services might include humanitarian aid in the form of providing food to the less privileged, providing access to clean water, sanitation, housing, quality education etc.
    4: Mediator of people and government, they act as watch dogs to the government ensuring that they provide the basic necessities for its citizens.
    5: protection of the fundamental human rights of the citizens.

  33. Mbah Chiebonam says:

    Mbah Chiebonam
    2017/249525

    Question A:
    The informal economy is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government, the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries.
    1: The informal sector makes enormous contributions to the national output and income of a country, since there is relatively large of number of people gainfully employed there.
    2: Job creation: example of informal businesses include and flea markets, street vendors, laundry mats and the like, mostly in rural or informal areas and even in urban areas.
    3: creating income for people and with this people where able to take care of themselves there by reducing high poverty that would have occurred and also increasing the GDP rate of a nation.

    Question B:
    1: Informality, poverty, and income inequality, now there Is no policy backing the employees in an informal sector so there are many of these people are usually underpaid.
    2: long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions
    3: no protection from the formal sector
    Policy changes that could affect vulnerable groups can be balanced by stronger safety nets, greater labor and product market flexibility, and better access to resources for informal firms. But on this note polices could change which would affect the businesses of people involved in informal sector.
    4: low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction.
    5: lack of capital to start up business.

    Question C:
    1: NGOs are organizations which are independent of government intervention, they are usually nonprofit organizations and many of them are active in humanitarianism.
    2: Promoting citizenship participation.
    3: they act as watch dogs to the government ensuring that they provide the basic necessities for its citizens
    4: They provide social amenities such as building of health centers, schools modern markets, roads etc.
    5: Protection of human right.

  34. Ngwu Osita Enoch
    2017/242022
    Education Economics
    Ositangwu95@gmail.com
    Enochonline.blogspot.com

    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them.

    1. The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

    2. The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in Nigeria economy, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality Taxing the Informal Sector (IS) and its taxpayers’ compliance level has become a focus of attention in recent times by scholars and policy makers because of IS contribution to the country. IS seems difficult to tax because of administrative problems, human capital and personnel shortage, lack of record keeping, nature of its economic activities and cost implications. Therefore, there is need for better understanding of the concept, challenges, and methods of taxing, and of promoting tax compliance (TC) in the IS. It is against this background that the study examined IS and TC in Nigeria with its challenges and opportunities. Exploratory research design was adopted for the study with focus on literatures in the area of taxation, accounting and finance. The study concluded that taxing the IS is very important to any developing country as this achieved three things: revenue, growth and governance. Government needs to expand its tax net with much focus on the IS as any further neglect of this sector might dampen the moral of some individual taxpayers especially those in the formal sector who had been voluntarily paying tax. However, there is need for simplification of tax laws and establishment of tax courts, tax education and enlightenment, inter-agency collaboration and provision of Tax Identification Number (TIN), government should also exhibit accountability and transparency in order to build trust in the informal sector operators for tax compliance.

    3. NGOs bring citizen concerns to the Government, monitor and advocate policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. NGOs focus on numerous aspects that are indeed important to the citizens of a country. Such aspects include: human rights, legal support, promoting education, agricultural development, encouraging social responsibility, poverty alleviation, supporting human welfare, development of communities, health or environment, etc.
    a. Angels Discovery Circle Initiative
    This is a non-profit organization in Nigeria that offers humanitarian services, scholarship programs, skill acquisitions, safety awareness and rehabilitating.
    b. Sought After Women and Children Foundation
    This is a registered non-governmental organization in Nigeria dedicated to ministering to abused women and abandoned children in the society. Their activities include: Rehabilitation programs, Orphanage homes and Outreaches to other NGOs and Homes.
    Services: Shelter for children, Empowering women, Saving a family and Education for children.
    c. Association for Reproductive and Family Health
    This is one of the leading indigenous non-governmental organization in Nigeria committed to improving the quality of life of undeserved and vulnerable communities by promoting access to quality health care and harnessing community capacity for sustainable development.
    d. Africa Youth Growth Foundation
    This is a non-governmental organization set up with the sole purpose of contributing to positive change in the economic and social status of African youth through effective programs that deliver sustainable outcomes.
    Their activities: Migration, Democratic Governance and Development of individuals, communities and societies.
    e. Tender Arts Nigeria
    This non-profit making organization positively impacts children and youths with focus on art therapy , art education, talent development, community development and civic engagement. Etc.

  35. OGUMBA CHIDINMA JOY
    REG NO. 2017/242028
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy. This represents about $240bn.
    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.
    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.

    3. What are the Non-Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    NGOs are legally constituted organizations that operate independently from the government and are generally considered “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue public interest purposes”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights.

    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular
    characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either
    service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the
    poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision. Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to fute the bills for the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s
    has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor
    reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlashagainst harsh adjustment
    regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the
    voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on
    governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there
    are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of
    national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular
    characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either
    service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the
    poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by
    the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision.
    Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the
    development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal
    clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to fute the bills for
    the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the
    expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s
    has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor
    reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlashagainst harsh adjustment
    regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the
    voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on
    governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there
    are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of
    national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular
    characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either
    service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the
    poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by
    the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision.
    Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the
    development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal
    clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to fute the bills for
    the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the
    expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s
    has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor
    reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlashagainst harsh adjustment
    regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the
    voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on
    governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there
    are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of
    national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision. Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to foot the bills for the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlash against harsh adjustment regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    The other role of NGOs is policy advocacy, seeking to effect social change by influencing attitudes, policy and practices, seeking to reform state services on the basic of NGO experiences and to lobby directly for the policy changes. It includes involvement in participatory, public interest politics, and NGOs engaging in such activity realize the increasing importance of information as they begin to utilize the power of ideas and information to promote positive change in the wider structures of government and the official aid community. NGOs often play a catalytic role.
    Nonetheless, neither of these roles needs exclude the other, most NGOs progress from filling a gap in service delivery to recognizing the need to look to the bigger picture in which the need arises, finding themselves drawn, possibly by involvement in NGO networking, into national or global policy advocacy. NGOs partner with grassroots organizations and community-based organizations, which are often made up of poor groups and marginalized ones. On this note, both widen and deepen in terms of personal and organizational capacity and the possibilities for citizen participation. NGOs have been essential in mobilizing large scale of individuals against either entrenched elite groups or state interests, campaigning on their behalf and seeking to influence public policy. For example, the cancelation of debt of indebted states, nations, placing them on the programme of the developed European Summits. This type of bottom-up democracy has been successful in many cases where it might eventually lead to top-down political change. NGOs have become principal actors in a process of transformatory development. They can affect norm changes that lead to regime change or the restructuring of world politics. They do this, especially Northern NGOs through the communicative power of information, lobbying, research, campaigning or media work, acting based on their moral authority. For example, in the areas of human rights, free trade, debt relief and child labour. Furthermore, NGOs create alliances and networks to place pressure on the state . NGO have been drawn into networks of growing complexities. Many Northern NGOs, such as Christian and Humanitarian Aid, have moved away from the direct implementation of projects to a „partnership approach‟ with Southern NGOs, but the precise nature and terms of such partnerships often remain undetermined .

  36. OGUMBA CHIDINMA JOY
    REG NO. 2017/242028
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy. This represents about $240bn.
    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.
    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.

    3. What are the Non-Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    NGOs are legally constituted organizations that operate independently from the government and are generally considered “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue public interest purposes”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights.

    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular
    characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either
    service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the
    poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision. Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to fute the bills for the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s
    has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor
    reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlashagainst harsh adjustment
    regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the
    voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on
    governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there
    are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of
    national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular
    characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either
    service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the
    poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by
    the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision.
    Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the
    development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal
    clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to fute the bills for
    the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the
    expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s
    has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor
    reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlashagainst harsh adjustment
    regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the
    voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on
    governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there
    are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of
    national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular
    characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either
    service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the
    poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by
    the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision.
    Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the
    development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal
    clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to fute the bills for
    the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the
    expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s
    has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor
    reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlashagainst harsh adjustment
    regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the
    voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on
    governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there
    are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of
    national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    NGOs are receiving currency due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular characteristics features and capabilities. NGOs play dual fundamental roles of either service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal and financial services to the poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and infrastructural provision. Often, it is an issue of frequently filling the loopholes created by the partial service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision. Before now, governments of developing countries were observed as leading the development process. However, such paternalism got to its limits when it became crystal clear that government did not possess the financial muscle or resources to foot the bills for the services of the poor and lacked the organizational expertise and know-how to effect the expected outcome. In such circumstance, the important role for NGOs since the mid-1980s has been in mitigating the adverse costs of structural adjustment and promoting donor reform packages in offering insurance against a political backlash against harsh adjustment regimes. Such a role raises important questions. Patterns of service delivery through the voluntary sector may lack compatibility and coordination. In so far as such efforts rely on governments funding, their ultimate durability may also be queried. At a deeper level, there are worries about the long-term impact of NGOs service provision on the sustainability of national health and education systems and access to quality services for all.
    The other role of NGOs is policy advocacy, seeking to effect social change by influencing attitudes, policy and practices, seeking to reform state services on the basic of NGO experiences and to lobby directly for the policy changes. It includes involvement in participatory, public interest politics, and NGOs engaging in such activity realize the increasing importance of information as they begin to utilize the power of ideas and information to promote positive change in the wider structures of government and the official aid community. NGOs often play a catalytic role.
    Nonetheless, neither of these roles needs exclude the other, most NGOs progress from filling a gap in service delivery to recognizing the need to look to the bigger picture in which the need arises, finding themselves drawn, possibly by involvement in NGO networking, into national or global policy advocacy. NGOs partner with grassroots organizations and community-based organizations, which are often made up of poor groups and marginalized ones. On this note, both widen and deepen in terms of personal and organizational capacity and the possibilities for citizen participation. NGOs have been essential in mobilizing large scale of individuals against either entrenched elite groups or state interests, campaigning on their behalf and seeking to influence public policy. For example, the cancelation of debt of indebted states, nations, placing them on the programme of the developed European Summits. This type of bottom-up democracy has been successful in many cases where it might eventually lead to top-down political change. NGOs have become principal actors in a process of transformatory development. They can affect norm changes that lead to regime change or the restructuring of world politics. They do this, especially Northern NGOs through the communicative power of information, lobbying, research, campaigning or media work, acting based on their moral authority. For example, in the areas of human rights, free trade, debt relief and child labour. Furthermore, NGOs create alliances and networks to place pressure on the state . NGO have been drawn into networks of growing complexities. Many Northern NGOs, such as Christian and Humanitarian Aid, have moved away from the direct implementation of projects to a „partnership approach‟ with Southern NGOs, but the precise nature and terms of such partnerships often remain undetermined .

  37. Udeh Rita Ezinne says:

    Udeh Rita Ezinne
    2017/249578
    Question one:
    • The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment.
    • Informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector.

    Question Two:
    Obstacle of informal sector in Nigeria
    The following are the obstacles of the informal sector in Nigeria:
    • Institutional inadequacies
    • Unsafe working conditions
    • Poor enforcement and the non-participation of informal Entrepreneurs in decision-making.
    • Inadequacy of Technology, education, markets, land And physical infrastructure
    • limited Access to finance, and limited skills Development.

    Question three:
    Non-governmental organizations are commonly referred to as NGOs, they are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations, independent of governments and international governmental organizations. Example of non governmental organizations in Nigeria include ActionAid International,Africare,Family Health International etc.
    Role of NGOs
    These roles are
    1.Social development: NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HHDI.
    2.Sustainable community development: NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations.
    3.sustain- able development: NGOs have played a significant role in promoting sustainable development at the international level. NGOs are going beyond their primary focus on governments and starting to address large corporations.
    4. Sustainable consumption: NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption

  38. Odu David Oluchukwu says:

    Odu David Oluchukwu
    2017/241432
    Economics

    THE INFORMAL SECTOR
    The informal sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits.

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal sector offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. These, to a great extent has helped to increase Nigeria economic growth. By providing employment, it has helped to increase the income of consumers, thereby leading to an increase in demand for consumption goods and increase in production.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria economy?
    The followings are the challenges of the informal sectors in Nigeria :
    a. Taxes and License fee: One of the major obstacles that faces the IFS is high license and tax on those willing to migrate to the formal sector.
    b. Unavailability of Credit : Unavailability of finance is a big constraints facing those in the informal sector. This is as a result of limited loans made available for them by various financial institutions.
    c. Lack of capital equipment :
    Lack of capital equipment is a big challenge facing the IFS in Nigeria; as some of them are poor and cannot afford those technologies that will ease their works.
    d. Insecurities : Insecurity in Nigeria also poses a big threat to the survival of the informal sector in Nigeria
    E. Unwillingness of the government to invest in the informal sector.

    3. What are the non governmental organisation and their major roles in the society?
    A. Social Development : NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI) (n.d.).

    B. Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good atreaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition, such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable development (Nikkhah & Redzuan, 2010).
    C. Sustainable Consumption :
    NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption. Some of the instances where this partnership has been successful is in categories such as product development, sustainable housing, labeling, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), green purchasing, marine stewardship, and so on.
    D. Business Partnerships:
    In the past, corporate philanthropy was the main driver for business NGO collaboration. The new wave of collaboration is different. The present trend is toward strategic partnerships aimed to address internal operational issues and the external impacts of corporate activity. Within the partnerships, NGOs and trade unions are involved in decisions that impact core business practices. As a result, CSR has evolved from what companies do with their profits to looking at how companies make those profits (Bendell, 2010).

  39. EZE UDOKA CHIDIEBUBE says:

    Name:Eze Udoka Chidiebube
    Reg no:2017/242428
    Dept:Economics
    1: There is a widespread assumption that the informal economy is counter-cyclical: that is, it expands during economic downturns and contracts during periods of economic growth. However, recent analyses of data over time from different developing countries suggest a more complex and dynamic picture, with substantial variation in patterns of informalization across countries.Sharp economic downturns are associated with a rise in informal employment. But in some countries, steady rates of economic growth are associated with an increase in informal employment.
    Certain forms of informal employment expand during downturns in the economy – including both informal survival activities and sub-contracted and outsourced activities due to formal firms trying to cope with recession. Certain other forms of informal employment expand during upturns in the economy, such as entrepreneurial small firms and sub-contracted and outsourced activities linked to the global production system.
    2: The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including
    (i )inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure.
    ii) limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    3: NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI) (n.d.).
    One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institu￾tional independence and political neutrality. Even though NGOs need to col￾laborate with governments in numerous instances, failure to maintain neutrality and autonomy may severely compromise the NGOs’ legitimacy.
    Unfortunately, if a government insists upon political allegiance, the NGOs encounter the dilemma of either violating the neutrality position or failing to provide needed services to the population. Indeed, some NGOs have been asked to leave in troubled countries due to political reasons (Asamoah, 2003).
    The major advantages that NGOs bring to this role include “flexibility, ability to innovate, grass-roots orientation, humanitarian versus commercial goal orientation, non-profit status, dedication and commitment, and recruit￾ment philosophy”

    1)Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community devel￾opment. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition, such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable develop￾ment .
    C) the Supply of Products and Services
    NGOs are developing or designing products that will minimize the envi￾ronmental impacts of consumption. The consumer is simply offered an alter￾native of more sustainable consumption, and this choice is deemed empowering. For example, the WWF is engaging the retail sector to offer more sustainable food products. It also cooperates with the catering sector to design WWF Weeks for the menu and one permanent WWF dish. This cam￾paign has been successful in increasing demand for organic products in Switzerland (Kong et al., 2002).
    D)Focusing on Market Forces
    Creating a green demand that will drive changes in supply, NGOs are providing information through labels that would empower consumers to make informed choices. For example, WWF has worked with the industry to design labeling schemes to help in the launch of independent certifica￾tion bodies.

  40. Ani kenechukwu joseph says:

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    The informal sector acts as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy? 
    Some of the obstacles the informal sector faces includes;

    1. Lack start up capital: Some of these informal workers tend not to have startup capital for their businesses. This is a major problem faced by many in the sector as they want to start a business but do not have the capital and can not access it from the government.

    2. Lack of proper regulations from the government which keeps the sector relegated to the background and most of it’s economic activities not accounted for despite it’s major contribute to economic growth.

    3. Poor knowledge of modern technology can impedes efficiency in production and utilization of resources.

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society? 
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, non-profit organizations that are totally independent of government influence. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and can are instrumental in environmental, social, and Human Rights issues. There major roles in the society includes: community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

  41. Ani kenechukwu joseph says:

    2017/242423
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    The informal sector acts as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy? 
    Some of the obstacles the informal sector faces includes;

    1. Lack start up capital: Some of these informal workers tend not to have startup capital for their businesses. This is a major problem faced by many in the sector as they want to start a business but do not have the capital and can not access it from the government.

    2. Lack of proper regulations from the government which keeps the sector relegated to the background and most of it’s economic activities not accounted for despite it’s major contribute to economic growth.

    3. Poor knowledge of modern technology can impedes efficiency in production and utilization of resources.

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society? 
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, non-profit organizations that are totally independent of government influence. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and can are instrumental in environmental, social, and Human Rights issues. There major roles in the society includes: community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

  42. Anachunam Daberechi Maryjane says:

    NAME: ANACHUNAM DABERECHI MARYJANE
    REG. NO : 2017/241448
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    WHAT IS AN INFORMAL SECTOR

    An informal sector is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.

    The informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries like Nigeria. The informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s.

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    The ease of entry into informal sector since it isn’t overly regulated by the government helps improve general productivity in the economy and enables Economic growth.
    The reliance on indigenous resources of informal sector also creates an avenue where by natural resources of an economy can be put into production and thereby grow the economy.

    Though there’s small scale of operation but ones a huge number of the population are involved in it, we would be able to produce more for our use and prevent more imports and may also be exported on a small scale.
    It is Labour-intensive and adapted technology and therefore increases job opportunities for the growing population.
    Most skills acquired outside the formal school system are used therefore availing job opportunities for the unskilled labour.
    Unregulated and competitive markets therefore allow the laws of demand and supply to work properly therefore allowing the economy to function according to Economic theory.

    What are the major obstacles the informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    Low pay and difficult working conditions: since they mostly produce on a small scale and there is high competition in the market the pay in these jobs are low and the working conditions are very conducive.
    Low job security and low job satisfaction: There’s low job security in the informal sector as market conditions that aren’t conducive for small startups may come and alot of them may decide to leave the market . Also because of high pressure to keep up with the market, there may not be high job satisfaction.
    Inadequate social security regulation, difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination: All of the above issues would likely occur since they aren’t regulated or highly watched by government or any regulatory body unlike the formal sector.
    Vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women): people working in the informal sector would likely be underpaid and may pay less than than the government issued minimum wage since they aren’t fully under the watch of the government.

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence, self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society(although they may receive government funding).

    Examples of NGOs in Nigeria

    Old Peoples Support International
    Total Care Unit
    Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation
    Action Aid for the Unemployed
    Global Peace Development
    Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria
    Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives
    Rural Urban Development
    Community Health Enlightenment & Development
    Royal integrity & Accountability Organization
    Kano Development Projects
    Theresa Karis Foundation
    African Business Round Table
    Excellence Foundation International Inc
    Youth Mentoring and Orientation Initiative
    Society for employment and Self Reliance
    Center for Transformation of the Under Privileged

    The major roles of NGOS to the Nigeria

    They promote diversity, and tolerance in society while
    protecting and strengthening cultural, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and other identities in Nigeria.
    They advance science and thought; develop culture and art; protect the environment; and support all activities and concerns that make a vibrant civil society in Nigeria.
    They motivate citizens of Nigeria in all aspects of society to act, rather than depend on state power and beneficence.
    They create an alternative to centralized state agencies in Nigeria and provide services with greater independence and flexibility.

  43. 1. WAYS IN WHICH INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA:
    The first strategy that is worth considering is the development of informal skills amongst Nigeria’s working-age population. The government could create and sponsor well-equipped platforms that bring individuals who intend to learn skills and corresponding experts together. This should be at low costs in order to increase their attractiveness to prospective trainees.
    In addition to skill acquisition, workers in Nigeria’s informal economy have raised concerns over credit accessibility. New graduates from the would-be government skills development institutions are expected to be faced with the same challenge. These workers mostly require funds to acquire tools and equipment that are either fundamental to their operations and/or necessary for them to carry out their activities more easily. This highlights the need for the government to give low interest loans in this space. A grant might even be more effective in reducing poverty, as it has the ad-vantage of taking off the burden of repayment. If this were the case it would allow workers to maximize their profits and further ease their escape from the poverty trap.
    Furthermore, informal employees in Nigeria generally require electricity for their operations, al-though it varies across different segments. For instance, the electricity requirements are huge in areas such as laundry services, hairdressing and printing, while it is moderate for photography and catering for instance. Activities such as transport services generally have marginal electricity demand. Given the poor condition of power supply in the country, most of those who fall in the category of high users resort to generators.

    This is found to be relatively expensive and translates to a higher cost of production. Addressing power infrastructure challenges demands huge capital requirements and takes a long time to materialize. However, a short term focus on maximizing gas availability would be a good start. Nigeria’s average electricity output per day of about 3,500MW/hour has been significantly below installed capacity of about 7,500MW, while gas unavailability accounts for approximately 45% of total generation constraints.
    Maximizing gas availability could result in significant benefits, not just for the informal economy, but Nigeria as a whole. In the meantime, the government could focus on securing an adequate supply of gas to power stations. This could draw actual power output closer to its potential pending the time the country sees other significant investments that could raise capacity.
    Nigeria might need to tilt towards an informal driven economy to create more employment and significantly reduce poverty. The formal sector of the economy, which represents the aggregate output, grew by 0.8% in 2017.5 This weak growth might not be enough to reduce poverty levels in the country.

    2. MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA:
    Governance and Leadership Issues: In some sectors and in some countries, informal workers have traditionally organized in local associations. However, democratic structures – for example, compliance with formal rules, such as in a constitution, or processes for electing leaders – may not exist (Roever in Chen et al. 2007).
    Political or corrupt leadership may be an issue, and these leaders may resist joining with larger trade unions. It is also common for women to be excluded from leadership positions.

    Poverty and Vulnerability: Many informal workers are poor and must work long hours – sometimes in multiple jobs – to survive, leaving them little time for organizing. Migrant workers may need to remain undetected because they are undocumented, making them particularly vulnerable to exploitation and harassment.

    Insufficient Resources: Because many informal workers are poor – particularly true for women – they cannot afford dues, especially in times of economic or personal crisis. Organizations of informal workers often lack sufficient resources to cover the cost of staff, space and meetings

    A Lack of Legal Protection and Clear Negotiating Counterparts : Many informal workers do not have an employer – at least not an obvious one with whom to negotiate. Also, they are outside the protective labour law framework with no clear markers against which to push for gains. Since collective bargaining is a staple of trade union activities, these factors create perceptual and practical challenges for traditional unions.
    Where employers do exist, they may treat informal workers harshly or ignore existing laws. Furthermore, existing regulations often impede, rather than assist, informal workers.This is the case, for example, for street vendors in urban spaces who may face harassment by authorities. Harassment or harsh working conditions can serve as an impetus for collective action or can create a climate of fear that inhibits organizing, especially where workers can be dismissed and lose their livelihoods but have no recourse.

    Competition between workers: for example street vendors selling similar products, or taxi drivers in the same area – can reduce the inclination to work collectively. They may come together to take on particular challenges or oppose authorities in a crisis, but this unity of purpose may end when the issue is resolved. For collective action to be ongoing, workers must perceive an ongoing common interest.

    Diverse Workplaces
    : Workplaces may be small, as with some garment workers, or may even be individual households, as is the case for domestic workers. Many informal workers are isolated (e.g. home-based workers and domestic workers), mobile (e.g. street vendors and street waste pickers) or far flung (e.g. farm workers, forest gatherers) workplaces. A single worker may have multiple workplaces and multiple “employers.” These factors all create further complexities for recruiting members, for negotiating better conditions, and for organizational structures and strategies.

    3. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY
    Citywide Organizations: These include organizations such as the Rotary or lion’s Club, chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups and associations of community organizations. Some exist for other purposes, and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor.

    Operational NGOs: Their primary purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects. One categorization that is frequently used is the division into relief-oriented or development-oriented organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious and secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international. Operational NGOs have to mobilize resources, in the form of financial donations, materials or volunteer labor, in order to sustain their projects and programs. This process may require quite complex organization. Charity shops, staffed by volunteers, in premises provided at nominal rents and selling donated goods, end up providing finance to the national headquarters. Students in their vacations or during a break in their education provide labor for projects. Finance obtained from grants or contracts, from governments, foundations or companies, require time and expertise spent on planning, preparing applications, budgeting, accounting and reporting. Major fund-raising events require skills in advertising, media relations and motivating supporters. Thus, operational NGOs need to possess an efficient headquarters bureaucracy, in addition to the operational staff in the field.

    Empowering Orientation: This is where the aim is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. Sometimes, these groups develop spontaneously around a problem or an issue, at other times outside workers from NGOs play a facilitating role in their development. In any case, there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as facilitators.
    Community-based Organizations (CBOs): These arise out of people’s own initiatives. These can include sports clubs, women’s organizations, and neighbourhood organizations, religious or educational organizations. There are a large variety of these, some supported by NGOs, national or international NGOs, or bilateral or international agencies, and others independent of outside help. Some are devoted to raising the consciousness of the urban poor or helping them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services.
    Charitable Orientation: These often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the “beneficiaries”. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor -distribution of food, clothing or medicine; provision of housing, transport, schools etc. Such NGOs may also undertake relief activities during a natural or man-made disaster.

  44. Ogbonnaya Victor Nnanna says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA VICTOR NNANNA
    REG NO: 2017/249544
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 1:
    The informal sector comprises of any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, etc. The informal sector is characterized by low entry and they don’t require any professional qualifications to start operating. The contribution of the informal sector to economic growth is about 65% of the size of the economy. The informal sector contribution to the economic growth in Nigeria is evident in the area of job creation and income generation, provision of raw materials for further production, training entrepreneurs, etc.

    QUESTION 2:
    The major obstacles informal sectors are facing in Nigeria are:
    1. Lack of funding and support from the government: Citizens from the informal sector normally find it hard to get loan or grants from the government as they are often neglected.
    2. Job insecurity
    3. Limited or no access to technology
    4. Absence of social welfare packages

    QUESTION 3:
    Non governmental organization are non profit making organization, they are normally formed for the welfare and benefit of the people of a group of people. They help to increase the voice of the masses ,i.e, let the government be aware of the people need, monitoring the government policies and encouraging political participation.

  45. 1. WAYS IN WHICH INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA:
    The first strategy that is worth considering is the development of informal skills amongst Nigeria’s working-age population. The government could create and sponsor well-equipped platforms that bring individuals who intend to learn skills and corresponding experts together. This should be at low costs in order to increase their attractiveness to prospective trainees.
    In addition to skill acquisition, workers in Nigeria’s informal economy have raised concerns over credit accessibility. New graduates from the would-be government skills development institutions are expected to be faced with the same challenge. These workers mostly require funds to acquire tools and equipment that are either fundamental to their operations and/or necessary for them to carry out their activities more easily. This highlights the need for the government to give low interest loans in this space. A grant might even be more effective in reducing poverty, as it has the ad-vantage of taking off the burden of repayment. If this were the case it would allow workers to maximize their profits and further ease their escape from the poverty trap.
    Furthermore, informal employees in Nigeria generally require electricity for their operations, al-though it varies across different segments. For instance, the electricity requirements are huge in areas such as laundry services, hairdressing and printing, while it is moderate for photography and catering for instance. Activities such as transport services generally have marginal electricity demand. Given the poor condition of power supply in the country, most of those who fall in the category of high users resort to generators.

    This is found to be relatively expensive and translates to a higher cost of production. Addressing power infrastructure challenges demands huge capital requirements and takes a long time to materialize. However, a short term focus on maximizing gas availability would be a good start. Nigeria’s average electricity output per day of about 3,500MW/hour has been significantly below installed capacity of about 7,500MW, while gas unavailability accounts for approximately 45% of total generation constraints.
    Maximizing gas availability could result in significant benefits, not just for the informal economy, but Nigeria as a whole. In the meantime, the government could focus on securing an adequate supply of gas to power stations. This could draw actual power output closer to its potential pending the time the country sees other significant investments that could raise capacity.
    Nigeria might need to tilt towards an informal driven economy to create more employment and significantly reduce poverty. The formal sector of the economy, which represents the aggregate output, grew by 0.8% in 2017.5 This weak growth might not be enough to reduce poverty levels in the country.

    2. MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA:
    Governance and Leadership Issues: In some sectors and in some countries, informal workers have traditionally organized in local associations. However, democratic structures – for example, compliance with formal rules, such as in a constitution, or processes for electing leaders – may not exist (Roever in Chen et al. 2007).
    Political or corrupt leadership may be an issue, and these leaders may resist joining with larger trade unions. It is also common for women to be excluded from leadership positions.

    Poverty and Vulnerability: Many informal workers are poor and must work long hours – sometimes in multiple jobs – to survive, leaving them little time for organizing. Migrant workers may need to remain undetected because they are undocumented, making them particularly vulnerable to exploitation and harassment.

    Insufficient Resources: Because many informal workers are poor – particularly true for women – they cannot afford dues, especially in times of economic or personal crisis. Organizations of informal workers often lack sufficient resources to cover the cost of staff, space and meetings

    A Lack of Legal Protection and Clear Negotiating Counterparts : Many informal workers do not have an employer – at least not an obvious one with whom to negotiate. Also, they are outside the protective labour law framework with no clear markers against which to push for gains. Since collective bargaining is a staple of trade union activities, these factors create perceptual and practical challenges for traditional unions.
    Where employers do exist, they may treat informal workers harshly or ignore existing laws. Furthermore, existing regulations often impede, rather than assist, informal workers.This is the case, for example, for street vendors in urban spaces who may face harassment by authorities. Harassment or harsh working conditions can serve as an impetus for collective action or can create a climate of fear that inhibits organizing, especially where workers can be dismissed and lose their livelihoods but have no recourse.

    Competition between workers: for example street vendors selling similar products, or taxi drivers in the same area – can reduce the inclination to work collectively. They may come together to take on particular challenges or oppose authorities in a crisis, but this unity of purpose may end when the issue is resolved. For collective action to be ongoing, workers must perceive an ongoing common interest.

    Diverse Workplaces
    : Workplaces may be small, as with some garment workers, or may even be individual households, as is the case for domestic workers. Many informal workers are isolated (e.g. home-based workers and domestic workers), mobile (e.g. street vendors and street waste pickers) or far flung (e.g. farm workers, forest gatherers) workplaces. A single worker may have multiple workplaces and multiple “employers.” These factors all create further complexities for recruiting members, for negotiating better conditions, and for organizational structures and strategies.

    3. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY
    Citywide Organizations: These include organizations such as the Rotary or lion’s Club, chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups and associations of community organizations. Some exist for other purposes, and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor.

    Operational NGOs: Their primary purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects. One categorization that is frequently used is the division into relief-oriented or development-oriented organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious and secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international. Operational NGOs have to mobilize resources, in the form of financial donations, materials or volunteer labor, in order to sustain their projects and programs. This process may require quite complex organization. Charity shops, staffed by volunteers, in premises provided at nominal rents and selling donated goods, end up providing finance to the national headquarters. Students in their vacations or during a break in their education provide labor for projects. Finance obtained from grants or contracts, from governments, foundations or companies, require time and expertise spent on planning, preparing applications, budgeting, accounting and reporting. Major fund-raising events require skills in advertising, media relations and motivating supporters. Thus, operational NGOs need to possess an efficient headquarters bureaucracy, in addition to the operational staff in the field.

    Empowering Orientation: This is where the aim is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. Sometimes, these groups develop spontaneously around a problem or an issue, at other times outside workers from NGOs play a facilitating role in their development. In any case, there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as facilitators.
    Community-based Organizations (CBOs): These arise out of people’s own initiatives. These can include sports clubs, women’s organizations, and neighbourhood organizations, religious or educational organizations. There are a large variety of these, some supported by NGOs, national or international NGOs, or bilateral or international agencies, and others independent of outside help. Some are devoted to raising the consciousness of the urban poor or helping them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services.
    Charitable Orientation: These often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the “beneficiaries”. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor -distribution of food, clothing or medicine; provision of housing, transport, schools etc. Such NGOs may also undertake relief activities during a natural or man-made disaster.

  46. NAME: chukwu mmesoma faith
    Reg no: 2017/ 243807
    Department: education and economics

    A. THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
    The informal sector is largely characterized by several qualities: skills gained outside of a formal education, easy entry (meaning anyone who wishes to join the sector can find some sort of work which will result in cash earnings), a lack of stable employer-employee relationships, and a small scale of operations. Workers who participate in the informal economy are typically classified as employed. The type of work that makes up the informal economy is diverse, particularly in terms of capital invested, technology used, and income generated. The spectrum ranges from self-employment or unpaid family labor to street vendors, shoe shiners, and junk collectors. On the higher end of the spectrum are upper-tier informal activities such as small-scale service or manufacturing businesses, which have more limited entry. The upper-tier informal activities have higher set-up costs, which might include complicated licensing regulations, and irregular hours of operation. However, most workers in the informal sector, even those are self-employed or wage workers, do not have access to secure work, benefits, welfare protection, or representation. These features differ from businesses and employees in the formal sector which have regular hours of operation, a regular location and other structured benefits.
    e.g prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%. The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour. Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books”, and “working for cash”.

    CONTRIBUTIONS
    1) Prostitution aside its odds have some contributions to the economic growth such as self-employment, sexual satisfaction and decrease in the rate of rape is harmful, anti-social and inimical to Nigerian society.
    2) A black market is an economic activity that takes place outside government-sanctioned channels. Black market transactions usually occur “under the table” to let participants avoid government price controls or taxes. The goods and services offered in a black market can be illegal, meaning their purchase and sale are prohibited by law, or they can be legal but transacted to avoid taxes.
    3) You are saved the hassle of paying Pay As You Earn tax.
    4) There’s no red tape when it comes to dealing with personnel issues which are expressly handled either by the employer him/herself, or a senior manager.
    5) Sometimes employment is done on the spot with little emphasis on attending lengthy job interviews and countless aptitude tests.
    6) Sometimes one is employed because of one’s personal relationship with the employer rather than on merit.
    7) Some employers pay well because company owners do not have many tax obligations. Employee effort is directed towards achieving profit rather than satisfying irrelevant routines.
    8) There can be a close and direct relationship with the employer, therefore making it easy to get permission when in need of time off.

    B. THE OBSTACLES FACED BY THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA ARE AS FOLLOWS:
    According to development and transition theories, workers in the informal sector typically earn less income, have unstable income, and do not have access to basic protections and services. The informal economy is also much larger than most people realize, with women playing a huge role. The working poor, particularly women, are concentrated in the informal economy, and most low-income households rely on the sector to provide for them. However, informal businesses can also lack the potential for growth, trapping employees in menial jobs indefinitely. On the other hand, the informal sector can allow a large proportion of the population to escape extreme poverty and earn an income that is satisfactory for survival.

    OBSTACLES
    1) Gender: Female representation in the informal sector is attributed to a variety of factors. One such factor is that employment in the informal sector is the source of employment that is most readily available to women. The study of poverty noted that cultural norms, religious seclusion, and illiteracy among women in many developing countries, along with a greater commitment to family responsibilities, prevent women from entering the formal sector.
    Women are under-represented in higher-income employment positions in the informal economy and over-represented in lower-income statuses. As a result, the gender gap in terms of wage is higher in the informal sector than the formal sector. Labor markets, household decisions, and states all propagate this gender inequality.
    2) Political power of agent: Workers in the informal economy lack a significant voice in government policy. Not only is the political power of informal workers limited, but the existence of the informal economy creates challenges for other politically influential actors.
    3) Poverty: they lack money
    4) Informal vendors in Uttar Pradesh: The relationship between the informal sectors and poverty certainly is not simple nor does a clear, causal relationship exist. An inverse relationship between an increased informal sector and slower economic growth has been observed though.[44] Average incomes are substantially lower in the informal economy and there is a higher preponderance of impoverished employees working in the informal sector.[50] In addition, workers in the informal economy are less likely to benefit from employment benefits and social protection programs.[4] For instance, a survey in Europe shows that the respondents who have difficulties to pay their household bills have worked informally more often in the past year than those that do not (10% versus 3% of the respondents).[51]
    5) Children and child labour: Children work in the informal economy in many parts of the world. They often work as scavengers (collecting recyclables from the streets and dump sites), day laborers, cleaners, construction workers, vendors, in seasonal activities, domestic workers, and in small workshops; and often work under hazardous and exploitative conditions, such children are very vulnerable to exploitation: often they are not allowed to take breaks or are required to work long hours; many suffer from a lack of access to education, which can contribute to social isolation and a lack of future opportunity.
    6) Little or no job security. 7) Unprotected by labour laws. 8) Odd working hours.
    9) No pension, insurance or health insurance scheme.

    C. WHAT ARE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS)
    Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are non-governmental, nonprofit making and self-governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society

    ROLES OF NGOs
    Among the wide variety of roles that NGOs play, the following identified as important, at the risk of generalization:
    Development and Operation of Infrastructure: Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.
    Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects: NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
    Facilitating Communication: NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people to the government and downward from the government to the people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.
    Technical Assistance and Training: Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    Research, Monitoring and Evaluation: Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
    Advocacy for and with the Poor: In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programs on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programs; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

  47. Okoronkwo Uchechukwu David says:

    NAME; Okoronkwo Uchechukwu David
    REG NO; 2017/241455
    DEPARTMENT; Economics
    EMAIL; uchechukwu.okoronkwo.241455@unn.edu.ng

    (1) IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA?
    Firstly it is important to note that the size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing, etc.
    But also, the informal economy represents all work by individuals or businesses which, by law or practice, is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements.
    Examples include food and flea markets, street vendors, laundromats and the others, mostly in rural or informal areas. It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees.
    This lack of formality also means that little is known of the ‘shadow’ economy and, as such, it is prone to be overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities.
    Although It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    The informal sector sources most of its goods from the formal economy, pays rent to landlords, and is clearly an important participant in the value chains of even large companies.

    (2) WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA’S ECONOMY?
    While although the informal sector offers the advantage of employment flexibility in some areas, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, poverty and income inequality.
    However its major limitations are operating capital, limited technologies, lack of access to credit facilities, inadequate link with the formal sector, and inadequate entrepreneurial and managerial training.

    (3) WHAT ARE THE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY?
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, self governing but legally constituted that operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest.
    That is, they are set out to tackle the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society.
    The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights.

  48. NNANYELUGO CHIDERA MICHAEl says:

    Name: NNANYELUGO CHIDERA MICHAEl
    Reg no: 2017/245023
    Dept of ECONOMICS
    Eco 362
    Meaning
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    >In what ways does informal economy contribute to the economic growth in Nigeria
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.Virtually everywhere the informal economy is efficient and resilient, creating jobs. It is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower-income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP. It exists separately from the formal economy.
    > What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigerians economy
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy.3 This represents about $240bn.

    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.

    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.
    > What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Definitions of an NGO
    The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.

    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in Article 71 in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence (although they may receive government funding).

    As one can tell from the basic definition above, the difference between nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and NGOs is slim. However, the term “NGO” is not typically applied to U.S.-based nonprofit organizations. Generally, the NGO label is given to organizations operating on an international level although some countries classify their own civil society groups as NGOs.
    > What are the roles of non-governmental organization?
    A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    NGO’s are bodies which function free from the control of governmental control. These are said to be nonprofit governmental bodies which work for the welfare of societies. They act as a mediator between society and government.

  49. NNANYELUGO CHIDERA MICHAEl says:

    Name: NNANYELUGO CHIDERA MICHAEl
    Reg no: 2017/245023
    Dept of ECONOMICS
    Eco 362
    Meaning
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    >In what ways does informal economy contribute to the economic growth in Nigeria
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.Virtually everywhere the informal economy is efficient and resilient, creating jobs. It is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower-income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP. It exists separately from the formal economy.
    > What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigerians economy
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy.3 This represents about $240bn.

    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.

    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.
    > What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Definitions of an NGO
    The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.

    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in Article 71 in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence (although they may receive government funding).

    As one can tell from the basic definition above, the difference between nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and NGOs is slim. However, the term “NGO” is not typically applied to U.S.-based nonprofit organizations. Generally, the NGO label is given to organizations operating on an international level although some countries classify their own civil society groups as NGOs.
    > What are the roles of non-governmental organization?
    A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    NGO’s are bodies which function free from the control of governmental control. These are said to be nonprofit governmental bodies which work for the welfare of societies. They act as a mediator between society and government..

  50. Ugwu Sandra Ogechukwu says:

    Name: Ugwu Sandra Ogechukwu
    Reg no: 2017/241433
    Email: sandra.ugwu.241433@unn.edu.ng
    Answer:

    The informal sector is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. Although the informal sector has sometimes been stigmatized as troublesome it has also helped in a lot of ways especially in Nigeria. Such ways include
    Creation of employment: the informal sector creates employment opportunities for people in the rural areas and also in the urban areas. It absorbs majority of those who the formal sector is not capable of accommodating and also creates jobs for those who didn’t acquire any form of formal education.
    Creation of income and wealth: an increase in employment leads to an increase in income. And as income of the people increases the need and quest for wealth accumulation also increase. This also has an effect on investment as people who wish to accumulate more wealth invest more knowing the importance and gains of investment.
    Improves the standard of living of the people: the informal sector through creation of jobs and income improves the standard of living of the people.
    Redistributes income: the informal sector helps in redistributing income from the formal sector to the informal sector.
    Notwithstanding the contributions of the informal sector to the Nigerian economy, it still faces a lot of obstacles and challenges. These obstacles include
    Lack of credit: the informal sector has over the years been stigmatized in terms of credit accessibility. Informal sector in many cases do not meet the criteria for credit accessibility due to their small scale of operation.
    Insecurity: as already been noted, informal sector is not monitored by any form of government and hence is not protected by any law against fraud and other unforeseen circumstances. Also due to the current insecurity in the country a lot of informal businesses operate in fear and many people who want to start up businesses are discouraged.
    Poor infrastructure: the operation of businesses in the informal sector has been affected by poor infrastructure. To name but a few are bad road, poor power supply, etc. has led to the failure of so many businesses in the informal sector.
    Lack of proper knowledge about existing technology: majority of people who make up the informal sector are not educated and also dwell in rural areas, because of this so many are not informed of some existing technology that can make work easier and hence a reduction in productivity.
    A non-governmental organization is a non-profit organization that operates independently of any government and seeks to address social or political issue. It is task oriented and driven by people with a common interest. Examples include Total care unit, Action aid for the unemployed, Rural urban development, Old peoples support international, Women and development movement, Teenage girls empowerment centre. Their roles in the society include
    Bringing citizens’ concerns to government
    Advocating and monitoring of government policies
    Encourage political participation through provision of information to the masses
    Monitor and implement international agreements
    They provide analysis and expertise depending on their goal
    They also provide support for the poor and human welfare
    Non-governmental organizations promote education and encourage social responsibility
    The non-governmental organizations also help in protecting human right

  51. Ahamefula miracle chisom says:

    Name: Ahamefula Miracle Chisom
    Dept:Economics
    Reg no: 2017/249478

    1.IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA?
    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, theNigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.So what is the informal sector?The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts;and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples ofinformal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need. Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient, and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy.
    Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that theinformal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety standards, amongst others. However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered.
    Consequently efforts must be made to understand the dynamics of the sector and how best to tap the latent potential that lies within.Contributions of the Informal Sector to Employment and Output in Nigeria

    According to Altman (2008), the first and foremost point on the proportion of employment in the informal sector is that the share of employment in small informal enterprises tends to fall as a country’s per capita income rises. Amin (2002) observes that the proportion of the labour force engaged in the informal sector fell by between 60 and 70 percent of the labour force in low income South Asian economies, by between 30 and 50 percent in middle-income South-East Asian countries, and by about 25 percent in high-income Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore. It was also pointed out however, that in Sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, 78 percent of non-agricultural employment is found in informal-sector firms, accounting for about 21 percent of total employment, including domestic workers (ECA, 2005).
    Considering the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of self-employment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the average earnings between the formal and informal sector.
    Though Nigeria does not, at present, have accurate statistics on the proportion of labour force in the informal sector, the CBN/NISER/FOS survey of 1998 indicates that informal manufacturing enterprises are small. The average number of persons employed in an enterprise was about 2. By implication, bulk of the informal employment in Nigeria can be found in non-manufacturing activities such as street trading, barbing saloons, restaurants, and other informal sector activities. The 1998 survey of the Nigerian informal sector gives some interesting insights on size of the labour force employed in the informal manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria.The informal sector — labor and business that is hidden from monetary, regulatory, and institutional authorities — accounts for about a third of GDP and 70 percent of employment (of which self-employment is more than a half) in emerging market and developing economies. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    2. WHAT ARE THE OBSTACLES/CHALLENGES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA?
    Addressing the challenge of pervasive informality will require comprehensive policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Initiatives to boost long-term development might include measures aimed at reducing regulatory and tax burdens, expanding access to finance, improving education and other public services, and strengthening public revenue frameworks.
    One-half of the world’s informal output and 95 percent of its informal employment is in emerging market and developing economies. Both informal output and employment have declined since 1990, particularly in countries with higher output growth, rapid physical capital accumulation, and larger improvements in governance and business climates.
    Share of informal output and employment
    The informal economy tends to employ lower-skilled and less productive workers. As a result, workers in the formal economy earn, on average, about 19 percent more than workers in the informal economy.
    Informality, poverty, and income inequality
    The average informal firm in emerging market and developing economies is only one-quarter as productive as the average firm operating in the formal sector. This is only in part explained by informal firm characteristics such as their younger age, less experience, and smaller size. Moreover, firms in the formal sector that face informal competition are, on average, only three-quarters as productive as those that do not. Better business climates can mitigate some of these productivity differentials.
    Average productivity in formal and informal firms
    Addressing informality requires well-coordinated policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Policy changes that could affect vulnerable groups can be balanced by stronger safety nets, greater labor and product market flexibility, and better access to resources for informal firms. In addition, policies to spur economic development in general can help reduce informality. Specific measures include streamlining of tax codes and enhanced enforcement of revenue collection; easing firm and labor regulations to create a level playing field for both formal and informal participants; as well as greater access to finance and public services to help increase productivity in the informal sector.
    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society? Non-Government Organisation
    NGOs are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights. NGOs are generally funded totally or partly by governments and they maintain their non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.
    In a democratic society, it is the state that has the ultimate responsibility for ushering development to its citizens. In India, through the progressive interpretation of the Constitution and its laws and policies, the scope of development has been significantly broadened to include not just economic progress for citizens, but also promotion of social justice, gender equity, inclusion, citizen’s awareness, empowerment and improved quality of life. To achieve this holistic vision of development, the state requires the constructive and collaborative engagement of the civil society in its various developmental activities and programs. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as the operational arm of the civil society therefore have an important role in the development processes.
    NGO’s play a significant role in bringing social change in society and development of society. In different parts of the world, it has proven that these organizations have many sides. To be a member of it people need to be educated, enthusiastic and inspired.
    Now we shall discuss the roles of NGO’s:
    The organization i.e. NGO’s help educates those section of society which was left behind in the society since its inception and never enjoyed benefits that government has facilitated them with. Such as women’s education, STs, and SCs.
    NGO’s have given and are still giving their best in eliminating the gender inequality which has also been a practice since earlier times. Girls face many problems no right to education, forcefully making them marry, not letting them work outside the houses. Therefore, NGO’s try to eliminate this evil ideology of some societies.
    NGO’s Are the reason why women are not able to move out of the four walls of the houses and participate in politics, business, social activities.now women have witnessed a whole new world due to the efforts of NGO’s and academic institutions. We have seen increasement in the number of women workers. There are many foundations such as Agrani foundation, Eklavya, Sewa and Environmental Action Group etc. Day by day women are seeing new opportunities for themselves due to the help of NGO’s.
    The use of technology, level of production, a pattern of utilization is almost same all over the world whereas the world is destroying natural resources to achieve their goals and selfish reasons. That is why NGO’s take birth to keep eyes on such activities. There have been many health issues due to the overutilization of natural resources causing pollution which later cause health problems and calamities. In this case, NGO’s deserve an appreciation as they have done a lot to work for such causes.
    It’s not just that because of developmental processes environment has been affected but it also has moved people from their place of origin or birth not just that they are no even compensated and given other place to live. They are left homeless. Hence NGO’s play a significant role to provide them shelter and look after all the legal processes. Many projects are taking place such as the construction of houses, roadways, dams etc and compensate these people.
    NGO’s one of the most important task would be that they are helping and restoring the dignity of those who always have been ignored and never enjoyed those activities which other people did such as women facing gender inequality, untouchables discrimination, racial, religious discrimination in society.
    These NGO’s are working on a national and international level and have gained great importance in the development of society. It helps in maintaining a society which is free from all the biases and social evils. It is setting an example of humanity is still alive. They help in spreading awareness and guiding and pressurizing government when they fail to meet their duties.

  52. onah somtochukwu kerian 2018/248566 says:

    ONAH SOMTOCHUKWU KERIAN
    ECONOMICS DEPT
    2017/249566

    (1) The informal sector is seen to play a huge part in the development of economies, most especially in transitioning and developing nations. The Nigeris region informal sector entails mostly small enterprises and is seen as a provider of certain social services such as employment and gender equality, which are factors crucial to the economic development of a country. Although the informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector, the sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills.
    (2).While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality. Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    (3.)Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in nigeria includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of childs rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

  53. onah somtochukwu kerian 2017/249566 says:

    ONAH SOMTOCHUKWU KERIAN ECONOMICS
    DEPT 2017/249566
    (1) The informal sector is
    seen to play a huge part in the development of
    economies, most especially in transitioning and
    developing nations. The Nigeris region informal
    sector entails mostly small enterprises and is
    seen as a provider of certain social services such
    as employment and gender equality, which are
    factors crucial to the economic development of a
    country. Although the informal sector creates a
    base in which firms can expand and migrate to
    the formal sector, the sector also provides
    employment opportunities in both rural and urban
    settings for economic actors that are often
    excluded from the formal sector due to their lack
    of desirable skills.
    (2).While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poorbgovernance, excessive regulations, and poverty
    and income inequality. Nigerian Informal sector
    players face a myriad of challenges including
    inadequacy of technology, education, markets,
    land and physical infrastructure, limited access
    to finance, and limited skills development.
    (3.)
    Some of the NGOs whose activities are
    prominent in nigeria includes: Body
    Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery
    (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty
    Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI)
    and Pro-Health International. A number of these
    NGOs are into various aspects of community
    development such as: community mobilization,
    environment, health and sanitation awareness
    creation, promotion of childs rights law,
    promotion of sexuality and reproductive health
    education and fight against child labour and
    human trafficking etc.

  54. Fidelis Emmanuel Oluebubechukwu says:

    Fidelis Emmanuel Oluebubechukwu
    2017/241440
    Emmanuelfidelis988@gmail.com

    Q1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria? 

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a
    major contributor to the Nigerian
    economy, accounting for a significant
    portion of employment and national
    GDP. According to the IMF, the
    Nigerian informal sector accounted for
    65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

    Q2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy? 

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.

    Q3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society? 

    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted, voluntary association of individuals or groups that is neither a governmental agency nor a for-profit enterprise, although it may and often does receive both government and corporate funds. Regardless of funding source, an NGO maintains its status only to the extent that it excludes government representatives from membership or participation. Business representatives, however, may participate, either as staff or directors.

    Among the wide variety of roles that NGOs play, the following six can be identified as important.

    1. Development and Operation of Infrastructure:

    Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.

     2. Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:

    NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.

    3. Facilitating Communication:

    NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.

    NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people to the government and downward from the government to the people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.

    4. Technical Assistance and Training:

    Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.

    5. Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:

    Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.

    6. Advocacy for and with the Poor:

    In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

  55. Angel Nwosu says:

    Name: Nwosu Angel Chiamaka
    Reg no: 2017/249536
    Dept: ECONOMICS
    Email: angelapaul230@gmail.com
    1. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing.
    2. Some of the major obstacles are a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality. My research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal sectors in Nigeria ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity, low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction.
    3. Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. Next, i will discuss four important roles of NGOs. These roles are (1) social development, (2) sustainable community development, (3) sustain- able development, and (4) sustainable consumption. NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. … They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation. They can experiment freely with innovative approaches and, if necessary, to take risks.
    * They are flexible to adapt to local situations and respond to local needs and are therefore able to develop integrated projects, as well as sectoral projects.
    * List of Top NGOs in Nigeria.
    * Let’s Talk Humanity.
    * Access to Education for Children.
    * ActionAid International Nigeria.
    * Action Health Incorporated (AHI)
    * All Nigeria United Nations Students’ & Youth Association (ANUNSA)
    * .Alliances for Africa (AfA)
    * African Sports Support & Education Trust.

  56. MADUAGUM MADONNA CHIOMA says:

    NAME: MADUAGUM MADONNA CHIOMA
    REG. NO:2017/241456
    EMAIL: cmaduagum@gmail.com

    1. The informal economy is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state. Examples include street vendors, laundromats, casual labourers, etc. The informal sector contributes to economic growth in Nigeria as it creates job opportunities for so many who are unemployed and seeking. It also serves as a source of income for their livelihood. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    2. One of the obstacles of the informal sector in Nigeria is that they are unprotected by labour laws, meaning they can work at odd hours and since they are not recognized by the government, they cannot form a body or union to protest when odds aren’t in their favour. There are no pension, insurance or health insurance schemes for them. The informal sector is often characterized by low wages so saving is almost impossible most times as the income made is used to satisfy immediate needs, etc.
    3. Non Governmental organizations are non-profit groups that function independently of any government. Most NGO’s are formed to provide services or to advocate a public policy. Other functions include community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

  57. Okoroji Arinze Emmanuel says:

    Okoroji Arinze Emmanuel
    2017/241443
    Economics

    1. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries. The informal sector contributes to the Nigerian economy when this individuals who acquire skills go to acquire loan with intentions of paying back with a profit. This is recorded by banks as securities which is also imputed in the GDP. Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need
    2. Major obstaclee of the Nigerian economy include; Inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    3. The following are nongovernmental organization in Nigeria and their major roles;
    Joint National Association of Persons with Disabilities : is an umbrella organization of persons with disability established in Nigeria to promote the rights and development of Nigerians with disabilities. The organization was established in 1992, to represent the interests of the teeming population of persons with disabilities at the local and international level.
    Women Aid collective; exists to promote human rights of women and young people, increase legal protection and fight for better choices for abused women and children, facilitate flow of information and experience between organizations
    African Women Initiative Against Violence & Poverty; provides women survivors of war, civil strife, gender based violence and young women in distress with tools and resources to move from crisis and poverty to stability and self-sufficiency, thereby promoting viable civil societies changing Africa woman one at a time.

  58. Okpor Martha Ashinedu says:

    NAME: OKPOR MARTHA ASHINEDU
    REG.NO: 2017/241430
    LEVEL: 300L
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: marthaokpor2017@gmail.com
    ANSWER:
    QUESTION 1: The informal economy represents all work by individuals or businesses which by law or practice is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements. It is considered information since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees. Examples of informal workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, service providers( hairdressers, plumbers, carpenters,etc).The informal sector is important to the economy and contributes to the GDP of a country. It does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemoloyed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income ans alleviating poverty. The informal sector also has the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services and this in turn improves the standard of living of the people.

    QUESTION 2: The informal sector faces a myriad of challenges or obstacles which include: limited access to finance, land and physical infrastructure, inadequate technology, education, limited skill development, etc.
    Limited Access to Finance: Many informal workers are poor- particularly true for women- they cannot afford dues especially in times of economic or personal crisis. Organizations of informal workers often lack sufficient resources to cover the cost of staff, space and meetings.
    Land and physical infrastructure: Consistency in trading location is economically significant as returning patronage is a large portion of any informal trader’s clientele. Thus, displacement due to construction of beautification projects in public public places and urban developments such as public transport can disrupt business’s for informal traders. Also public amenities like water, sanitation, waste removal, shelter,etc need to be put in place to support traders.
    Inadequate technology: As a result of lack of technical knowhow by most occupants of the sector, even when technology is made available at their disposal, they do not have the necessary skills to operate these machines. Eg service providers such as hairdressers, etc.

    QUESTION 3: Non-governmental organizations are those organizations which are independent of government involvement. They are non profit governmental bodies which work for the welfare of the society. Their roles include;
    a) The organization helps those sections of the society which was left behind in the society since its inception and never enjoyed benefits that government has facilitated them with such as women’s education.
    b) NGOs, have given and are still giving their best in eliminating the gender inequality which has been a practice since earlier tines.
    c) As a result of developmental processes, it has moved people from their place of origin or birth not just that they are even compensated and given places to live, but they are left homeless. NGOs play significant role to provide these displaced persons with shelter and take care of the legal processes.
    d) NGOs help restorebthe dignity of those who have always been ignored and never enjoyed those activities which other people did such as women facing gender inequality.

  59. Ikechukwu Chizoba Peace
    2017/249517
    Economics
    An informal sector of the economy is known to be that part of country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. Those enterprises that are neither taxed nor monitored by the government and their activities are not included in GDP. They represent self employed artisans often paid in cash but generally not listed in official figures. They contribute to the economy positively because they are consisting of units engaged in production of goods and services, their by generating job opportunities, income opportunities of workers and business owners, resuction of poverty, increase in livelihood which generally boost the growth of the economy. It act as a safety net for the formal sector economy, they do this by allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own business.
    They also provide goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

    Some of the obstacles facing informal sector in Nigeria economy are;
    1. Inadequacy of technology
    2. Limited access to finance
    3. Limited skills development
    4. Insecurity
    5. Markets
    6. Education
    7. Land and physical infrastructure

    Non governmental organization and their major roles in the society.
    NGOs are legally constitude organizations that operates I dependently from the government and they are know for their non- state, non- profit oriented groups wo pursue purposes of public interest. Their primary aim is to provide social justice, development and human rights.
    Their major roles in the society are;
    a. Community mobilization
    b. Environment
    c. Promotion of sexuality and reproduction health education
    d. Livelihood
    e. Inclusive growth and poverty reduction.
    f. Ameliorate the plight of the people that so much quest for life sustaining facilities in the society.

  60. IGWILO EBUKA VINCENT
    2017/241434
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    ebuka.igwilo.241434@unn.edu.ng
    vingist.blogspot.com

    NUMBER ONE
    I. It is a major provider for employment, goods and services for lower income goods and which contributes significantly to GDP.
    II. it produces for, trades with, distributes for, and provides
    services to the formal economy. In turn this formal economy contributes to Economic growth, thereby making the informal sector a key factor in the economy.
    III. It plays a role in poverty reduction- if we compare on a per-job basis, the poverty reduction associated with one informal-sector job is generally between 50 to 100% of the poverty reduction associated with one formal-sector job. Growth in the number of jobs in the informal sector would be a sensible component of any plan to reduce poverty.
    IV. The informal economy provides low-cost labour, inputs, low-cost goods and services to the public, especially the
    poorer sections., and services to both formal.

    NUMBER TWO
    the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as Passing or disappearing with time and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy.Today there is no agreed perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety standards, amongst others. Also, Failed support by the government. No access to credit facilities, zero access to capital. No infrastructure and other amenities needed by this sector

    NUMBER 3
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government and a term usually used by governments to refer to entities that have no government status. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties. 

    ROLES
    I. Their purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects.
    II. Their purpose is to defend or promote a specific cause.
    III. Planner and implementer of development programmers.
    IV. They coordinate local resources and initiative,
    V. They enable progress and most times innovators are present in these organisations.
    VI. Builder of self reliant sustainable society,
    VII. Some of these organisations act as negotiators between the people and government
    VIII. Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes, etc.,
    IX. Some of the NGOs serve as Agents of information during crisis or during period of panic in the country. They create awareness about things happening at that point in time
    X.Facilitator of development education, training, professionalisation, etc.

  61. Isaac Blessing chiyantirimam
    2017/242942
    Economics
    isaacblessing49@gmail.com
    1. In what way does informal economy contribute to Economic growth in Nigeria.
    2017 saw Nigeria record its first full year of growth after experiencing its first recession in 25 years. While this recovery brought about an increase in business confidence, concerns remain as the GDP growth achieved was less than national population growth. This concern persists even as the IMF projected 2.1% growth for 2018, which falls below the population growth forecast of 2.6%. Population growth,coupled with high underemployment and unemployment rates (combined 40%), will result in an increase in the number of job seekers in 2018. It also translates to an increase in the number of people who look to the informal sector for economic survival.The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, theNigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.So what is the informal sector?
    The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts;and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need.
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    2. What are the major obstacles the informal sector is facing in the Nigerian economy?
    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    3. What are the Non governmental organizations and their roles in the society.
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    Some their roles are;
    1. Development and Operation of Infrastructure: Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.
    2. Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects: NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
    3. Facilitating Communication: NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.

    4. Technical Assistance and Training: Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    5. Research, Monitoring and Evaluation: Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
    6. Advocacy for and with the Poor: In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

  62. Enyum Joseph ikechukwu says:

    NAME:Enyum Joseph Ikechukwu
    REG NO: 2017/249498
    E-mail: Enyumjoseph@gmail.com

    1. Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:
    NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.

    2. Major obstaclee of the Nigerian economy include; Inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. … They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation. They can experiment freely with innovative approaches and, if necessary, to take risks.
    * They are flexible to adapt to local situations and respond to local needs and are therefore able to develop integrated projects, as well as sectoral projects.
    * List of Top NGOs in Nigeria.
    * Let’s Talk Humanity.
    * Access to Education for Children.
    * ActionAid International Nigeria.
    * Action Health Incorporated (AHI)
    * All Nigeria United Nations Students’ & Youth Association (ANUNSA)

  63. Ugwoke faith chinazaekpere says:

    ugwoke faith chinazaekpere
    2017/249582
    Economics
    Question 1:
    The informal sector mostly comprises very small enterprises (frequently fewer than five individuals) that often are based in poor neighbourhoods and generates quite low earnings for enterprises and individuals. Still, these are economic activities that put income in the hands of millions of people. Supporting and strengthening these activities holds the potential to inject resources into poorer households and areas and should be a central part of broad economic empowerment and the pursuit of inclusive growth.ways inwhich the informal sector contribute to Te growth of Nigerian economy include:
    1) The role of informal sector in poverty alleviation :
    Linked to the role of the sector in job creation is the vital impact of informal-sector employment on poverty alleviation. 
    2) Gender and position of women:
    Changes in trade also highlight changes in the gender composition of the informal sector. The share of women in overall informal-sector employment (including enterprise ownership) declined significantly between 2008 and 2014.
    3) Employment in the informal sector:
    GDP is only one measure of contribution. Across the country the informal sector in South Africa is a significant source of employment.
    Question 2:
    The informal sector — labor and business that is hidden from monetary, regulatory, and institutional authorities — accounts for about a third of GDP and 70 percent of employment (of which self-employment is more than a half) in emerging market and developing economies. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.
    3) They tend to employ lower skill and less productive workers:
    The average informal is emerging market and developing economies is only one-quarter as as the average firm operating in the formal sector. This is only in part explained by informal firm characteristics such as their younger age, less experience, and smaller size. Moreover, firms in the formal sector that face informal competition are, on average, only three-quarters as productive as those that do not. Better business climates can mitigate some of these productivity differentials.
    Question 3)
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society.. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    Donor agencies in Nigeria includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: BodyEnhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  64. Igweh Sixtus Ozioma says:

    IGWEH SIXTUS OZIOMA
    2017/247588
    1)
    The informal sector is diverse and comprises all industries, not just trade. Most of the multi-person, employing enterprises are in construction, retail trade and services, but also in manufacturing and communication. The informal construction industry has a high propensity to employ. Furthermore, the informal sector is not static either. More than half a million new jobs were created in a one-year period (2013 data). About 150,000 jobs came from employment expansion in both one-person and multi-person enterprises. In the same period about 60,000 jobs were lost due to employment cutbacks. In addition, roughly 380,000 new jobs were created due to about 300,000 businesses starting up in 2013, making the annual entry of new enterprises quite high.
    2) major disadvantages of working in the informal sector include:
    Little or no job security.
    Unprotected by labour laws.
    Odd working hours.
    No pension, insurance or health insurance scheme.
    Summary dismissals.
    Difficult to make any savings due to low wages.
    A brief illness or injury or injury can mean no financial means to survive.
    3)A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.
    Functions of NGOs
    A.Environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work.
    B.They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally.
    C.They play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  65. OKEKE NANCY OGADIMMA says:

    NAME: OKEKE NANCY OGADIMMA
    REG NO:2017/249557
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: ogadimmanancy12@gmail.com

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    The informal sector comprises of any form of business activities that are not regulated by the government.The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal sector thereby allowing the unemployed and the unemployable to find work or start their own business thus alleviating poverty and boosting income
    The informal sector basically gives people the opportunity to create jobs and make their own income.So it thereby provides significant job opportunities, income generation that will help them.This in turn boost the GDP of a country thereby leading to economic growth
    What are the major obstacles the informal sectors are facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    A.Insecurity: Workers in the informal sector have low job security because they don’t know what will happen next .This is because of inadequate regulations or lack of proper regulations at the workplace due to the fact that it is not being monitored, controlled or regulated by the government
    B.Exploitation:Most of the workers in the informal sectors are being exploited because there is no checks and balances.They always receive a pay lower than the services being rendered and thereby ends up not being satisfied.Also the jobs there are always undervalued jobs especially for women.
    C.High turnover rates and low job satisfaction:This is mostly caused by inadequate social security regulation;
    D.Difficulty exercising rights:It is very difficult to exercise some certain rights in the informal sector due to lack of regulations and monitoring.for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination.

    What are the Non-governmental agencies and their major role in the society?

    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences.
    Their Major roles are:
    1.Service-delivery NGOs provide public goods and services which governments of developing countries are unable to provide due to a lack of resources.
    2.Capacity-building NGOs affect “culture, structure, projects and daily operations”
    3.Advocacy and public-education NGOs aim to modify behavior and ideas through communication, crafting messages to promote social, political, or environmental changes.
    4.Movement NGOs mobilize the public and coordinate large-scale collective activities to advance an activist agenda.

  66. AGBO EBUBE EDITH says:

    NAME: AGBO EBUBE EDITH
    REG NO: 2017/249475
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    1. IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONIMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.

    The informal Economy provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low.

    Also, Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. They contribute significantly to production, consumption, employment and income generation in developing countries, which is a source of livelihood to poor majority, skilled and unskilled.

    The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.

    2. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTACLES THE INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN THE NIGERIA’S ECONOMY.

    The informal sector in Nigeria’s Economy is facing the following obstacles:

    -long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions.

    -low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;

    -inadequate social security regulation

    -Difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination;

    -vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);

    3. WHAT ARE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY.

    NGOs (Non-governmental organizations) are Non-governmental, non-profit making and self governing, that help to reduce the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the societies.They pursue purpose for public interest.

    THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY:

    1. The organization i.e. NGO’s help educates those section of society which was left behind in the society since its inception and never enjoyed benefits that government has facilitated them with. Such as women’s education, STs, and SCs.

    2. NGO’s have given and are still giving their best in eliminating the gender inequality which has also been a practice since earlier times. Girls face many problems no right to education, forcefully making them marry, not letting them work outside the houses. Therefore, NGO’s try to eliminate this evil ideology of some societies.

    3. NGO’s Are the reason why women are not able to move out of the four walls of the houses and participate in politics, business, social activities.now women have witnessed a whole new world due to the efforts of NGO’s and academic institutions. We have seen increasement in the number of women workers. There are many foundations such as Agrani foundation, Eklavya, Sewa and Environmental Action Group etc. Day by day women are seeing new opportunities for themselves due to the help of NGO’s.

    4. The use of technology, level of production, a pattern of utilization is almost same all over the world whereas the world is destroying natural resources to achieve their goals and selfish reasons. That is why NGO’s take birth to keep eyes on such activities. There have been many health issues due to the overutilization of natural resources causing pollution which later cause health problems and calamities. In this case, NGO’s deserve an appreciation as they have done a lot to work for such causes.

    5. It’s not just that because of developmental processes environment has been affected but it also has moved people from their place of origin or birth not just that they are no even compensated and given other place to live. They are left homeless. Hence NGO’s play a significant role to provide them shelter and look after all the legal processes. Many projects are taking place such as the construction of houses, roadways, dams etc and compensate these people.

    6. NGO’s one of the most important task would be that they are helping and restoring the dignity of those who always have been ignored and never enjoyed those activities which other people did such as women facing gender inequality, untouchables discrimination, racial, religious discrimination in society.

  67. Oko nkem frankline says:

    Oko Nkem Frankline
    2017/243813
    Economics
    Question one:
    • The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment.
    • Informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector.
    Question Two:
    Obstacle of informal sector in Nigeria
    The following are the obstacles of the informal sector in Nigeria:

    • Poor enforcement and the non-participation of informal Entrepreneurs in decision-making.
    • Inadequacy of Technology, education, markets, land And physical infrastructure
    • limited Access to finance, and limited skills Development.
    •Institutional inadequacy
    Question three:
    Non-governmental organizations are commonly referred to as NGOs, they are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations, independent of governments and international governmental organizations. Example of non governmental organizations in Nigeria include Action Aid International,Africare,Family Health International etc.
    Role of NGOs
    These roles are
    1.Social development: NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HHDI.
    2.Sustainable community development: NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations.
    3.sustain- able development: NGOs have played a significant role in promoting sustainable development at the international level. NGOs are going beyond their primary focus on governments and starting to address large corporations.
    4. Sustainable consumption: NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption

  68. Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom says:

    Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom
    2017/249592
    Economics
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    the informal sector is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.

    *Low cost of goods and services to the public
    *They create necessary jobs
    *They create opportunities for women
    *They provide economic opportunities for the poor
    *Low cost labour
    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    Obstacles facing the informal sector
    *lack the potential for growth, trapping employees in menial jobs indefinitely.
    *long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions
    *low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction *vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women)
    lack of representation.
    *Lack of adequate funding

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    NGOs are defined as organizations that pursue a public interest agenda, rather than commercial interests

    Roles of NGOs

    *Social Development
    NGOs play an important role in global social development Work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN human development index (HDI) (n.d.).
    One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institutional independence and political neutrality.

    *Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at eaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of theirand can work with and strengthen local organizations.

    *Sustainable Development
    NGOs have played a significant role in promoting sustainable development at the international level. NGOs are going beyond their primary focus on governments and starting to address large corporations. In this vein, NGOs have focused attention on the social and environmental impacts of business activity, helped in part by advances in information and communications technology
    *Business Partnerships
    In the past, corporate philanthropy was the main driver for business NGOs collaboration. The new wave of collaboration is different. The present
    trend is toward strategic partnerships aimed to address internal operational
    issues and the external impacts of corporate activity. Within the partnerships, NGOs and trade unions are involved in decisions that impact core business practices As a result, CSR has evolved from what companies do with their profits to looking at how companies make those profits.

  69. Ayogu Uchechi Euphemia says:

    AYOGU UCHECHI EUPHEMIA
    2017/244738
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    WHAT IS INFORMAL SECTOR?
    The informal sector refers to those workers who are self employed, or who work for those who are self employed. People who earn a living through self employment in most cases are not on payrolls, and thus are not taxed. Many informal workers do their businesses in unprotected and unsecured places.
    WHAT IS NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO)?
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.
    The World Bank identifies two broad groups of NGOs:
    1.Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    2.Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy.1
    Some NGOs may fall under both categories simultaneously. Examples of NGOs include those that support human rig
    TYPES OF NON GOVERNMENTAL OGANIZATION
    1.INGO: An international NGO. For example, the Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe is comprised of more than 300 participating INGOs.2
    2.GONGO: This means government-organized NGO, often derogatory. Foreign Policy describes GONGOs as a government-backed NGOs set up to advocate on the behalf of a repressive regime in the international arena.3
    3.QUANGO: Chiefly a British term, often derogatory. A quango is a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization that relies on public funding. Its senior officials are appointed by the government. A Financial Times opinion piece writes that quangos are seen as useless and are often staffed by quangocrats.4
    4.ENGO: An environmental NGO, for example, Greenpeace or the World Wildlife Fund. Both groups operate internationally in addition to advocating for the environment. They are often simply referred to as NGOs. advocate for improved health or encourage political participationRoles of NGOs
    THE MAJOR ROLES OF NGOS IN THE SOCIETY
    1.Development and Operation of Infrastructure:Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
    2. Facilitating Communication:NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.
    NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people tot he government and downward from the government tot he people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.
    3.Technical Assistance and Training:Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    4. Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
    5. Advocacy for and with the Poor:In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.
    THE CONTRIBUTION OF INFORMAL SECTOR IN ECONOMIC GROWTH.
    A.Employment:
    The informal sector creates employment opportunities for its citizens. At independence, the
    informal sector in Nigeria accounted for less than 10% of the labour force. However, as time went on, with mass education, demand for formal employment increased rapidly against a backdrop of a gradually declining economy. The informal economy accounted for 30% of those employed in 2003, up from 23% in 19959. Two thirds (63%) of the people employed in the informal economy were in the urban areas. In 2011 the informal sector employed about 84%workers of those aged 15 years and above. Service and sales constituted thirtyseven percent of the informal sector employees. FinScope survey (2012) reported that 5.7 million people are working in the informal sector.

    B.Social
    From the social side it has often been overlooked that the informal sector keep citizens busy such that there would be less free time to commit crime thus reducing the crime rate of a country. Political backing can also be gained from the informal sector activities as such they are often tolerated or even encouraged.
    C.Lower prices of commodities
    As alluded earlier, informal activities take place in the backyard where rent is cheaper and cheap labour is used which usually result in lower costs such that lower prices are charged for their commodities. Generally, informal sector players have significantly low overheads, compared against the formal sector players. This is a benefit to the consumers since higher price charged in the formal sector reduces the consumer surplus.
    D.Low labour costs
    The low costs of labour emanate from the fact that most informal sector employees are relatives of the business owners and are usually paid low wages or not paid at all in some circumstances.
    MAJOR OBSTACLES OF INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA.
    Lack of Legal Protection and Clear Negotiating Counterparts
    Many informal workers do not have an employer – at least not an obvious one – with whom to negotiate. Also, they are outside the protective labour law framework with no clear markers against which to push for gains. Since collective bargaining is a staple of trade union activities, these factors create perceptual and practical challenges for traditional unions.
    Where employers do exist, they may treat informal workers harshly or ignore existing laws. Furthermore, existing regulations often impede, rather than assist, informal workers. This is the case, for example, for street vendors in urban spaces who may face harassment by authorities. Harassment or harsh working conditions can serve as an impetus for collective action – or can
    create a climate of fear that inhibits organizing, especially where workers can be dismissed and lose their livelihoods but have no recourse.

    Poverty and Vulnerability
    Many informal workers are poor and must work long hours – sometimes in multiple jobs – to survive, leaving them little time for organizing. Migrant workers may need to remain undetected because they are undocumented, making them particularly vulnerable to exploitation and harassment.
    Competition between workers – for example street vendors selling similar products, or taxi drivers in the same area – can reduce the inclination to work collectively. They may come together to take on particular challenges or oppose authorities in a crisis, but this unity of purpose may end when the issue is resolved. For collective action to be ongoing, workers must perceive an ongoing common interest.
    Diverse Workplaces
    Workplaces may be small, as with some garment workers, or may even be individual households, as is the case for domestic workers. Many informal workers are isolated (e.g. home-based workers and domestic workers), mobile (e.g. street vendors and street waste pickers) or far flung (e.g. farm workers, forest gatherers) workplaces. A single worker may have multiple workplaces and multiple “employers.” These factors all create further complexities for recruiting members, for negotiating better conditions, and for organizational structures and strategies.
    Governance and Leadership Issues
    In some sectors and in some countries, informal workers have traditionally organized in local associations. However, democratic structures – for example, compliance with formal rules, such as in a constitution, or processes for electing leaders – may not exist (Roever in Chen et al. 2007).
    Political or corrupt leadership may be an issue, and these leaders may resist joining with larger trade unions. It is also common for women to be excluded from leadership positions.
    Insufficient Resources
    Because many informal workers are poor – particularly true for women – they cannot afford dues, especially in times of economic or personal crisis. Organizations of informal workers often lack sufficient resources to cover the cost of staff, space and meetings.Where unions serve both formal and informal workers, they too may have insufficient financial resources, and informal workers may be viewed as a drain on these.

  70. Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom says:

    Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom
    2017/249592
    Economics
    In what way does the informal sector contribute to economic growth?
    The informal sector is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    Contributions
    *Low cost of goods and services to the public
    *They create necessary jobs
    *They create opportunities for women
    *They provide economic opportunities for the poor
    *Low cost labour
    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy
    Obstacles facing the informal sector
    *lack the potential for growth, trapping employees in menial jobs indefinitely.
    *long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions
    *low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction *vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women)
    lack of representation.
    *Lack of adequate funding

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    NGOs are defined as organizations that pursue a public interest agenda, rather than commercial interests

    Roles of NGOs

    *Social Development
    NGOs play an important role in global social development Work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN human development index (HDI).
    One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institutional independence and political neutrality.

    *Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at eaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of theirand can work with and strengthen local organizations.

    *Sustainable Development
    NGOs have played a significant role in promoting sustainable development at the international level. NGOs are going beyond their primary focus on governments and starting to address large corporations. In this vein, NGOs have focused attention on the social and environmental impacts of business activity, helped in part by advances in information and communications technology
    *Business Partnerships
    In the past, corporate philanthropy was the main driver for business NGOs collaboration. The new wave of collaboration is different. The present
    trend is toward strategic partnerships aimed to address internal operational
    issues and the external impacts of corporate activity. Within the partnerships, NGOs and trade unions are involved in decisions that impact core business practices As a result, CSR has evolved from what companies do with their profits to looking at how companies make those profits.

  71. Ezeoha Chidera Claire says:

    Ezeoha Chidera Claire
    2017/249507

    Some of the contributions of the informal economy to economic growth are as follows:
    1. Low cost labour
    2 . Low cost inputs
    3. Low cost goods and services to public
    4. Provides economic opportunities for the poor
    5. They create necessary jobs

    Some major obstacles that informal sector faces;
    1. Lack of adequate funding
    2. High job insecurities
    3. No access to basic protections and services
    4. Long working hours
    5. Inadequate social security regulation

    What are Non governmental organizations
    NGOs are groups and organizations that are free from government control and some are usually non profit oriented.
    Some of the roles of NGOs include;
    1. Social development
    2. Sustainable community development
    3. Sustainable development
    4. Sustainable consumption
    5. Business partnership

  72. Ogba ifeanyi favour says:

    Ogba ifeanyi Favour
    2017/243369
    Economics

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) has a great impact to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. In accordance to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for -65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need.Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient, and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy.Historically, stakeholder interventions in the informal sector have been focused on how to regulate businesses, and effectively integrate them into the formal economy. Limited emphasis has been given to identifying the drivers of growth in the various sub-sectors within, and the challenges experienced by participants.Policy interventions to support the sector must therefore be two-fold. Firstly, efforts should be made to create more formal jobs to draw workers out of the informal sector. Secondly, policies should be introduced to address identified challenges in the informal sector towards improving productivity and incomes of informal sector players.

  73. Ugochukwu Onyinyechi Marycynthia says:

    Name: Ugochukwu Onyinyechi Marycynthia
    Reg no: 2017/249580
    Department: Economics

    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.

    In many cases, unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP). However, Italy has included estimates of informal activity in their GDP calculations since 1987, which swells their GDP by an estimated 18% and in 2014, a number of European countries formally changed their GDP calculations to include prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%. The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.

    Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books”, and “working for cash”.
    Examples include food and flea markets, street vendors, laundry mats and the like, mostly in rural or informal areas. It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees.Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. Ways at which the informal sector can contribute to economic growth in Nigeria
    1. Lower interest rates – reduce the cost of borrowing and increase consumer spending and investment.
    2. Increased real wages – if nominal wages grow above inflation then consumers have more disposable to spend.
    3. Higher global growth – leading to increased export spending.

    Non- governmental organisation and their major roles in the society

    NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. NGOs are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights. NGOs are generally funded totally or partly by governments and they maintain their non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.

  74. Mgba Clara Chinecherem says:

    Name: Mgba Clara Chinecherem
    Reg no: 2017/249527
    Dept: Economics
    Course code and title: Development Economics II (Eco 362)

    1)In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    Impact of the Informal Economy on Economic Growth. There is a widespread assumption that the informal economy has low productivity and, therefore, contributes to low growth in countries (Levy 2007). However, the informal economy does contribute to growth, especially in developing countries with large informal economies …
    The most no-table of the current administration’s policies corroborate this. In the quest for economic diversification from oil, the government has given priority to solid minerals and agricultural sectors. The N-power scheme, which aims to reduce youth unemployment, has also largely involved the employment of graduates in formal activities. With regards to informal economic activities, the government plans to empower 100,000 artisans across the country. This is commendable, albeit with a potential marginal impact as the amount only represents 0.05% of total population and 0.12% of the country’s labor force. More attention is required.
    The first strategy that is worth considering is the development of informal skills amongst Nigeria’s working-age population. The government could create and sponsor well-equipped platforms that bring individuals who intend to learn skills and corresponding experts together. This should be at low costs in order to increase their attractiveness to prospective trainees.
    In addition to skill acquisition, workers in Nigeria’s informal economy have raised concerns over credit accessibility. New graduates from the would-be government skills development institutions are expected to be faced with the same challenge. These workers mostly require funds to acquire tools and equipment that are either fundamental to their operations and/or necessary for them to carry out their activities more easily.

    2)What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    1) lack of accessibility to credit facilities
    2) poor social amenities eg electricity
    3)it is expensive to run.
    4)Long harsh working hours.

    3)What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have played a major role in pushing for sustainable development at the international level. Campaigning groups have been key drivers of inter-governmental negotiations, ranging from the regulation of hazardous wastes to a global ban on land mines and the elimination of slavery.
    NGOs are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights.
    The presence of NGOs ensures
    depth and resilience in civil society
    expression to citizens’ voices
    enables them to take responsibility for how their society is performing
    allows them to talk to their government in organised ways.
    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  75. Ifetayo Kosi Anwoluwa says:

    Name: Ifetayo Kosi Anwoluwa
    Reg no: 2017/249343
    Department: Economics

    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. Our research shows unambiguously that the informal sector is an important source of employment and of paid employment with a growing propensity to employ. Informal enterprises provide livelihoods, work and income for more than 2.5 million workers and owner-operators.The informal sector consists of enterprises which are labour-intensive. Low-skilled labourers who are desperate enough to work for miserly wages in order to meet their subsistence requirements largely constitute the labour force of unorganised economic activities. The informal sector is a burden on the formal economy because of tax evasion that results in greater tax burden on the official sector; that is, a negative impact occurs in the form of less expenditure on public utilities, increased taxation, lower productivity and economic growth in the short run.Those working in the informal economy, and especially women, face many challenges, including low and fluctuating incomes, difficult working conditions, lack of legal protection, numerous legal and physical risks, and often low social standing. A job in the informal sector reduces poverty about as much as a job in the formal sector. In the aggregate, earnings from jobs in the informal sector play a small role in reducing national poverty rates, especially because there are relatively few informal sector jobs.

    What is the non governmental organisation and their major roles in the society?
    non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment. While “NGO” has various interpretations, the term is generally accepted to include non-profit, private organizations that operate outside of government control. Some NGOs rely primarily on volunteers, while others support a paid staff. The World Bank identifies two broad groups of NGOs:
    1. Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    2. Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy. Some NGOs may fall under both categories simultaneously. Examples of NGOs include those that support human rights, advocate for improved health or encourage political participation.
    How NGOs are Funded
    As non-profits, NGOs rely on a variety of sources for funding, including:
    1. membership dues
    2. private donations
    3. the sale of goods and services
    4. grants

  76. Obodo chisom jessica says:

    NAME: OBODO CHISOM JESSICA
    REG NO: 2017/249538
    EMAIL: chisom.obodo.249538@unn.edu.ng

    QUESTION 1:
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy. This represents about $240bn. 
    It contributes to economic growth by creating employment opportunities to the unemployed because at times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable which boosts income and ultimately alleviates poverty in the economy. it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates.
    It often also offers these goods in a manner more suited to the needs of customers (for example, individual items over pre-packed sizes, and in terms of preferences of taste, price and variety).

    QUESTION 2:
    The Nigerian Informal
    sector faces major challenges including inadequacy of technology,education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited
    access to finance,reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty, income inequality,limited skills development, low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction; inadequate social security regulation;difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination;vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);
    lack of representation.

    QUESTION 3:
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment. Contrary to common usage, the NGO title does not necessarily imply the organization works abroad; NGOs can be local, national, or international.
    NGOs play various roles which include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda, technical, legal and financial services to the poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision.

  77. Okagbue chisom says:

    OKAGBUE Chisom E
    2017/249552
    Economics
    Answer to question 1
    The informal economy represents all work by individuals or businesses which, by law or practice, is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements. Although the informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector, the sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low. Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector and as such, contribute to the GDP of the country

    Answer to question 2
    The major obstacles of the informal sector are; lack of social security, lack of proper infrastructure,insufficient capital base, basic sufficient tools or proper knowledge of the business, economic laws put in place by government etc.

    Answer to question 3

    NGOs are Non-governmental organizations set up purposely as a beneficial program for the less privileged and socially affected citizens of a country.
    It is a non-profit making organization which is organized on a local, national and international level. It is driven by people with a common interest to perform a variety of services and humanitarian function

    NGOs bring citizen concerns to the Government, monitor and advocate policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

    NGOs focus on numerous aspects that are indeed important to the citizens of a country. Such aspects include:

    human rights, legal support, promoting education, agricultural development, encouraging social responsibility, poverty alleviation, supporting human welfare, development of communities, health or environment, etc. NGOs are mostly set up to improve the lives of people by providing much-needed services free of charge. There are lots of NGOs in Nigeria with various activities that cannot be overlooked.

    Living in a country where many of its citizens are subjected to untold hardship, emotional trauma, poverty, etc. The presence of NGOs helps to bring the solution to such problems and ensuring that it is reduced to the minimum.

    There are many people out there who seek help which the Government cannot necessarily provide due to poor administration and the NGOs exist to ensure such help is provided to such distressed citizens.

    If you are interested in knowing the NGOs in Nigeria, this article is aimed at stating the NGOs in Nigeria.
    CLEEN Foundation
    This non-governmental organization was established to promote public safety, security and accessible justice through the strategies of empirical research, legislative advocacy, democratic programmes and publication in partnership with government, civil society and the private sector.

  78. NAME: IKE GODSWILL CHINEDU
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/249515
    EMAIL: ikegodswill050@gmail.com
    ANSWERS:
    The informal economy has contributed in several ways to the economic growth of the Nigerian economy and some the ways in which they have contributed includes;
    *The informal sector have assisted in the reduction of the poverty level of individual in the Nigerian economy. This have been done through the creation of employment opportunities that requires little of no formal skill by small and medium business enterprises.
    *The sector have also assisted in enabling flexibility in the cultural roles of women in Nigeria. As such women are given the chance to work and still fulfill their cultural and social gender rules, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    *The sector has also contributed to the Nigerian economy through the creation of a base within which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector.

    2. Although some advantages or benefits are being offered by the informal sector, such as employment opportunities and flexibility in some economies, it still faces some challenges in Nigeria and they include;
    *Low productivity of businesses in the informal sector
    *Reduced business revenues
    *Poor and/or bad governance
    *Business interruptions by both registered and unregistered agencies
    *Income inequalities

    3. NGOs are non-profit making organisations set up purposely as a beneficial program for the less privilege and socially affected citizens of a country. It is being driven by people with a common interest to perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions. Examples of non governmental organisations in Nigeria includes; Global Peace Development, Society for telemedicine and E-health in Nigeria etc.
    The roles of NGOs in the Nigerian society includes;
    *Most NGOs engage in sustainable community.
    *They also engage in social developmental activities.
    *NGOs work to promote socio-political change on a broad scale or most times very locally.
    *They assist in improving communities and promoting citizen or public participation in general affairs affecting people.
    *The major role of NGOs is to improve and enhance the life of the people by providing several different free of charge services to individuals in the society.

  79. Ogu Mercy Akudo says:

    Name: Ogu Mercy Akudo
    Reg no:2017/249545
    Department: Economics

    INFORMAL SECTOR AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN THE ECONOMY

    An informal economy or informal sector or grey economy is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    The informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1900s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.
    In many cases, unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP). However, Italy has included estimates of informal activity in their GDP calculations since 1987, which swells their GDP by an estimated 18% and in 2014, a number of European countries formally changed their GDP calculations to include prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%.nThe informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.

    The informal sector is largely characterized by several qualities: skills gained outside of a formal education, easy entry (meaning anyone who wishes to join the sector can find some sort of work which will result in cash earnings), a lack of stable employer-employee relationships,and a small scale of operations.Workers who participate in the informal economy are typically classified as employed. The type of work that makes up the informal economy is diverse, particularly in terms of capital invested, technology used, and income generated.

    The spectrum ranges from self-employment or unpaid family labor to street vendors, shoe shiners, and junk collectors.On the higher end of the spectrum are upper-tier informal activities such as small-scale service or manufacturing businesses, which have more limited entry. The upper-tier informal activities have higher set-up costs, which might include complicated licensing regulations, and irregular hours of operation. However, most workers in the informal sector, even those who are self-employed or wage workers, do not have access to secure work, benefits, welfare protection, or representation. These features differ from businesses and employees in the formal sector which have regular hours of operation, a regular location and other structured benefits.
    There are three views to explain the causes of informality. The first view argues that the informal sector is a reservoir of potentially productive entrepreneurs who are kept out of formality by high regulatory costs, most notably entry regulation. The second sees informal forms as “parasitic forms” which are productive enough to survive in the formal sector but choose to remain informal to earn higher profits from the cost advantages of not complying with taxes and regulations. The third argues that informality is a survival strategy for low-skill individuals, who are too unproductive to ever become formal.The remaining forms correspond to low-skill entrepreneurs who are too unproductive to ever become formal. I think that informal forms to a large extent are dependent on others and should be eradicated through tighter enforcement could produce positive effects on the economy.

    The most prevalent types of work in the informal economy are home-based workers and street vendors. Home-based workers are more numerous while street vendors are more visible. Combined, the two fields make up about 10–15% of the non-agricultural workforce in developing countries and over 5% of the workforce in developed countries.

    Some persons in the informal sector can be criticized , many workers engage in informal ventures by choice, for either economic or non-economic reasons. Economic motivations include the ability to evade taxes, the freedom to circumvent regulations and licensing requirements, and the capacity to maintain certain government benefits.A study of informal workers in Costa Rica illustrated other economic reasons for staying in the informal sector, as well as non-economic factors. First, they felt they would earn more money through their informal sector work than at a job in the formal economy. Second, even if workers made less money, working in the informal sector offered them more independence, the chance to select their own hours, the opportunity to work outside and near friends, etc. While jobs in the formal economy might bring more security and regularity, or even pay better, the combination of monetary and psychological rewards from working in the informal sector proves appealing for many workers.

    The informal sector was historically recognized as an opposition to the formal economy, meaning it included all income earning activities beyond legally regulated enterprises. However, this understanding is too inclusive and vague, and certain activities that could be included by that definition are not considered part of the informal economy. It can also be said that the informal sector does not include the crimes in the economy. While production or employment arrangements in the informal economy may not be strictly legal, the sector produces and distributes legal goods and services. The informal economy also does not include the reproductive or care economy, which is made up of unpaid domestic work and care activities. The informal economy is part of the market economy, meaning it produces goods and services for sale and profit. Unpaid domestic work and care activities do not contribute to that, and as a result, are not a part of the informal economy.

    Importance of informal sector

    ✓Providing employment:it helps provide employment to a lot of people. In developing countries Informal sector provides more employment than the formal sector.

    ✓Easiest way of doing business is that people who wish to join can easily find it or engage in it. For example a street fruit seller can easily start it’s business.

    ✓Very small initial investment:most of the informal sector activities require small initial investment.

    ✓it is unskilled work. The skills needed for this type of work are gained outside of formal education.

    ✓Wide range of activities: from cycle repairing to electronic repairing, plumbers, fruit or vegetable vendors, street food vendors, salesman, agricultural labour, barbers, cobblers etc.

    ✓ The Employee’s effort is directed towards achieving profit rather than satisfying irrelevant routines.

    ✓The focus on quality informal sector employee marketing done via their customers. So they always try to provide quality service or products to their customers. For instance,a woman that sells vegetables will try to obtain a permanent customer from the nearby residential area and her service and quality will be good to retain the customer.

    It is also a huge employer. It represents about three-quarters of non-agricultural employment.
    Today, the informal economy appears to be as important as ever to Africa (Nigeria) and its future development. But governments, and international organisations like the World Bank and ILO, do not like the informal economy.

    What are Non governmental organizations?
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a group of persons brought together in the form of a legal association to help others and which operates autonomously for a governmental authority, including an international one.There are two main criteria that defines an NGO are:It must be politically independent;
    Serve the public interest. other criteria are often associated with this,the non-profit nature of its work; financial independence

    Characteristics:

    The grouping together of private individuals with a non-profit project for the benefit of others.
    The legal form of non-profit association, according to national laws.
    The fact of being an autonomous space concerning the State or private powers. The State must not be at the origin of the creation of the NGO even if it may have links with the State. The same autonomy must exist about the private economy, the Church, sects or criminal groups.
    “Reference to values implying, at the same time as a freely consented commitment, the will to include associative action in a citizen dimension inserted in a democratic framework. “The NGO thus becomes one of the segments of what is called “civil society”.
    The transnational nature of the action: an action that is carried out in another country (other than the country of origin) where it seeks to defend human rights or to intervene for the protection of the environment and sustainable development.

    That is to say, the purpose of non governmental organizations is to work for the improvement, upliftment and development of society and the economy, human rights awareness, empowerment of women, etc.

    Benefits of Non-Governmental Organizations

    ✓Adaptation
    An NGO can easily adapt to local environmental conditions and thus provide personalized assistance. They also make it possible to test new techniques in a very targeted manner, for example. Programmes can also be easily integrated when it comes to providing benefits to the local population.

    ✓Speed of execution
    One of the advantages of an NGO is its flexibility and speed of action. Unlike governments, they are not hampered by bureaucratic red tape. They can mobilize the population for rapid action when a crisis breaks out in a given country. The example of Romania is a good illustration of how, in the early 1990s, a multitude of NGOs were set up in record time and many initiatives were taken in Switzerland to raise money and deliver aid to communities in Romania.

    ✓Advocacy.
    The possibility for non governmental organizations to favour development aid and serve as channels of information on projects carried out in developing countries and on the contribution of cooperation to the beneficiaries.

    ✓Non-governmental organizations can provide a means for people at the local level to communicate with those at the highest level of government administration; professional workers of non governmental organizations are not hindered by the same types of restrictions that a government position would impose on their work.

    ✓Trust
    Non governmental organizations are very effective in raising donations, especially from northern populations. They enjoy an excellent level of trust. They are generally perceived as transparent and this builds trust.
    Non governmental organizations exhibit a sense of closeness and mobilization.that is, it’s well supported by supporters and donors.

  80. Odo Chinedu 2017/251641 says:

    Odo Chinedu Ogugua
    2017/251641

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian
    economy, accounting for a significant
    portion of employment and national
    GDP. According to the IMF, the
    Nigerian informal sector accounted for
    ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. This has been recognised as the most traditional of the various definitions. This is a definition based on
    production units. By this definition, the informal sector or economy consists of units engaged in the
    production of goods and services with the primary objective of generating employment and incomes to
    the persons involved. These units typically operate at a low level of organisation, with little or no
    division between labour and capital as factors of production and on a small scale.(International
    Conference of Labour Statisticians, 1993).

    CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA

    -The informal economy makes a real contribution to economic growth. Although individual incomes of informal workers are often low, cumulatively informal activities contribute
    significantly to gross domestic product.
    – At the household level, informal activities are often what sustains families living in poorer parts of cities and towns.
    • The informal economy provides low-cost labour, inputs, goods, and services to both formal
    and informal enterprises, as well as low-cost goods and services to the public, especially the
    poorer sections.
    • Accurately measuring the contribution of the informal economy will require rethinking
    definitions and measures of productivity to include both direct and indirect contributions.

    CHALLENGES FACING THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.

    Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.

    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.

    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.

    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  81. Nnadi Olivia ijeoma says:

    Nnadi Olivia ijeoma
    Education economics
    2016/232856
    ijeoma.nnadi.232856@unn.edu.ng

    The informal sector is described as the sum total of economic activities that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed not represented in a county’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from farming, mining, small scale business, construction, etc. This sector consist of enterprises which are labor intensive. Low skilled laborers who are desperate for resources to meet their needs largely constitute the labor force of unorganized economic activities.
    The informal sector contributes to the economy by enabling the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. This sector acts as a safety net for the formal economy. An enable, well supported and dynamic informal sector can be potent instruction for generating more inclusive growth. This sector has a growing propensity to employ.

    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ROLE IN RHE SOCIETY

    NGOs in Nigeria are into various aspects of community development such as; community mobilization, environmental, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of health education and fight against child labor and human trafficking.
    They activities are not limited to environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They also work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or locally.
    NGOs play a critical role in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation and creating awareness for necessary skills and information needed for growth and development.

  82. Oforka Blessing Oluchi (2017/243365) says:

    Name: Oforka Blessing Oluchi
    Reg. No: 2017/243365
    Department: Economics
    Answer:

    Question 1
    The informal sector has contributed significantly to the Nigerian economy. It accounts for a major portion of employment and income. This informal sector offers job creation, income creation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of the poor individuals by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services for purchase.

    Question 2
    Obstacles associated in the informal sector; low productivity, lack of / inadequate technology, low education/training, poor governance, income inequality, land, market etc. Also the informal sector is often overlooked in the economy due to its informality.

    Question 3
    Nongovernmental organizations are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence. Many NGOs are active in humanitarian work. They are self-governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need. Their major roles include; social development, sustainable community development, promotion of women and child right, fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

  83. The Governments and NGOs assistant in economic development both domestically and internationally by supporting programs that help to lead economic development through activities such as job training, direct economic assistance, or other programs that seek to program economic development.

    NGOs perform a variety of functions. They provide information and technical expertise to governments and international organizations (such as specialized agencies of the UN) on various international issues, often supplying local information unavailable to governments.
    Thank you sir

    • Tony Orji says:

      Please be notified that you have not done this assignment so your score will be zero.

      • Nnadi Chinwe Monica says:

        Nnadi Chinwe Monica
        2017/241532
        Education Economics
        chinwe.nnadi.241532@unn.edu.ng

        1. The contributions of informal sector to Nigerian economy
        The informal sector was historically recognized as an opposition to the formal economy, tge Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. The informal sector is essential for economic growth. It is a key provider of jobs and income in emerging economies. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc.
        The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.
        The capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services, informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

        2. The obstacles faced by the informal sector in Nigeria
        The Nigerian Informal sector faces a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
        While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

        3. Non-governmental Organisation (NGO) and their major roles in the society
        Non-governmental Organisation (NGO) is any non-profit, non-governmental, self governing, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level. Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.
        A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

        Major roles of NGOs

        Depending on their structure and goals, NGOs can fill many roles. Typically, they’re divided into either operational or advocacy NGOs, but many serve both functions. Here are some examples of what non-governmental organizations focus on:

        Advocating for the unheard:-
        Advocacy is raising awareness of issues and bringing them into the public view. Most people in the world don’t have a big platform of their own to draw attention to things like human rights violations. NGOs provide a platform by reporting on the issues, sharing personal stories, and educating the public. The goal is to promote and trigger action. The more people know about an issue, the more likely it is that something is done about it. Amnesty International is a great example of this. They’re considered the world’s largest grassroots human rights organization. Through actions like research campaigns, petitions, and letter-writing, Amnesty shines a spotlight on human rights issues.

        Researching and monitoring human rights abuses:-
        Research and monitoring are essential tasks for NGOs. Using data, organizations can track and analyze local, national, or global patterns of oppression. Human Rights Watch and the Southern Poverty Law Center are two examples of NGOs with a prominent research-and-monitoring role. HRW, founded in 1978, is the largest human rights organization based in the United States. They conduct fact-finding missions and publish research reports on human rights violations around the world. Since 1990, the Southern Poverty Law Center has published an annual census of hate groups in the US.

        Promoting sustainable development:-
        To address issues like poverty, equality, and climate change, sustainable development is crucial. In 2015, the UN adopted a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals at the Sustainable Development Summit. In the years since, NGOs have emerged as a powerful leader in this area. The sustainable development field is diverse. NGOs work on investigating alternative energy sources, supporting local economic projects, and promoting gender equality.

        Providing aid to those suffering:-
        NGOs can also take on humanitarian, relief-oriented roles. These organizations focus on bringing aid to those affected by armed conflict, natural disasters, famines, and more. This includes bringing water, food, medicine, clothing, and other necessities. The International Committee of the Red Cross is a famous example. It was founded in 1863 and is based in Geneva. Its mandate is to protect victims of internal and international armed conflicts, including prisoners, refugees, and civilians.

        Working towards social justice:-
        Social justice is only achieved when societies uphold human rights, access, participation, and equity. In the past, the term ”social justice” mostly referred to economics and wealth. The definition has since expanded. Social justice now encompasses fairness in every sector of society, such as housing, health, and employment. All NGOs are invested in social justice in some way, whether they’re focused on healthcare access, freedom of expression, gender equality, racial equality

  84. Onah peace says:

    ONAH PEACE
    2017/243367
    ECONOMICS

    WAYS THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY
    The Nigerian Informal Sector is a large significant impact on the economy. The informal sector includes all economic activities which are hidden from official authorities for monetary, regulatory, and institutional reasons. Monetary reasons include avoiding paying taxes and all social security contributions, regulatory reasons include avoiding governmental bureaucracy or the burden of regulatory framework, while institutional reasons include corruption law, the quality of political institutions and weak rule of law. Examples of informal sector are hawkers, street kiosk or traders, hair dressers etc. The sector currently accounts for most employment and source of sustainace in our country, as Nigeria is bedeviled by unemployment and poverty but despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked. It is said to increase significantly during recession and very flexible to accommodate any business as the poor source for their living during recession. Inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered.
    CHALLENGES OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR
    In Nigeria, the Bank of Industry (BoI) has declared the informal sector an important economic factor that contributed to about 65% of the of thecountry’s GDP in 2017. Meaning it is a key player in the Nigerian economy but it is often overlooked.
    They lack access to credit facilities that will help them boost the businesses or create jobs for them. Most of them lack capital to start business, because they are majorly those having a low standard of living.
    the informal sector has now become a haven fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from the economy , bad reputation of the country , creates unfair competition and market, reduces safety standards etc.
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOS)
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmentaland non profit making that set to assist individuals with life sustaining facilities in the society. NGOs are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of the NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights.
    They are involved in:
    1)pleading for social cause without seeking any gains in.
    2)They provide financial and material assistance .
    3)They help the public to develop skills and develop them self all round.
    4)NGOs also provide healthcare facilities which help those who don’t have access to it, and at a cheaper rate.
    5) It spurs development and economic growth as the supporters of NGO work for the betterment of the economy.
    6) NGOs create awareness of specific programs . They mainly emphasis on issues at national as well as international level for addressing the need of people in the country.

  85. Benson Jonathan Onyedikachi says:

    Benson Jonathan Onyedikachi
    2017/243814
    BensonJonathan@yahoo.com.
    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal economy is described as the sum total of economic activity that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing.
    The informal economy to a large extent acts as a safety net for individuals who Cannot find formal jobs thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. The informal economy also helps to reduce the crime levels in the economy such as armed robbery, theft, kidnappings etc by engaging these individuals in menial jobs that they can engage in to earn a living.The informal sector Lowers prices of commodities. informal activities take place in the backyard where rent is cheaper and cheap labour is used which usually result in lower costs such that lower prices are charged for their commodities. This is a benefit to the consumers since higher price charged in the formal sector reduces the consumer surplus.
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    1. long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions;
    2. low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    3. inadequate social security regulation;
    4. difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination;
    5. vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);
    6. lack of representation.
    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that was not founded by a state and, therefore, is typically independent of governments.
    Roles of Non governmental organization include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They help to improve the life of the people by providing different services free of charge. Such services might include humanitarian aid in the form of providing food to the less privileged, Providing access to clean water, sanitation, housing, quality education etc. NGO’s ensure that everyone has accessible healthcare, legal support, human rights activism by providing information about human rights to the public and fighting human rights violations in courts and on the streets. NGO’s provide data-driven support to government bodies, and also empower local communities to move towards a sustainable form of living. NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations.

  86. NWOBODO IFEANYICHUKWU VICTOR says:

    NAME: NWOBODO IFEANYICHUKWU VICTOR
    2017/249535
    ECONOMICS
    QUESTION 1
    The informal sector constitute a large percentage of the Nigerian GDP. It is a good contributor as it is a form of substitute employment to the already stretched formal sector. It is also a less capital intensive investment option. It stands as a source of employment to less skilled labor, unskilled labour and skilled labour enable to find employment.

    Question 2
    Restricted access to credit
    Insecurities
    Lack of confidence in locally produced goods
    Lack of basic infrastructural facilities and various aids to trade
    Political Instability

    Question 3
    NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) are non profit oriented organizations that has no direct link to the government.
    They are not profit oriented and aim at social welfare development.
    They involve in projects that develop a society
    They act as pressure groups and are usually involved in social activism

  87. IROEGBU BLESSING ONYINYECHI says:

    IROEGBU BLESSING O.
    2017/249518
    ECONOMICS

    The informal sector in the economy is the sector in which economic activities are not registered by the government. It comprises of traders, subsistence farmers, SMEs, service providers such as: hairdressers, barbers, tailors etc.
    The importance of the informal sector are limited to the following;
    Some of the obstacles the informal sector faces includes;
    1. Lack start up capital: Some of these informal workers tend not to have startup capital for their businesses. This is a major problem faced by many in the sector as they want to start a business but do not have the capital and can not access it from the government.
    2. Lack of proper regulations from the government which keeps the sector relegated to the background and most of it’s economic activities not accounted for despite it’s major contribute to economic growth.
    3. Poor knowledge of modern technology can impede efficiency in production and utilization of resources.
    4. Income generation: the informal sector has helped individuals in different ways to generate income from their different engagement of one thing or the other, especially the rural areas. People in the rural areas who might not be opportune for white collar jobs are engaged in one thing or the other like; knitting of mat, making of shoes, hawking different things on the street so as to generate income used in feeding the family.

    THE NGOs
    The NGOs are Non-governmental organizations whose activities are neither influenced nor controlled by the government. It can also be said to be the coming together of individuals who share common goals for the benefit of the masses and are regarded as not for profit organization. It is purely voluntary and nonprofit oriented.
    Some of the roles of the NGOs are;
    1. They are engaged in a number of community development projects such as health education, sanitation awareness, child rights law, fight against child or forced labour, etc.
    2. They act as pressure groups to influence government decisions on issues affecting the majority.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination
    5. They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level.

    In summary of the NGOs, they are here to empower people(both financially and otherwise) to be able to stand for themselves and overcome common oppression by the masses.

  88. EMEGBUE BENJAMIN says:

    EMEGBUE BENJAMIN
    2017/241452
    ECONOMICS
    Question 1
    The informal economy involves economic activities embark upon by organizations and individuals, that are not subject to full government bureaucratic regulatory framework. Informal sector are all businesses that are not registered by thestates but produce at least some of their goods and serv6ices for sale, family use or barter, including all smallholder farmers who live just above subsistence levels.
    It accounts for 60% of Nigerian GDP
    And it serves as a form of employment
    It also dominated by women and less skilled labor.
    It is free from redtapism

    Question 2
    Obstacles in informal sector is attributable to inadequate access to property, education, capital, public services, social protection and infrastructure, skill deficit, gender-based discrimination and occupational segmentation in the labour market.

    Question 3
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level.it is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities (that is to say, it was not established for profit-making).

    It’s functions includes:
    human rights
    environment or health
    develop communities
    encourage social responsibility
    Micro finance
    promote education
    agricultural development
    supporting human welfare
    Support the poor and so on.

  89. Onah peace says:

    ONAH PEACE
    2017/243367
    ECONOMICS

    WAYS THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY
    The Nigerian Informal Sector has a large significant impact on the economy. The informal sector includes all economic activities which are hidden from official authorities for monetary, regulatory, and institutional reasons. Monetary reasons include avoiding paying taxes and all social security contributions, regulatory reasons include avoiding governmental bureaucracy or the burden of regulatory framework, while institutional reasons include corruption law, the quality of political institutions and weak rule of law. Examples of informal sector are hawkers, street kiosk or traders, hair dressers etc. The sector currently accounts for most employment and source of sustainace in our country, as Nigeria is bedeviled by unemployment and poverty but despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked. It is said to increase significantly during recession and very flexible to accommodate any business as the poor source for their living during recession. Inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered.
    CHALLENGES OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR
    In Nigeria, the Bank of Industry (BoI) has declared the informal sector an important economic factor that contributed to about 65% of the of thecountry’s GDP in 2017. Meaning it is a key player in the Nigerian economy but it is often overlooked.
    They lack access to credit facilities that will help them boost the businesses or create jobs for them. Most of them lack capital to start business, because they are majorly those having a low standard of living.
    the informal sector has now become a haven fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from the economy , bad reputation of the country , creates unfair competition and market, reduces safety standards etc.
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOS)
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmentaland non profit making that set to assist individuals with life sustaining facilities in the society. NGOs are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of the NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights.
    They are involved in:
    1)pleading for social cause without seeking any gains in.
    2)They provide financial and material assistance .
    3)They help the public to develop skills and develop them self all round.
    4)NGOs also provide healthcare facilities which help those who don’t have access to it, and at a cheaper rate.
    5) It spurs development and economic growth as the supporters of NGO work for the betterment of the economy.
    6) NGOs create awareness of specific programs . They mainly emphasis on issues at national as well as international level for addressing the need of people in the country.

  90. Ogbonna Chika Philip says:

    Ogbonna Chika Philip
    2017/242029
    Education economic
    Chika.ogbonna.242029@unn.edu.ng

    A.
    The informal economy contributes to economic growth in Nigeria through the following ways.

    1. Increase the per capita income of the households economic agent
    2. Stimulate economic activities
    3. Adds to the GDP of the country
    4. Stimulate production activities at the local society levels
    5. Generate revenue for the government
    6. Creates employment for the unskilled and semi skilled labour force.

    B
    Major obstacles faced by the s informal economy
    1. Unfriendly businesses environment
    2. Unfavourable government policies
    3. Lack of skill and knowledge
    4. Asymmetric information problem between the informal economy agents and the government assisting agents
    5. Insecurity
    Poor infrastructure- power, transport, communication etc

    C
    Non governmental organization are those organization which are separate in existence from the government in carrying out its responsibilities. That is they operate with or without government intervention

    There major role are.
    1. Seek for justice and peace
    2. Fill the gaps missing in the society social and political affairs
    3. Speak for the victimized
    4. Fight social injustice and promote good governance

  91. OKOYECHUKWU CHIOMA AUGUSTINA. says:

    NAME: OKOYECHUKWU CHIOMA AUGUSTINA
    REG NO: 2017/244837
    DEPT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    Email: chioma.okoyechukwu.244837@unn.edu.ng

    1. WAYS INFORMAL SECTOR AFFECT THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy.3 This represents about $240bn.

    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.

    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.
    2.OBSTACLES OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA
    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.

    3. THE NGO’s AND THEIR ROLES IN NIGERIA
    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in Article 71 in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence (although they may receive government funding).

    As one can tell from the basic definition above, the difference between nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and NGOs is slim. However, the term “NGO” is not typically applied to U.S.-based nonprofit organizations. Generally, the NGO label is given to organizations operating on an international level although some countries classify their own civil society groups as NGOs.

    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.
    ROLES OF THE NGOs
    Among the wide variety of roles that NGOs play, the following six can be identified as important, at the risk of generalization:
    Development and Operation of Infrastructure:
    Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.
    Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:
    NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
    Facilitating Communication:
    NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.
    NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people tot he government and downward from the government tot he people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.
    Technical Assistance and Training:
    Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:
    Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
    Advocacy for and with the Poor:
    In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

  92. Ogbodo peace chinenyenwa says:

    Question 1
    Contributions of the informal economy to the Nigeria economy
    The informal economy which represents the informal sector as earlier treated, is not backed up by the government of the state. The sector contributes mainly to the employment and income generation in the country. In developing countrys, formation of informal sectors will go a long way job creation because when private owned industries are established it will lead to increased employment and reduction of unemployment. This contribution is significant because the formal sector cannot possibly provide employment for every individual in the country.

    Question 2
    Obstacles faced by the informal sector in Nigeria economy
    One of the major obstacles faced by the informal sector is insecurity. Since government ront have a say in the activities that take place in the informal sector, they tend to abandon them if they encounter any form of insecurity issue. There are some other obstacles such as lack of required skills, inequality in income distribution and so on.

    Question 3
    Non governmental organization and their role in the society
    Non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit oriented organization. NGOs, may sometimes be called civil societies, since they are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a socio-political goal. The NGOs as the name implies is not a government owned organization. NGOs are known for their selfless roles which include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the less previledged, or representing a corporate agenda, technical, legal and financial services to the poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision in the community at large.

  93. Ogbodo peace chinenyenwa says:

    Ogbodo peace chinenyenwa
    2017/249543
    nenyepeace2010@gmail.com

    Question 1
    Contributions of the informal economy to the Nigeria economy
    The informal economy which represents the informal sector as earlier treated, is not backed up by the government of the state. The sector contributes mainly to the employment and income generation in the country. In developing countrys, formation of informal sectors will go a long way job creation because when private owned industries are established it will lead to increased employment and reduction of unemployment. This contribution is significant because the formal sector cannot possibly provide employment for every individual in the country.

    Question 2
    Obstacles faced by the informal sector in Nigeria economy
    One of the major obstacles faced by the informal sector is insecurity. Since government ront have a say in the activities that take place in the informal sector, they tend to abandon them if they encounter any form of insecurity issue. There are some other obstacles such as lack of required skills, inequality in income distribution and so on.

    Question 3
    Non governmental organization and their role in the society
    Non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit oriented organization. NGOs, may sometimes be called civil societies, since they are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a socio-political goal. The NGOs as the name implies is not a government owned organization. NGOs are known for their selfless roles which include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the less previledged, or representing a corporate agenda, technical, legal and financial services to the poor, or work in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and
    infrastructural provision in the community at large.

  94. Okororie Emmanuel Kelechi says:

    Okororie Emmanuel Kelechi
    2017/242947
    Economics (Major)

    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy.3 This represents about $240bn.

    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.

    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.
    Major obstacles facing the informal sector in Nigeria are as follows:
    Financial constraints.

    Poor management and low entrepreneurial skill.

    Lack of critical Infrastructures.

    Poor marketing.

    Lack of technical know how.

    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in Article 71 in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence (although they may receive government funding).
    Among the wide variety of roles that NGOs play, the following six can be identified as important, at the risk of generalization:
    Development and Operation of Infrastructure:
    Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.
    Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:
    NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.
    Facilitating Communication:
    NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.
    NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people tot he government and downward from the government tot he people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.

    Technical Assistance and Training:
    Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:
    Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.
    Advocacy for and with the Poor:
    In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators

  95. Francis Chibuezem David says:

    Name: Francis Chibuezem David
    Reg. No: 2017/241445
    Email- francischibuezem247@gmail.com

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal economy contributes to the economic growth of Nigeria in the following ways;
    1. Providing self-employment- It accommodates a large number of Nigerians through productive outlets who preferred to be self-employed, thus, contributing to the Nigerian economy in terms of employment.
    2. It increases output; For example, the informal economy in Nigeria contributes 57.9% to Nigerian GDP in 2013, while the formal sector compliments it with 42.1%. Furthermore, the informal sector in Nigeria offers various outlets for professional entrepreneurs from the medium and large scale enterprises who desired to be self-employed using minimal capital resources. It can now be appreciated that the informal sector output is potential for the development of the Nigerian economy.
    3. It also supplements the formal economy.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    The informal sector is entangled with a lot of obstacles despite the contribution of the sector to the development of some countries’ economies.
    (i) Lack of access to credit facilities: Most of the informal workers lack access to credit facilities, the introduction of micro-finance banks in Nigeria in 2005 by the federal government did not solve the issue of informal workers accessing credit facilities this is because many of them do not have the collaterals to secure loans from the micro-finance banks. This could be attributed to the high rate of illiteracy among workers in the informal sector.
    (ii) Unsafe working Conditions: The informal sector is associated with poor working conditions, the informal economy has very low safety standard, poor environment and weak health care which generally leads to poor hygiene. The environment they work is precarious in nature since most of them who work in the factories are exposed to dangerous chemicals.Many of them that feel sick owing to the precarious condition of their jobs and they always patronize local herbal sellers for drugs because they do not have enough income to buy orthodox drugs which they consider very expensive.
    (iii) Harassment by public authorities: Vendors always have a rough time with the officials from the local governments who always harass them (the vendors) if they feel that the vendors are displaying their wares along the roadsides thereby obstructing traffic on the roads, or disobeying one rule or the other like during yhe covid 19 period, these vendors were really harassed
    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”.
    The major roles of NGOs include:
    1. Social Development: NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI).
    2. Sustainable Community Development: NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community devel￾opment. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition, such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable develop￾ment
    3. Sustainable Consumption : NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption.

  96. OKON BLESSING A. says:

    NAME: OKON BLESSING ANIEFIOK
    REG. 2017/243366
    ECONOMICS

    IN WHAT WAYS DOES INFORMAL SECTOR ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMY GROWTH IN NIGERIA
    The first strategy that is worth considering is the development of informal skills amongst Nigeria’s working-age population. The government could create and sponsor well-equipped platforms that bring individuals who intend to learn skills and corresponding experts together. This should be at low costs in order to increase their attractiveness to prospective trainees.
    In addition to skill acquisition, workers in Nigeria’s informal economy have raised concerns over credit accessibility. New graduates from the would-be government skills development institutions are expected to be faced with the same challenge. These workers mostly require funds to acquire tools and equipment that are either fundamental to their operations and/or necessary for them to carry out their activities more easily. This highlights the need for the government to give low interest loans in this space. A grant might even be more effective in reducing poverty, as it has the ad-vantage of taking off the burden of repayment. If this were the case it would allow workers to maximize their profits and further ease their escape from the poverty trap.
    Furthermore, informal employees in Nigeria generally require electricity for their operations, al-though it varies across different segments. For instance, the electricity requirements are huge in areas such as laundry services, hairdressing and printing, while it is moderate for photography and catering for instance. Activities such as transport services generally have marginal electricity demand. Given the poor condition of power supply in the country, most of those who fall in the category of high users resort to generators.
    This is found to be relatively expensive and translates to a higher cost of production. Addressing power infrastructure challenges demands huge capital requirements and takes a long time to materialize. However, a short term focus on maximizing gas availability would be a good start. Nigeria’s average electricity output per day of about 3,500MW/hour has been significantly below installed capacity of about 7,500MW, while gas unavailability accounts for approximately 45% of total generation constraints.
    Maximizing gas availability could result in significant benefits, not just for the informal economy, but Nigeria as a whole. In the meantime, the government could focus on securing an adequate supply of gas to power stations. This could draw actual power output closer to its potential pending the time the country sees other significant investments that could raise capacity.

    CHALLENGES OF INFORMAL SECTOR
    Poor condition of power (electricity)

    WHAT ARE THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY?
    The term NGO stands for nongovernmental organization, and it includes a variety of organizations such as “voluntary organizations,” “civil society organizations,” and “ not for profit organization” The term NGO describes a range of groups and organizations from watchdog activist groups and aid agencies to development and policy organizations. In other words, NGOs are defined as organizations that pursue a public interest agenda, rather than commercial interests.
    Nigeria is predominantly a rural economy. If development is to take place and become self-sustaining, it must therefore, emphasis more on rural transformation. The core problems of widespread poverty, growing inequality, rapid population growth and rising unemployment all find their origins in the stagnation and too often retrogression of economic life in rural areas. Furthermore, most of the rural people are poor and disadvantaged. Their sufferings stem not only from low income but also from illiteracy, ill-health, ignorance and various kinds of deprivations. It is universally acknowledged that rural areas are very important to a nation. They serve as the base for the production of food and fiber. They are also the major sources of capital formation for a country and a principal market for domestic manufactures, [1]. In general terms, the rural areas engage in primary activities that form the foundation of any economic development. Yet, despite the importance of the rural areas, they have been neglected for long. Usually, there is absence of infrastructures like (water, electricity supply and motorable roads) which improve quality of life. Indeed, the ongoing neglect of rural areas continues to widen the gap between the rural and urban areas regarding the levels of social and economic opportunities, physical development and available infrastructural services.

    Roles of NGOs
    Social Development
    Sustainable Community Development
    Sustainable Development
    Sustainable Consumption, etc

  97. Idoko Patience Uchenna. Reg. No. 2017/241111 says:

    IDOKO PATIENCE UCHENNA
    Education Economics
    2017/241111
    uchennapatience50@gmail.com
    Question 1 In what ways does informal sector contribute to Economic growth in Nigeria
    expression “informal economy” encompasses a huge diversity of situations and phenomena. Indeed, the informal economy manifests itself in a variety of forms across and within economies. Formalization processes and measures aiming to facilitate transitions to formality need to be tailored to specific circumstances faced by different countries and categories of economic units or workers.
    Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.

    In many cases, unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP).[3] However, Italy has included estimates of informal activity in their GDP calculations since 1987, which swells their GDP by an estimated 18% and in 2014, a number of European countries formally changed their GDP calculations to include prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%.[7] The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.

    Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books”, and “working for cash”.

    Questions 2 What are the major obstacle informal sector is facing in Nigeria Economy
    The informal sector — labor and business that is hidden from monetary, regulatory, and institutional authorities — accounts for about a third of GDP and 70 percent of employment (of which self-employment is more than a half) in emerging market and developing economies. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    Addressing the challenge of pervasive informality will require comprehensive policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Initiatives to boost long-term development might include measures aimed at reducing regulatory and tax burdens, expanding access to finance, improving education and other public services, and strengthening public revenue frameworks.

    One-half of the world’s informal output and 95 percent of its informal employment is in emerging market and developing economies. Both informal output and employment have declined since 1990, particularly in countries with higher output growth, rapid physical capital accumulation, and larger improvements in governance and business climates.

    The informal economy tends to employ lower-skilled and less productive workers. As a result, workers in the formal economy earn, on average, about 19 percent more than workers in the informal economy.

    The average informal firm in emerging market and developing economies is only one-quarter as productive as the average firm operating in the formal sector. This is only in part explained by informal firm characteristics such as their younger age, less experience, and smaller size. Moreover, firms in the formal sector that face informal competition are, on average, only three-quarters as productive as those that do not. Better business climates can mitigate some of these productivity differentials.
    Addressing informality requires well-coordinated policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Policy changes that could affect vulnerable groups can be balanced by stronger safety nets, greater labor and product market flexibility, and better access to resources for informal firms. In addition, policies to spur economic development in general can help reduce informality. Specific measures include streamlining of tax codes and enhanced enforcement of revenue collection; easing firm and labor regulations to create a level playing field for both formal and informal participants; as well as greater access to finance and public services to help increase productivity in the informal sector.,

    Questions 3 What are the Non governmental organization and their roles in society
    NGO
    A non-profit making, voluntary, service-oriented/development oriented organization, either for the benefit of members (a grassroots organization) or of other members of the population (an agency).
    It is an organization of private individuals who belive in certain basic social principles and who structure their activities to bring about development to communities that they are servicing.
    THEIR ROLE
    As one can tell from the basic definition above, the difference between nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and NGOs is slim. However, the term “NGO” is not typically applied to U.S.-based nonprofit organizations. Generally, the NGO label is given to organizations operating on an international level although some countries classify their own civil society groups as NGOs.

    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  98. OBODIKE LOVETH OGADIMMA says:

    AME: OBODIKE LOVETH OGADIMMA
    REG:NO 2017/249537
    ECO: 362

    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA?
    The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries. Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need.
    However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered. Consequently efforts must be made in Considering the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of self-employment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian

    WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA’S ECONOMY?
    1 lack of participation of the stakeholders who hardly had any influence and control over development. 

    2.financial constraint
    As deduced from the definition of a non governmental organization, it is founded by a group of persons voluntarily giving their money, time, effort and resources to achieve a common goal, however these organizations may also be constrained by limited funds or resources which limits the extent to which their program can go, at times without some form of external support ,some of their projects are left either incomplete or totally abandoned.
    3. Education and university systems
    Education exposes the mind and makes one open to other ideas and more accepting of development programs.

    WHAT ARE THE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY?
    Organisation  which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations .NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens. According to NGO.”[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.
    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  99. Mba Grace Ijeoma Economics 2017/249524 says:

    WAYS THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
    1). The informal sector act as a safety net for the formal economy thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own business boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    2). The informal sector offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    3). The informal economy offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    4). The informal economy plays a significant role in the economy by reducing poverty and inequality.

    MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA’S ECONOMY
    1). Low productivity
    2). Poor governance
    3). Excessive regulations
    4). Reduced tax revenues
    5). Poverty
    6). Low level of education

    THE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY

    Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society.
    Their roles includes:
    1). Community mobilization 2). Environment, health and sanitation awareness creation 3). Promotion of child’s rights law 4).Promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education 5). Fight against child labour and human trafficking 6). Mobiliser of local resources and initiative 7). Catalyst enabler and innovator 8). Builder of self reliant sustainable society 9). Mediator of people and government 10). Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes 11). NGOs around the world dedicate their efforts to protecting human rights and ending human rights abuses.

  100. MGBADA OGOCHUKWU EMELDA says:

    NAME MGBADA OGOCHUKWU EMELDA
    REG NO: 2017/245040
    DEPARTMENT ECONOMICS
    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
    In Nigeria, the informal sector, classified into micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), makes up 50% of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), making it the major source of economic growth, productivity, and competitiveness
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees.
    This lack of formality also means that little is known of the ‘shadow’ economy and, as such, it is prone to be overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities.
    Yet this ‘formal invisibility’ belies its true significance. According to Statistics SA, the informal sector accounted for 5.2% of South Africa’s GDP in 2015 and employed 2 641 000 individuals (17% of all employed) in 2016. Other estimates place it as high as 15% to 18% of GDP.
    The informal ‘muti’ market is estimated to be worth between R3 and R6 billion, while there are about 120 000 Spaza shops contributing between R100 and R200 billion per year. The township fast-food market alone is worth an estimated R80 billion per year.
    It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    What are the challenges of the informal economy?
    While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.
    • long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions;
    • low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    • inadequate social security regulation;
    what are non-governmental organizations
    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), “[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
    The following are the List of NGOs in Nigeria:
    • Old Peoples Support International.
    • Total Care Unit.
    • Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation.
    • Action Aid for the Unemployed.
    • Global Peace Development.
    • Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria.
    • Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives.
    • Rural Urban Development.
    Roles of non-governmental organizations in society
    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.

  101. UGWOKE EMMANUEL IFEANYI says:

    Ugwoke Emmanuel Ifeanyi
    2017/242426
    ECONOMICS

    Meaning of Informal Economy:
    The informal economy is described as the sum total of economic activity that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing.

    Contribution of the informal economy to economic growth in Nigeria
    The value of the informal economy
    It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    It often also offers these goods in a manner more suited to the needs of customers (for example, individual items over pre-packed sizes, and in terms of preferences of taste, price and variety).
    For example, Parmalat used the Spaza shop network to promote and sell its individually wrapped cheese products, which now contributes more that R1 billion to its revenue.
    The informal sector sources most of its goods from the formal economy, pays rent to landlords, and is clearly an important participant in the value chains of even large companies.

    Obstacles facing informal sector in Nigeria economy:
    They include,
    1. Low productivity
    2. Reduced tax revenues
    3. Poor governance
    4. Excessive regulations, and
    5. Poverty and income inequality.
    Addressing the challenge of pervasive informality will require comprehensive policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Initiatives to boost long-term development might include measures aimed at reducing regulatory and tax burdens, expanding access to finance, improving education and other public services, and strengthening public revenue frameworks.

    Definition of Non-government Organisations (NGOs)
    The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.

    Major Roles of NGOs in the Society

    Development and Operation of Infrastructure:
    Community-based organizations and cooperatives can acquire, subdivide and develop land, construct housing, provide infrastructure and operate and maintain infrastructure such as wells or public toilets and solid waste collection services. They can also develop building material supply centres and other community-based economic enterprises. In many cases, they will need technical assistance or advice from governmental agencies or higher-level NGOs.

    Supporting Innovation, Demonstration and Pilot Projects:
    NGO have the advantage of selecting particular places for innovative projects and specify in advance the length of time which they will be supporting the project – overcoming some of the shortcomings that governments face in this respect. NGOs can also be pilots for larger government projects by virtue of their ability to act more quickly than the government bureaucracy.

    Facilitating Communication:
    NGOs use interpersonal methods of communication, and study the right entry points whereby they gain the trust of the community they seek to benefit. They would also have a good idea of the feasibility of the projects they take up. The significance of this role to the government is that NGOs can communicate to the policy-making levels of government, information bout the lives, capabilities, attitudes and cultural characteristics of people at the local level.
    NGOs can facilitate communication upward from people tot he government and downward from the government tot he people. Communication upward involves informing government about what local people are thinking, doing and feeling while communication downward involves informing local people about what the government is planning and doing. NGOs are also in a unique position to share information horizontally, networking between other organizations doing similar work.

    Technical Assistance and Training:
    Training institutions and NGOs can develop a technical assistance and training capacity and use this to assist both CBOs and governments.
    Research, Monitoring and Evaluation:
    Innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared – effective participatory monitoring would permit the sharing of results with the people themselves as well as with the project staff.

    Advocacy for and with the Poor:
    In some cases, NGOs become spokespersons or ombudsmen for the poor and attempt to influence government policies and programmes on their behalf. This may be done through a variety of means ranging from demonstration and pilot projects to participation in public forums and the formulation of government policy and plans, to publicizing research results and case studies of the poor. Thus NGOs play roles from advocates for the poor to implementers of government programmes; from agitators and critics to partners and advisors; from sponsors of pilot projects to mediators.

  102. Izuogu Chioma Sylverline says:

    IZUOGU CHIOMA SYLVERLINE
    2017/244598
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    QUESTION NO 1

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.

    QUESTION NO 2

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development. Policy interventions to support the sector must therefore be two-fold.

    QUESTION NO 3
    Non Governmental Organization are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights
    In otherwords, Non Governmental organizations are bodies which function free from the control of governmental control. These are said to be nonprofit governmental bodies which work for the welfare of societies. They act as a mediator between society and government.

  103. Agholor Sozorchukwu Jason says:

    Name: Agholor Sozorchukwu Jason
    Reg No: 2017/243874
    Dept: Economics
    Email: jasonagholor7@gmail.com

    Question 1
    The informal sector involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, and it has led to a reduction in unemployment. Many graduates who are unable to find jobs in the formal sector take up jobs in the informal sector.
    Also it has led to the reduction of poverty in Nigeria although Nigeria is termed the “poverty capital” of the world. If the informal sector is given priority, it can improve the situation of poverty in the country.

    Question 2
    The informal sector in Nigeria faces a number of obstacles.
    (I) Well-equipped platforms that bring individuals who intend to learn skills and corresponding experts together usually comes at high cost.
    (II) Credit accessibility is another obstacle. Young and fresh graduates who have ubdergone training on skill acqusition are often unable to purchase equipments and facilities to start up their own business.
    (III) Lack of adequate power supply in the country affects the informal sector. It affect individuals in areas such as laundry services, hairdressing and printing.

    Question 3
    If we are to look at the meaning of NGO, it is an acronym representing the “Non-governmental organization.”
    Placing emphasis on the connotative meaning of NGO, A non-governmental organization is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level.it is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities (which means, it was not established for profit-making).
    Some of their functions includes;
    (I) Improving the environment and health of a society
    (II) Fighting for human rights
    (III) They promote education
    (IV) They develop communities
    (V) They encourage social responsibility.

  104. Ogbonna Chika Philip says:

    OGBONNA CHIKA PHILIP.

    2017/242029.

    EDUCATION ECONOMICS.

    Q 1 IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.

    The informal economy contributes to economic growth in Nigeria through the following ways.

    Increases per capita income of the households economic agents who through engaging in informal conomic activities earns their leaving.
    Stimulates economic activities and by so doing adds positively to the country GDP growths , stimulates production activities at the local society levels. The informal economy also provides revenue to the government,
    Create employment for the unskilled and semi skilled labour force

    Q. 2. MAJOR OBSTACLES FACED BY THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA.

    The major obstacles faced by the informal sector in Nigeria are both environmental and policy related and could be associated with the following;
    Lack of capital, poor managerial abilities owing to lack of knowledge and technical known how. Again, they face challenges from unfriendly government policies high taxes and difficulty in accessing loans. There is also the problem of insecurity, poor infrastructure talking about power, transport system and communication difficulties. Etc

    Q. 3 NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES.

    Non governmental organization are those established institutions within a state that are independent from the government in terms of running the activities and course of operations. This means that they operate with or without government intervention or influences. They play the roles of bridging the gaps in societies were policies fails to be effective, often they also are concerned with ensuring human Right are protected, they also stands and seek for Justice, promote social and human welfare and responds in times of societal needs according to their mandate.

  105. UGWOKE KASIEMOBI ROSELINE REG NO: 2016/231449 ECONOMICS MAJOR says:

    In which way does the informal sectors contributes to the economy
    Informal economy is economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and works that are not
    regulated or protected by the state. It includes wage employment in unprotected jobs.
    Ways in which informal economy contributes on Nigeria economic growth
    Inclusive Growth: increase in the activities of informal economy or employment enhances economic growth For example, informal wage employment show clear supportive evidence to economic growth by reducing the cost of labour and improving
    competitiveness; since large number of this
    Domestic production: Being a great means of livelihood in Nigeria, particularly the rural dwellers, it leads to increasesb in productivity that almost half of Nigeria’s working population relies on. This makes informal economy caters large number of consumer demand in the economy
    Challenges to informal economy in Nigeria
    This requires understanding the structural barriers that informal operators face: especially
    the stigmatization of informal operators as illegal or even criminal that leads to punitive
    policies against them. The challenges include:
    long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions;
    low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    inadequate social security regulation;
    difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labor and
    discrimination; vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);Lack of representation.
    In Nigeria, there is large informal economy. This doesn’t help intellectual property rights
    (IPR) that protection that attracts more foreign direct investment (FDI) into a country.

    What are the non governmental organization?
    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.
    The following is a List of NGO’s in Nigeria:
    The Havids Centre for environment and Development
    Children of Farmers Club (CFC)
    Initiative for Community Dev
    Women of Vision Association
    The Nigerian Foundation
    Afro Centre for Dev. Of Peace & Justice
    Africa Initiative for Education and Economic Development
    Global Women Empowerment Association (GLOWEM)
    C.Y.E.
    Initiative for Basic Rights of Nigeria Citizens (IBRONC)
    Centre for Community Empowerment for underprivileged
    Voluntary Work camps Association of Nigeria
    Grace Center
    Female Leadership Forum
    BAOBAB for Women’s Human Right
    Stelben Foundation on VVF/STIs
    Pathfinder International
    Torjir-Agber Foundation
    Women Solace & Enablement Foundation
    Civil Society Coalition for Poverty Eradication
    Women Environmental Programme (WEP)
    Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Center (CISLAC)
    Research and Training for Real Empowerment
    Aya International Development Indigenous Knowledge Initiative Nigeria
    Challenged Children Foundation (3CF)
    Rahi Medical Outreach
    Center for Peace building and Socio Economic Resources Development
    Global Network for Peace and Anticorruption Initiative
    Center for Care of Vulnerable and Development Initiatives
    Center for Organizational and professional Ethics (COPEAFRICA)
    Kanem Bornu Human Development Association (KABHUDA)
    Vantaged Teems Center
    Poverty Alleviation for the Poor Initiative
    Health & Social Service Initiative
    Afri-Growth Foundation
    Ken Nnamani Centre for Leadership Dev.
    Africa Safe Water Foundation
    Grassroots Community Development Initiative
    Foundation for Promotion of Good Health
    The role of Ngos in the society
    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.

    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.

    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.

    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

    It is Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGO perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information
    Their major role in the society is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities (that is to say, it was not established for profit-making).

  106. NAME: OBUTE CHISOM HELLEN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/249539
    EMAIL ADDRESS: hellytec4@gmail.com
    BLOGGERS ADDRESS; obutechisomhellen.blogspot.com

    THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS;

    The informal economy (also known as the informal sector) is a major part of the Nigerian economy, and provides goods and services to millions of Nigerians.
    Available statistics in Nigeria also shows that the informal sector contributes about 60 per cent of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    The majority of respondents (56%) indicated that the informal sector has an effect on their organisation, with many specifying that this effect is positive. The sector’s impact varies from one industry to the other e.g. survey respondents indicated that the Agriculture industry (73%) benefits more from informal sector activities than the ICT sector (48%).
    However, informal sector contribution to economic development in the area of job creation can help to reduce the unemployment problem. The informal sectors in developing countries appear to have been steadily growing in recent times because most people have decided to create their own source of livelihood for survival (Onyemaechi 2013: 66).

    Considering the ongoing economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. Fapohunda (2012: 39) also notes that the informal sector plays several roles in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy.
    MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA ECONOMY

    long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions;
    low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    inadequate social security regulation;
    difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination;
    vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);
    lack of representation

    THE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLE IN THE SOCIETY

    NGO’s are bodies which function free from the control of governmental control. These are said to be nonprofit governmental bodies which work for the welfare of societies. They act as a mediator between society and government. When some issues are not solved or reached to the government NGO’s play an important role in conveying these issues and some issues which are intentionally looked down by the government then these NGO’s look after those issues
    Classification of Non-governmental Organizations
    The World Bank identifies two broad groups of NGOs:
    Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy lIST OF NGOs IN NIGERIA
    Old Peoples Support International
    Total Care Unit
    Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation
    Action Aid for the Unemployed
    Global Peace Development
    Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria
    Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives
    Rural Urban Development
    MAJOR ROLES OF THE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION IN THE SOCIETY
    The organization i.e. NGO’s help educates those section of society which was left behind in the society since its inception and never enjoyed benefits that government has facilitated them with. Such as women’s education, STs, and SCs.

    Researching and monitoring human rights abuses
    Research and monitoring are essential tasks for NGOs. Using data, organizations can track and analyze local, national, or global patterns of oppression. Human Rights Watch and the Southern Poverty Law Center are two examples of NGOs with a prominent research-and-monitoring role.
    Promoting sustainable development
    To address issues like poverty, equality, and climate change, sustainable development is crucial. In 2015, the UN adopted a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals at the Sustainable Development Summit. In the years since, NGOs have emerged as a powerful leader in this area.
    Providing aid to those suffering
    NGOs can also take on humanitarian, relief-oriented roles. These organizations focus on bringing aid to those affected by armed conflict, natural disasters, famines, and more. This includes bringing water, food, medicine, clothing, and other necessities
    Working towards social justice
    Social justice is only achieved when societies uphold human rights, access, participation, and equity. In the past, the term ”social justice” mostly referred to economics and wealth. The definition has since expanded.

  107. HADEME CHUKWIEMEZIE KESTER says:

    Name: HADEME CHUKWIEMEZIE KESTER
    Reg no: 2017/249509
    Dept: ECONOMICS

    Meaning of informal Economy.
    > An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    The informal economy is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state. The concept originally applied to self-employment in small unregistered enterprises. It has been expanded to include wage employment in unprotected jobs.
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    > The informal sector a varied and heterogeneous sector operating in a number of fields providing services at low cost and within the reach of the consumers. Many of the persons working in that sector have low level of education and have learnt some elementary skills on the job. They are not attracted to the training centers to go for the improvement of their knowledge or skills. However, these small enterprises are providing more than 50% of the employment in the non- agricultural sector and thus contributing in minimizing unemployment problem. However, the conclusion, which results from this research work seems to concur with observations and recommendations made by many economists. Nigerian government must stop marginalizing the informal sector; on the contrary they should encourage its development by making it official. In this case, access to the credit market will be easier and grants will then be possible. The resulting economic dynamic will then perhaps enable the Nigerian government to reduce the unemployment and misery of both rural and urban areas. Despite this increase in unemployment rates, the rise of employment in the informal sector is observed everywhere and has been particularly rapid in the Nigerian econom.
    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    > From the investigation carried out, it was discovered that the majority of the informal sector operators were female, married and within the age-range of 19-40 years and 41-65 years who had one form of formal education or the other. It could be seen that informal sector employment was not gender discriminative in nature, and it accommodated various categories of people irrespective of their levels of education. The dominance of the active population, particularly the youth was also visible. The number of married people attests to the fact that many of the operators had the emotional stability to handle the nature of employment in the informal sector. These socioeconomic characteristics reveal that the informal sector has the capacity to mob up the excess labour that cannot fit into the formal sector.
    In terms of the nature of job distribution in the informal sub-sectors, trade, transportation and service dominated the job chart as majority of respondents were engaged therein. Another important sector, which earlier than now wouldn’t have held sway in the country was the telecommunication sub-sector. For the past decade since it was deregulated, it has generated lots of employment ranging from call girl and call boy to recharge card dealers, phone and phone accessory dealers, phone repairs café attendants and engineer and so on. The mode skill acquisition among the respondents was widely distributed. Most of them got on the job training, which implies that skill acquisition is not a barrier to employment in the informal sector. However, government agencies like NDE and programmes like YouWin also offer substantial training to people apart from skills acquired through apprenticeship. 18% of the respondents didn’t have any formal training. This wide range of distribution of the level of training amidst formal sector operators accounts for the reason why many of them do not grow.
    In terms of the employment structure, 32.5% of them were owners while only 10.8% were unpaid family workers, others were either apprentice, paid employees or holding temporary employment in the sector.
    This structural distribution supports the reason why the sector is accessible to all. Most of those who are owners obtained their starting capital from personal savings and loans from, corporative, family members and friends.
    Only 5% took bank loans. This scenario reveals that accessibility of operators in informal sector to credits and soft loans from financial institutions is still poor or not encouraging. Perhaps the major reason for this includes the lack of collateral facility often requested by financial institutions and the high lending rates, which sometimes become double digits. 65% of the respondents were well able to meet their financial responsibilities as they come since more than 60% of them earn income well above N20000 per month. This shows that the informal sector activities, if well organized and coordinated, can well become the employment destination of many school leavers. This underscores the reason why it is important to develop an informal sector based employment strategy because it has the potentials to reduce youth and graduate unemployment in the country.
    The perception of the problems facing the informal sector differs among the respondents. About 70% of them believe that policy inconsistency, inadequate infrastructure and lack of capital was their major problem. However, 36% of the respondents still believed that the major problem confronting the informal sector activities was unionization and inadequate training among the operators and. Based on the analysis carried out, it can be concluded that the informal sector plays an important role in employment creation, income generation and poverty reduction in Nigeria. For the sector to continue to play such significant role, the government and policymakers should develop a policy strategy that is informal sector based. When employment creation is geared towards informal sector activities, this would increase income.
    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    > Community development entails the provision of infrastructural facilities to the people. The provision of these social amenities can be attained through a number of ways and/or organizations which includes, the government, community development associations, Non-Governmental Organisations . Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. This paper examines some of the strategies for community development in Nigeria, with a particular emphasis on the role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). The methods of study include interview, observations, intensive local field studies and extensive travel throughout the state. The beneficiaries of NGOs activities and donor agencies – students, teachers, NGO functionaries, fire burnt victim and head of house holds were interviewed. The findings includes:

    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.

    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.

    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.

    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  108. Ezeja Johnbosco Chinedu says:

    Ezeja johnbosco chinedu
    2017/249505
    Economics major
    stancovin93@gmail.com

    Success Tonics Blog

    ECO. 362—-2-6-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 7—Informal Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Economy)
    Tony Orji by Tony Orji June 2, 2021 Reading Time: 1min read

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

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    Comments 85
    MADUKO MAUREEN ADAEZE 5 days ago
    MADUKO MAUREEN ADAEZE
    2017/249049
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    —————————————————————————

    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY??

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for -65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts; and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.
    Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need.
    Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient, and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy.
    Historically, stakeholder interventions in the informal sector have been focused on how to regulate businesses, and effectively integrate them into the formal economy. Limited emphasis has been given to identifying the drivers of growth in the various sub-sectors within, and the challenges experienced by participants.
    Policy interventions to support the sector must therefore be two-fold. Firstly, efforts should be made to create more formal jobs to draw workers out of the informal sector. Secondly, policies should be introduced to address identified challenges in the informal sector towards improving productivity and incomes of informal sector players.
    Current Bank of Industry interventions in the informal sector include both training and financial support for market women, artisans, traders (through the FG’s“Government Economic Empowerment Programme “GEEP product”) and artisanal miners (through the Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners–“ASM Fund”). A critical look at these interventions show Bank Of Industry adopting a hybrid model that prioritizes the attainment of both economic growth (GEEP) and development (ASM Fund).
    In the formal sector, Bank of Industry continues to provide funding and capacity building to enterprises, towards business expansion, inevitably leading to job creation.
    Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety standards, amongst others.
    However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services.
    With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered.
    Consequently efforts must be made to understand the dynamics of the sector and how best to tap the latent potential that lies within.

    MAJOR OBSTACLES THE INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY .
    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    Covid 19: Implications on the Informal Sector ,Nigeria is the largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. Following the global financial crisis of 2008-09, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation improved. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by the growth of agriculture, telecommunications and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant reduction in poverty levels; as more than 62% of Nigeria’s 180 million people still live in extreme poverty .The outbreak of the new corona virus (COVID-19) in China has changed the world tremendously, as it has become a major pandemic and affects millions of people around the globe regardless of geographical location, age, race, gender, etc. While this crisis is primarily a public health issue that has claimed the lives of thousands of people worldwide and is still counting, the economic impact will undoubtedly be overwhelming and likely to lead to major economic crises both in the formal and informal sector. Statistics on the informal sector are unreliable by virtue of the subject, yet they can provide a tentative picture of its relevance (Oluranti, Odunaike & Jawando, 2015). The Nigerian Ministry of Labour and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the nation’s economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job openings in Nigeria. In the same vein, the Lagos office of Federal Ministry of Labour declared that the informal sector accounts for 80 per cent of non-agricultural employment, 60 per cent of urban employment and over 90 per cent of new jobs in Nigeria . Arguably, the informal sector constitutes the largest employer of labour and a source of living for many Nigerian. It therefore, contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of employment and income sourcing. In Nigeria, the Bank of Industry (BoI) has declared the informal sector an important economic factor that contributed to about 65% of the
    country’s GDP in 2017. With a pervasive informal sector and outbreak of Covid-19, the Nigerian economy is expected to drop drastically. It was opined that COVID-19 crisis is causing all components of aggregate demand, except for government purchases, to fall in different dimensions. First, the fall in household consumption is as a result of full/partial restrictions on movement, thus causing consumers to spend primarily on essential goods and services. Restrictions on movement not only reduced the consumption of non-basic products in general, but also affected the ability of these groups to generate income, thus reducing their consumer spending. The restrictions on movement have rendered many people jobless, as all economic activities have slowed down. Those that will be most affected are the informal businesses, as small enterprises that may have difficulties adapting to the virtual means of doing business will be left out. Of the unemployed, the worst blow is the daily wage whose livelihoods are based on daily income. Therefore, many people will experience unemployment during this period, and paying bills like house bills, food and school will be almost impossible.
    Second, corporate investments will be hurt mainly by the uncertainty that comes with limited knowledge from the pandemic about the duration of the outbreak, the effectiveness of policy measures and the response of economic agents to these measures – as well as negative investor sentiment which are causing a stir in the capital markets of the world. Indeed, the crisis has led to a massive decline in stock prices, as the Nigerian Stock Exchange has recorded its worst performance since the economic crisis of 2008, which eroded investor wealth. Given the plague-related uncertainty and negative earnings outlook for potential investment projects, firms may delay long-term investment decisions .
    Unfortunately, government acquisitions will increase as governments, which can usually afford to manage budget deficits, utilize fiscal stimulus measures to counteract the decline in consumer spending.

  109. Onah Hope Nnenna says:

    Name: Onah Hope Nnenna
    Reg no: 2017/249565
    Level: 300l
    Email: onahnnenna123@gmail
    ANSWER TO QUESTION 1
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    By doing these, the informal economy helps to alleviate the country from unemployment which is the major cause of poverty
    Another way the informal economy contribute to economic growth is by stimulating productive activities, promoting a flexible labour market and absorbing retrenched labour from the formal sector. That is employing those workers that their employment has been terminated in the formal sector. When this is done, the rate of unemployment will drastically reduce, there helping in economic growth and development.

    ANSWER TO QUESTION 2
    The major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy include:
    1) limited access to finance: some of the informal sectors find it difficult to get hold of finance to boost and grow the sector. That difficulty can be in form of obtaining loan from bank, etc.
    2) limited skills development: many people lack the adequate skills to run the organization
    3) Inadequacy of technology: the necessary technologies that would have helped to make the works easier in the information sector is not enough (I.e inadequate)
    4) Education: illiteracy has been a major setback to the informal sectors. The level of education attained by some workers are very low.
    5) Lands and physical structure
    6) Markets.

    ANSWER TO QUESTION 3
    The Non Governmental organizations and their major roles in the society
    The NGOs include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.
    Some of the list of non governmental organizations in Nigeria are:
    a). Old Peoples Support International
    Total Care Unit
    b) Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation
    c). Action Aid for the Unemployed
    d). Global Peace Development
    e). Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria
    f). Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives
    e). Rural Urban Development, etc
    And their roles include:
    1). Providing social justice
    2). Development and human rights
    3). Building a self reliant sustainable society
    4). Mediating between the people and the government.etc
    In general, NGOs help in overall development of every economy.

  110. Ferdinand Daniel Nweke says:

    Name : Ferdinand Daniel Nweke
    Reg no : 2017/245020
    Department: Economics

    QUESTION 1:
    The informal sector of the economy is that sector of the economy where economic activities are not regulated, monitored or supervised by the government of the country either through tax or other regulatory measures. The major contribution of the informal sector to economic growth is the creation of paid employment to a large population of the country. As a matter of fact, the informal sector in most developing countries make up a significant portion of the economies. Since they are not taxed, not accountable to any authority, they are not included in the country’s GDP. However, they offer variety of employment opportunities to the poor and low class citizens in the country.

    QUESTION 2:
    Due to the nature of the informal sector, they are faced with a number of challenges that includes but not limited to:
    1. They are exposed to long working hours, harsh working environment and low remuneration.
    2. They is no job satisfaction and lack of job security.
    3. Absence of social welfare packages.
    4. Women particularly receive lower wages and are more vulnerable to abuse.
    5. It is difficult to fight for or exercise rights e.g fighting against physical and verbal abuse and discrimination of women.

    QUESTION 3:
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, non-profit organizations that are totally independent of government influence. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and can are instrumental in environmental, social, and Human Rights issues. Their major roles in the society are:
    1. They are engaged in a number of community development projects such as health education, sanitation awareness, child rights law, fight against child or forced labour, etc.
    2. They act as pressure groups to influence government decisions on issues affecting the majority.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination
    5. They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level.

  111. EWA PRINCESS
    2017/249501
    ECONOMICS
    ewaprincess79@gmail.com

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal economy refers to all units, activities and workers in informal employment and the output from that employment that is partially or fully outside the auspices of government (UN-Habitat, 2015a).
    The informal economy plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy. It accommodates a large number of Nigerians through productive outlets who preferred to be self-employed, thus, contributing to the Nigerian economy in terms of output and employment. It also supplements the formal economy. For example, the informal economy in Nigeria contributes 57.9% to Nigerian GDP in 2013, while the formal sector compliments it with 42.1%. Furthermore, the informal sector in Nigeria offers various outlets for professional entrepreneurs from the medium and large scale enterprises who desired to be self-employed using minimal capital resources. According to Fapohunda (2012) “the informal sector stimulates and enhances innovation and adaptation; and also helps in the mobilization of capital and human resources which would otherwise have been laid waste and idle thereby increasing the utilization of virgin re-useable materials.”
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    Those who are employed in the informal economy face a number of challenges:
    I) No or limited access to loans, and grants.
    II) long working hours
    III) low pay
    IV) difficult working conditions;
    V) low job security,
    VI) high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    VII) inadequate social security regulation;
    3. What are the non governmental organizations and their major roles in the society?
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level. It is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities (that is to say, it was not established for profit-making).
    It is Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGO perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
    Some are organized around specific issues, and perform certain roles such as:
    A) human rights
    B) environment or health
    C) develop communities
    D) encourage social responsibility
    E) Micro finance
    F) promote education
    G) agricultural development
    H) supporting human welfare
    I) Support the poor
    Moreover, the function of an NGO may be grounded in other areas, such as protecting the environment and promoting animal welfare.
    They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international agreements. Their relationship with offices and agencies of the United Nations (UN) system varies depending on their goals, their venue and the mandate of a particular institution.
    The following is a List of NGO’s in Nigeria:
    1. The Havids Centre for environment and Development
    2. Children of Farmers Club (CFC)
    3. Initiative for Community Dev
    4. Women of Vision Association
    5. The Nigerian Foundation
    6. Afro Centre for Dev. Of Peace & Justice
    7. Africa Initiative for Education and Economic Development
    8. Global Women Empowerment Association (GLOWEM)
    9. Initiative for Basic Rights of Nigeria Citizens (IBRONC)
    10. Centre for Community Empowerment for underprivileged

  112. OHANADO SHEPHERD IFEANYI 2017/249547 says:

    How does informal economy contribute to the economy?
    An  informal economy is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state. The concept originally applied to self-employment in small unregistered enterprises. It has been expanded to include wage employment in unprotected jobs.

    Now the informal economy has contributed to the economy in the sense that it significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services, many stakeholders subscribe to the third perspective and support government intervention and accommodation,it has tried to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor in turn add to the nations capital

    What are the major obstacles faced by informal economy?

    There are some obstacles faced by informal economy such as low capital to expand,government policies which in some cases do not favour informal economies,  low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, and poverty and income inequality

     What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations they can also be said to be Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society they are also such as UNICEF,amnesty international,human right watch,etc
    Their major roles are  NGOs can be to check, monitor and criticize the actions of Governments and private bodies, to supplement and complement the role of Government in combating discrimination and to help individuals and groups assert their rights.

  113. An informal economy is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.

    Question 2
    Some of the problems face by the informal sectors in Nigeria are;
    The informal sector though helps in the provision of employment opportunities also faces it’s own obstacles. Some of which are:
    1. No access to credit facilities from the government. This implies that those who work in the informal sector like the newspaper vendors, traders, carpenters, tailors, etc. are not given the opportunity to access credit facilities like loans and grants from the government.
    2. Lack of capital. Some of these informal workers tend not to have startup capital for their businesses. This is a major problem faced by many in the sector as they want to start a business but do not have the capital and can not access it from the government.
    3. No Minimum Wage Policy. This is in the interest of those who earn low or those that are underemployed or are working poor in the sense that, their wage is actually based on what the work they have done or the service they have rendered.
    Question 3
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are voluntary, non-profit organizations that are totally independent of government influence. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and can are instrumental in environmental, social, and Human Rights issues. Their major roles in the society are:
    1. They are engaged in a number of community development projects such as health education, sanitation awareness, child rights law, fight against child or forced labour, etc.
    2. They act as pressure groups to influence government decisions on issues affecting the majority.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination

  114. Irueforum joseph emeka says:

    1.In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    The Nigerian Informal Sector is a
    major contributor to the Nigerian
    economy, accounting for a significant
    portion of employment and national
    GDP. According to the IMF, it is said that the Nigerian informal sector accounted for
    65% of Nigeria’s GDP in the year 2017.
    Also Informal sector helps in reducing unemployment in the country as the formal sector cannot provide jobs for all.
    It also provides cheap and affordable goods in the society.
    And it is easy and fast to access.

    2.What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy? 

    1.Lack of infrastructure
    2.Bad political environment
    3.Lack of aids to trade

    QUESTION 3.
    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society? 

    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society.

    And their roles are:
    community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking.

  115. NAME: Emmanuel Treasure Adanne
    Department: Economics
    Reg No: 2017/242436
    Email address: http://www.treasureadaemmanuel@gmail.com
    Website: treshvinaemman54.blogspot.com
    Answer:
    1. Informal economy contribute to the economic growth of Nigeria through the following :
    . Informal-sector income is relatively effective in reducing poverty. This is because income from informal-sector work mostly flows to households that are poor. In terms of poverty impact, the destruction of 100 jobs in the informal sector is the equivalent of losing about 60 to 80 formal-sector jobs. Informal-sector employment improve the livelihoods, those increasing more money in the Nigerian economy with leads to increase in economic growth.
    2. Major obstacles of informal sector in the Nigerian economy:
    – Informality results in lower tax revenues that hinders the government’s ability to spend on social programs and investment. This means the individuals that are most in need of social programs and public infrastructure may not receive them.
    – The informal economy can provide income or a social safety net. But it is a complicated issue. Poverty levels among people in informal employment are, on average, twice as high as that of people in formal employment. Why? Because of low productivity, low incomes, and limited access to government benefits.
    – Long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions.
    – Low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction, inadequate social security regulations.
    3. Non governmental organisations are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights. NGOs are generally funded totally or partly by governments and they maintain their non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. In a democratic society, it is the state that has the ultimate responsibility for ushering development to its citizens. Their roles include the following:
    – Transparency and accountability are key ingredients of Governance in the NGO Sector as these determine operational efficiencies and risk mitigation. Over the years, corporate sector has been able to recognize and implement best governance practices through appropriate institutional framework. However, the NGO sector is yet to evolve any institutionalized framework, which could potentially play an important role in overall development of the nation.
    – Of late, some of the local and national NGOs have been found involved in malpractices and acting irresponsibly, thus undermining the credibility of civil society. It’s a huge concern and poses a great challenge to the development movement spearheaded by NGOs in the country.
    – There is a huge flow of funds into the non-government organization sector and this requires prudence and good practices to maintain accountability and transparency to the benefit of all stakeholders.
    – Although NGOs do internal auditing but for more accountability and transparency, it is advisable to go through external auditing also, especially where public funds are involved. Hence, issues of internal control mechanisms, professionalism, accountability, transparency and financial management must be given impetus.

  116. Onah peace says:

    ONAH PEACE
    2017/243367
    ECONOMICS

    WAYS THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY
    The Nigerian Informal Sector has a large significant impact on the economy. The informal sector includes all economic activities which are hidden from official authorities for monetary, regulatory, and institutional reasons. Monetary reasons include avoiding paying taxes and all social security contributions, regulatory reasons include avoiding governmental bureaucracy or the burden of regulatory framework, while institutional reasons include corruption law, the quality of political institutions and weak rule of law. Examples of informal sector are hawkers, street kiosk or traders, hair dressers etc. The sector currently accounts for most employment and source of sustainace in our country, as Nigeria is bedeviled by unemployment and poverty but despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked. It is said to increase significantly during recession and very flexible to accommodate any business as the poor source for their living during recession. Inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered.
    CHALLENGES OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR
    In Nigeria, the Bank of Industry (BoI) has declared the informal sector an important economic factor that contributed to about 65% of the of thecountry’s GDP in 2017. Meaning it is a key player in the Nigerian economy but it is often overlooked.
    They lack access to credit facilities that will help them boost the businesses or create jobs for them. Most of them lack capital to start business, because they are majorly those having a low standard of living.
    the informal sector has now become a haven fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from the economy , bad reputation of the country , creates unfair competition and market, reduces safety standards etc.
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL
    What is an NGO? The term NGO stands for nongovernmental organization, and it includes a variety of organizations such as “private voluntary organizations,” “civil society organizations,” and “nonprofit organization”
    Their roles are:
    * Social Development
    NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI) (n.d.).
    One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institutional independence and political neutrality. Even though NGOs need to collaborate with governments in numerous instances, failure to maintain neutrality and autonomy may severely compromise the NGOs’ legitimacy.
    * Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition, such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable development.
    *Sustainable Consumption
    NGOs can also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption. Some of the instances where this partnership has been successful is in categories such as product development, sustainable housing, labeling, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), green purchasing, marine stewardship, and so on.
    * NGOs create awareness of specific programs . They mainly emphasis on issues at national as well as international level for addressing the need of people in the country.

  117. Okonkwo Faith Munachi says:

    NAME: OKONKWO FAITH MUNACHI
    REG NO: 2017/242422
    E-MAIL: faith.okonkwo.242422@unn.edu.ng

    ANSWER

    QUESTION ONE
    Ways the Informal Sector Contributes to Nigerian Economic Growth
    The informal sector is seen to play a huge role in the economic growth of Nigeria. The informal sector entails mostly small enterprises. It’s contributions include:
    1. Provider of certain social services such as employment and gender equality, which are factors crucial to the economic growth and development of a country.
    2. Informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector
    3. The informal sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low.
    4. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    5. In terms of the contributions to national output, it has been observed that, despite an existing low productivity in the informal sector, the sector accounts for a sizable percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Nigeria.

    QUESTION TWO
    The Informal sector is also faced with some challenges or obstacles which includes:
    Institutional inadequacies
    Unsafe working conditions
    Poor enforcement
    Inadequacy of technology
    Limited access to finance
    Non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making.

    QUESTION THREE
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. This paper examines some of the strategies for community development in Nigeria, with a particular emphasis on the role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).
    Their roles include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation

  118. AKOMA CHIOMA ONYINYE (2017/241339) says:

    WAYS IN WHICH THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
    The informal sector is broadly characterised as consisting of units engaged in the production of goods or services with the primary objective of generating employment and incomes to the persons concerned.
    The informal sector is seen to play a huge part in the development of economies, most especially in transitioning and developing nations. Although the informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector, the sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low. Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    MAJOR OBSTACLES THE INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA’S ECONOMY
    Long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions.
    Low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction.
    Inadequate social security regulation.
    Difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination.
    Vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women).
    Lack of representation.
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY
    NGOs are Non-governmental organizations set up purposely as a beneficial program for the less privileged and socially affected citizens of a country. It is a non-profit making organization which is organized on a local, national and international level. It is driven by people with a common interest to perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions.
    1. Sought After Women and Children Foundation
    This is a registered non-governmental organization in Nigeria dedicated to ministering to abused women and abandoned children in the society. Their activities include: Rehabilitation programs, Orphanage homes and Outreaches to other NGOs and Homes. Services: Shelter for children, Empowering women, Saving a family and Education for children.
    2. The Courage Education Foundation
    This non-profit organization is dedicated to the empowerment of the Nigerian children through the provision of quality education. It was set up to provide educational assistance to brilliant children who are shackled by poverty.
    3. Mentally Aware Nigeria Initiative
    This NGO was established to fight stigma and create an environment that makes it possible for people to seek care for their mental health without fear of discrimination.
    4. Plan International
    This is an NGO established to promote children’s rights and equality for girls Their activities:
    -Ensuring that children continue their education in safety.
    -Reducing maternal and child mortality amongst marginalised and vulnerable women and girls.
    -Nutritional support for mothers and young children.
    -Protecting children from violence.
    -Empowering young people to stand up for their rights and seek accountability from leaders.
    5. Angels Discovery Circle Initiative
    This is a non-profit organization in Nigeria that offers humanitarian services, scholarship programs, skill acquisitions, safety awareness and rehabilitating.

  119. Name: Okeke Mercy Adaugo
    Reg. No. 2017/141449
    Department: Economics

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The Informal Sector contributes a great deal to economic growth in Nigeria. The following are the major ways:
    (i) Creation of Employment: It is no news that Nigeria is faced with the problem of unemployment as there are many labour personnels chasing few readily available formal jobs in the nation. So the next best option or way out of being unemployed is to be self-employed. That is, to either start up a business of buying and selling or develop and learn a skill that would make one automatically part of the Informal sector and hence reduce the rate of unemployment. The higher the number of people that are employed or have jobs, the higher the level of productivity, income and consequently, the higher the rate of economic growth.
    (ii) Increase in Productivity
    (iii) Eradication of Poverty: When people are able to earn a living outside the formal sector, it leads to increase in the standard of living of the citizens and eradication of poverty to a great extent, there by enhancing economic growth
    (iv) Reduction in overdependence on government/the formal sector: The informal sector is a very important body of the Nigerian economy as it has really helped in lifting the burden on the formal sector and the government by making the citizens less reliant on them. This helps the government to focus on other factors that aid economic growth and development.
    (V) It gives Room for innovation and invention which is a major attribute of economic growth and development
    (Vi) Reduction in fear of monopolistic power.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    The major obstacles faces by the Informal sector in Nigeria are but not limited to:
    (i) Adequate security: Businesses that fall within this sector is at the risk of being victims to theft, fraud and other kinds of security based harm as many in this sector can hardly afford good security for their businesses
    (ii) Legal restrictions by the government: there are some laws and regulations that limits the activities of this sector
    (III) Limited access to credit facilities: Those under this sector end up giving all they have as collateral just to be able to be granted a loan in the bank. what the formal sector would get without much aldor.
    (iV) Risk of being pushed out of the market by the government or formal sector or foreign establishments

    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    The Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are Organizations which are independent of government involvement. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful substitutes for the concerns of the society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), “[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  120. Uwaezuoke Stephen Chinonso (2017/242432) says:

    Name: Uwaezuoke Stephen chinonso
    Reg No: 2017/242432
    Department: Economics

    According to Altman (2008), the first and foremost point on the proportion of employment in the
    informal sector is that the share of employment in small informal enterprises tends to fall as a country’s
    per capita income rises. Amin (2002) observes that the proportion of the labour force engaged in the
    informal sector fell by between 60 and 70 percent of the labour force in low income South Asian
    economies, by between 30 and 50 percent in middle-income South-East Asian countries, and by about
    25 percent in high-income Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore. It was also pointed out however, that in Sub￾Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa, 78 percent of non-agricultural employment is found in
    informal-sector firms, accounting for about 21 percent of total employment, including domestic workers
    (ECA, 2005).
    Considering the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many
    African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus
    for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of
    job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the
    years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a
    period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of self￾employment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian
    informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the
    average earnings between the formal and informal sector.
    Though Nigeria does not, at present, have accurate statistics on the proportion of labour force in the
    informal sector, the CBN/NISER/FOS survey of 1998 indicates that informal manufacturing enterprises
    are small. The average number of persons employed in an enterprise was about 2. By implication, bulk
    of the informal employment in Nigeria can be found in non-manufacturing activities such as street
    trading, barbing saloons, restaurants, and other informal sector activities. The 1998 survey of the
    Nigerian informal sector gives some interesting nsights on size of the labour force employed in the
    informal manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria.
    2.Problems faced by the informal sector.
    a. Lack of basic amenities
    b. Lack of skills
    c. Lack of credit facilities.
    d. Illiteracy
    e. Insecurity

    3.First of all looking at the meaning of NGO, it is an acronym representing the “Non-governmental Organization”.

    Now emphasizing on the connotative meaning of NGO, A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level.it is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities (that is to say, it was not established for profit-making).

    It is Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGO perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

  121. Idu Ifeanyi Peculiar
    2017/249511
    Economics
    Question one:
    The informal sector helps in the provision of employment opportunities as the formal sector tends not to employ enough people. That is, the informal sector helps in absorbing excess labour from the formal sector.
    The informal sector also contributes to economic growth.
    Question two:
    Some of the obstacles the informal sector face are:
    1. Lack of capital: capital is a major problem for most individuals who have the idea or intentions of starting up a business, this is a serious problem because they want to start a business but don’t have access to capital.
    2. No access to credit facilities from the government: those who work in the informal sector are not giving the opportunity to access loan from the government this can be due to lack of asset by the small business owners to use as collateral in getting loans.
    3. No minimum wage policy: the informal sector is not affected by most policies made by the government as regards to this they are not affected by the minimum wage policy, so those who earn low is affected in the sense that their wage is actually based on the work they have done or service they have rendered.
    Question three:
    Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are establishments that are independent of the government of a country. They function free from the government. They aim at working towards a social, political, environmental goal of the sort in the country. Their functions are as follows:
    1.They are not profit-oriented therefore aim to pursue social welfare.
    2. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    3. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.

  122. Okonkwo Faith Munachi says:

    NAME: OKONKWO FAITH MUNACHI
    REG NO: 2017/242422
    E-MAIL: faith.okonkwo.242422@unn.edu.ng

    ANSWER
    QUESTION ONE
    Ways the Informal Sector Contributes to Nigerian Economic Growth
    The informal sector is seen to play a huge role in the economic growth of Nigeria. The informal sector entails mostly small enterprises. It’s contributions include:
    1. Provider of certain social services such as employment and gender equality, which are factors crucial to the economic growth and development of a country.
    2. Informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector
    3. The informal sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low.
    4. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    5. In terms of the contributions to national output, it has been observed that, despite an existing low productivity in the informal sector, the sector accounts for a sizable percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Nigeria.

    QUESTION TWO
    The Informal sector is also faced with some challenges or obstacles which includes:
    Institutional inadequacies
    Unsafe working conditions
    Poor enforcement
    Inadequacy of technology
    Limited access to finance
    Non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making.

    QUESTION THREE
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. This paper examines some of the strategies for community development in Nigeria, with a particular emphasis on the role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).
    Their roles include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting participation.

  123. Udeh Amarachi M. says:

    Udeh Amarachi M.
    2017/249576
    maryamarachi2010@gmail.com

    QUESTION ONE
    The informal sector contributes to economy through the provision of employment opportunities since the formal sector, that is government, can not possibly employ enough people. That is to say that the informal sector stands as a helping hand to reduce the level of unemployment in the economy.

    QUESTION TWO
    Inspite of the fact that the informal sector helps in the provision of employment opportunities, it also faces obstacles,such as; No access to credit facilities from the government. The workers in the information sector are denied access to credit facilities from government such as loans. They re not allowed to get loans because of the fear not paying back. Some other obstacles faced by the informal sector are lack of start up capital, low minimum wage, insecurity, etc.

    QUESTION THREE
    Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are not for profit making establishments that are not in direct link with the government of a country. Their actions are not controlled or questioned by the government. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    The NGOs are known for their charity works which is mostly for the support and welfare of the less privileged.

  124. OKOLI MARYANN AMAUCHE
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    2017/243272
    https://maryannokoli.blogspot.com.ng

    QUESTION 1
    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA?

    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor
    to the Nigerian economy , accounting for a significant
    portion of employment and national GDP. According to
    the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for
    ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for
    the formal economy , thus allowing the
    unemployed and unemployable to find work or
    start their own businesses, boosting income and
    alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and
    services in areas that may be impossible or
    unattractive for formal networks.
    The informal sector is that sector of the economy that doesn’t receive government funding thereby they are not regulated by the government…
    The informal economy is subordinated to the formal economy. In order to reduce costs, privileged capitalists seek to subordinate petty producers and traders.
    The informal sector work arrangements are a rational response by micro-entrepreneurs to over-regulation by government bureaucracies.

    QUESTION 2
    WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA’S ECONOMY?

    A large informal sector is associated with low productivity,
    reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive
    regulations, and poverty and income inequality.
    – Lack of information on prices, the viability of products.
    – Limited access to land and property rights.
    – Lack of formal schooling sometimes even resulting in illiteracy.
    – Limited access to formal finance and banking institutions.
    – Reliance on self-supporting and informal institutional arrangements.
    – Limited access to employers´ organizations, i.e. limited possibilities
    to exercise influence.
    – Lack of access to official social security schemes.
    – Fewer market opportunities are due for instance to non-compliance to
    international standards.
    – Too restrictive or cumbersome taxation systems and labor laws.
    – Excessive government regulations in areas such as business start-up, in particular as regards cumbersome, time demanding, and
    costly procedures for business registration.
    – No access to formal training and, as a result, lack of skills in particular as regards basic economic skills and managerial expertise.

    QUESTION 3
    WHAT ARE THE NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY?

    NGOs are legally constituted organizations,
    operate independently from the government and
    are generally considered to be “non-state, non-
    profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of
    public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is
    to provide social justice, development and human
    rights.

    MAJOR ROLES OF NGOS IN THE SOCIETY?
    NGOs play a critical role in all areas of development. People and policy makers are agree on one thing that NGOs play a very important role in development. Role of NGOs vary over the years as the policy of government changes. NGOs are almost dependent on polices of government. Role of NGOs are complementary but vary according to polices of government. The major development roles ascribed to NGOs are to act as:
    1. Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes, etc.
    2. They empower the people to overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress.
    3. NGOs may advocate on behalf of specific policies, such as debt relief or the banning of landmines (e.g., the International Campaign to Ban Landmines), and
    they may provide humanitarian relief and
    development assistance (e.g., the Red Cross,
    Oxfam, and CARE).
    4. NGOs ought to develop local products and local markets; develop social , capital, and human resources; encourage and moti- vate people to participate in activities; and act as network liaisons between community and systems.
    5. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of
    community development such as: community mobilization,
    environment, health and sanitation awareness creation,
    promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and
    reproductive health education and fight against child labour
    and human trafficking etc.
    6. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki
    foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe
    Osula foundation,while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  125. Abiazia Rufus Chidiebube (2017/243371) Economics says:

    Name: Abiazia Rufus Chidiebube
    Reg: 2017/243371
    Dept: Economics

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Answer :
    1.
    The informal sector in contribute massively in Nigeria economy, in the form that many enterprises has a potential of generating income to households, productivity and trade in economy. Many employees and self-employed individual are in informal sector and the activities contribute to the GDP.

    2.
    Limited access to financial credit as loan,
    Lack of formal education,
    Lack of power,
    Security issues
    Macroeconomics issues
    Limited access to technology
    Industrial hazard negligence.

    3.

  126. UGWU PERPERTUA ODINAKA says:

    UGWU PERPETUA ODINAKA
    2017/244848
    EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    ugwuodinakap.blogspot.com
    ECO 362, DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT
    No 1: THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN NIGERIA AND IT’S IMPACT ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
    1. The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    2. The informal economy refers to all units, activities and workers in informal employment and the output from that employment that is partially or fully outside the auspices of government (UN-Habitat, 2015a). These units also contribute to the economic growth of Nigeria by involving in one or more market transactions with the formal economy.
    The informal sector is seen to play a huge part in the development of economies, most especially in transitioning and developing nations. It is seen as a provider of certain social services such as employment and gender equality, which are factors crucial to the economic development of a country.
    3. Although the informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector, the sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low.
    4. Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living.
    5. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    NO2. THE MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA
    Those who are employed in the informal economy face a number of challenges such as ;
    1. The problem of insecurity: Because they are not employed by the government but private organizatios, it is very easy for one to loose his or her job. Also, because they are not government owned, threat and discriminations can come from anywhere to an informal sector.
    3. Long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions; Informal sectors are known for these experiences. The workers spend long hours at work, have very unfavorable working environment and still receive low payment at the end.
    4. Low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction.
    5. Inadequate social security regulation.
    6. Difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination.
    7. Employment with the inforal sector is usually vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women).
    8. The informal sector face the obstacle oflack of representation.
    NO 3. TYPES AND ROLES OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs)
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government and a term usually used by governments to refer to entities that have no government status. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.
    TYPES OF NGOs
    There are numerous possibilities to classify NGOs. The following is the typology the World Bank uses
    A. Operational NGOs:
    Their primary purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects. One categorization that is frequently used is the division into relief-oriented or development-oriented organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious and secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international. Operational NGOs have to mobilize resources, in the form of financial donations, materials or volunteer labor, in order to sustain their projects and programs. This process may require quite complex organization. Charity shops, staffed by volunteers, in premises provided at nominal rents and selling donated goods, end up providing finance to the national headquarters. Students in their vacations or during a break in their education provide labor for projects. Finance obtained from grants or contracts, from governments, foundations or companies, require time and expertise spent on planning, preparing applications, budgeting, accounting and reporting. Major fund-raising events require skills in advertising, media relations and motivating supporters. Thus, operational NGOs need to possess an efficient headquarters bureaucracy, in addition to the operational staff in the field.
    B. Advocacy NGOs (sometimes called militant NGOs):
    Their primary purpose is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by lobbying, press work and activist events.
    NGO type can be understood by orientation and level of co-operation.
    NGO types by orientation:
    1. Charitable Orientation often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the “beneficiaries”. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor -distribution of food, clothing or medicine; provision of housing, transport, schools etc. Such NGOs may also undertake relief activities during a natural or man-made disaster.
    2. Service Orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
    3. Participatory Orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Cooperatives often have a participatory orientation.
    4. Empowering Orientation is where the aim is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. Sometimes, these groups develop spontaneously around a problem or an issue, at other times outside workers from NGOs play a facilitating role in their development. In any case, there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as facilitators.
    NGO Types by level of operation:
    1.Community-based Organizations (CBOs) arise out of people’s own initiatives. These can include sports clubs, women’s organizations, and neighbourhood organizations, religious or educational organizations. There are a large variety of these, some supported by NGOs, national or international NGOs, or bilateral or international agencies, and others independent of outside help. Something f5 are devoted to raising the consciousness of the urban poor or helping them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services.
    2. Citywide Organizations include organizations such as the Rotary or lion’s Club, chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups and associations of community organizations. Some exist for other purposes, and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor.
    3.National NGOs include organizations such as the Red Cross, YMCAs/YWCAs, professional organizations etc. Some of these have state branches and assist local NGOs.
    4. International NGOs range from secular agencies such as REDDA BARNA and Save the Children organizations, OXFAM, CARE, UNDP, UNICEF, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to religiously motivated groups. Their activities vary from mainly funding local NGOs, institutions and projects, to implementing the projects themselves.

  127. Omada Dorathy Amarachukwu says:

    Name: Omada Dorathy Amarachukwu
    eg No: 2017/ 243131
    Department: Economics Education
    300 Level
    dorathyamarachi.blogpost.com
    amarachidora8@gmail.com

    QUESTION ONE
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria
    In the year 2017, saw Nigeria record its first full year of growth after experiencing its first recession in 25 years. While this recovery brought about an increase in business confidence, concerns remain as the GDP growth achieved was less than national population growth. This concern persists even as the IMF projected 2.1% growth for 2018, which falls below the population growth forecast of 2.6%. Population growth,coupled with high underemployment and unemployment rates (combined 40%), will result in an increase in the number of job seekers in 2018. It also translates to an increase in the number of people who look to the informal sector for economic survival.The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.So what is the informal sector? The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts ;and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need. Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient, and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy. Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety standards, amongst others. However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services.With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered. Consequently efforts must be made to understand the dynamics of the sector and and how best to tap the latent potential that lies within.
    QUESTION TWO
    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy
    Nigeria is the largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. Following the global financial crisis of 2008-09, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation improved. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by the growth of agriculture, telecommunications and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant reduction in poverty levels; as more than 62% of Nigeria’s 180 million people still live in extreme poverty .The outbreak of the new corona virus (COVID-19) in China has changed the world tremendously, as it has become a major pandemic and affects millions of people around the globe regardless of geographical location, age, race, gender, etc. etc. While this crisis is primarily a public health issue that has claimed the lives of thousands of people worldwide and is still counting, the economic impact will undoubtedly be overwhelming and likely to lead to major economic crises both in the formal and informal sector. Statistics on the informal sector are unreliable by virtue of the subject, yet they can provide a tentative picture of its relevance. The Nigerian Ministry of Labour and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the nation’s economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job openings openings in Nigeria. In the same vein, the Lagos office of Federal Ministry of dependent governments, the fall in global demand for goods stemming from the epidemic will significantly increase their fiscal deficit. In Nigeria’s case, Brent’s crude oil price was just over $ 26 a barrel on April 2, while Nigeria’s budget assumes $ 57 a barrel and would still amount to a $ 2.18 trillion deficit ($ 6.05 billion). Similarly, when oil accounts for 90 percent of Nigeria’s exports, the fall in oil and oil prices will adversely affect the volume and net export value. Indeed, the steep decline in oil prices associated with the pandemic is forcing the Nigerian government to cut planned spending. reiterated that restrictions on movement of people and closing borders heralded a decline in exports. Already, countries around the world have closed their borders to non-essential movements, and global supply chains have disrupted. Although exports of the least depreciated countries due to falling commodity prices (such as Nigeria) will become cheaper, the limited markets for non-essential goods and services eliminate the expected positive impact on net exports.
    QUESTION THREE
    What are the non governmental organizations and their major roles in the society
    Given this unprecedented growth in the numbers and financial power of NGOs, how has the role changed or matured? What we see is that NGOs can have a huge impact. These NGOs are unfettered, not answerable to specific agendas, and, in many instances, can act independently.Even though NGOs are highly diverse organizations, the one common goal is that they are not focused on short-term targets, and, hence, they devote them￾selves to long-term issues like climate change, malaria prevention, or human rights. In addition, public surveys state that NGOs often have public trust, which makes them a useful proxy for societal concerns (Hall-Jones, 2006). Next, we will discuss four important roles of NGOs. These roles are (1) social development, (2) sustainable community development, (3) sustain￾able development, and (4) sustainable consumption.
    Social Development;
    NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI). One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institu￾tional independence and political neutrality. Even though NGOs need to col￾laborate with governments in numerous instances, failure to maintain neutrality and autonomy may severely compromise the NGOs’ legitimacy. Unfortunately, if a government insists upon political allegiance, the NGOs encounter the dilemma of either violating the neutrality position or failing to provide needed services to the population. Indeed, some NGOs have been asked to leave in troubled countries due to political reasons .The major advantages that NGOs bring to this role include “flexibility, ability to innovate, grass-roots orientation, humanitarian versus commercial goal orientation, non-profit status, dedication and commitment, and recruit￾ment philosophy” (Asamoah, 2003). The drawbacks in working with NGOs are similar to the advantages that were previously listed. In addition, some other disadvantages include “over-zealousness, restricted local participation, inadequate feasibility studies, conflicts or misunderstandings with host part￾ner, inflexibility in recruitment and procedures, turf wars, inadequately trained personnel, lack of funding to complete projects, lack of transparency, inability to replicate results, and cultural insensitivity”. Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community devel￾opment. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition, such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable develop￾ment (Nikkhah & Redzuan, 2010).
    Using Strategic Means to Point Out Problems
    NGOs are encouraging households to exercise their power as sharehold￾ers. In case shareholder power is substantial, this can raise public awareness and change business policies. For example, Friends of the Earth’s (FoE) Green Paycheck Campaign tells individuals how to use their shareholder power and screen their investments so that “money becomes a tool for change”
    Assessing Environmental Impacts of Products
    NGOs rank products and services based on their environmental perfor￾mance and impacts. The idea is that consumers can then pick and choose what products or brands they would purchase. For example, many consumer organizations have adopted a commitment to sustainability in their mission statements, such as in Austria, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and the Netherlands, and their assessment of products reaches consumers via maga￾zines, websites, and other publications (Kong et al., 2002). Greening the Supply of Products and Services NGOs are developing or designing products that will minimize the envi￾ronmental impacts of consumption. The consumer is simply offered an alter￾native of more sustainable consumption, and this choice is deemed empowering. For example, the WWF is engaging the retail sector to offer more sustainable food products. It also cooperates with the catering sector to design WWF Weeks for the menu and one permanent WWF dish. This cam￾paign has been successful in increasing demand for organic products in Switzerland (Kong et al., 2002).
    Focusing on Market Forces
    Creating a green demand that will drive changes in supply, NGOs are providing information through labels that would empower consumers to make informed choices. For example, WWF has worked with the industry to design labeling schemes to help in the launch of independent certifica￾tion bodies. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was created in 1993 to protect the world’s forest by a coalition of NGOs, businesses, and government entities. Unilever and WWF started the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) to establish a certification scheme for sustainable fishing.

  128. Omada Dorathy Amarachukwu says:

    Name: Omada Dorathy Amarachukwu
    Reg No: 2017/ 243131
    Department: Economics Education
    300 Level
    dorathyamarachi.blogpost.com
    amarachidora8@gmail.com

    QUESTION ONE
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria
    In the year 2017, saw Nigeria record its first full year of growth after experiencing its first recession in 25 years. While this recovery brought about an increase in business confidence, concerns remain as the GDP growth achieved was less than national population growth. This concern persists even as the IMF projected 2.1% growth for 2018, which falls below the population growth forecast of 2.6%. Population growth,coupled with high underemployment and unemployment rates (combined 40%), will result in an increase in the number of job seekers in 2018. It also translates to an increase in the number of people who look to the informal sector for economic survival.The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.So what is the informal sector? The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts ;and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the poorer developing countries.Due to its flexible nature, the informal sector in some ways is better able to adapt to difficulties such as the current global recession, providing some measure of support to those most in need. Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient, and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy. Today there is no unanimous perspective with regard to the informal economy. Some take the view that the informal sector encourages fraudulent activities that results in the loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control, reduces observance of health and safety standards, amongst others. However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services.With the significant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic development in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. Sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the informal sector are adequately considered. Consequently efforts must be made to understand the dynamics of the sector and and how best to tap the latent potential that lies within.
    QUESTION TWO
    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy
    Nigeria is the largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. Following the global financial crisis of 2008-09, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation improved. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by the growth of agriculture, telecommunications and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant reduction in poverty levels; as more than 62% of Nigeria’s 180 million people still live in extreme poverty .The outbreak of the new corona virus (COVID-19) in China has changed the world tremendously, as it has become a major pandemic and affects millions of people around the globe regardless of geographical location, age, race, gender, etc. etc. While this crisis is primarily a public health issue that has claimed the lives of thousands of people worldwide and is still counting, the economic impact will undoubtedly be overwhelming and likely to lead to major economic crises both in the formal and informal sector. Statistics on the informal sector are unreliable by virtue of the subject, yet they can provide a tentative picture of its relevance. The Nigerian Ministry of Labour and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the nation’s economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job openings openings in Nigeria. In the same vein, the Lagos office of Federal Ministry of dependent governments, the fall in global demand for goods stemming from the epidemic will significantly increase their fiscal deficit. In Nigeria’s case, Brent’s crude oil price was just over $ 26 a barrel on April 2, while Nigeria’s budget assumes $ 57 a barrel and would still amount to a $ 2.18 trillion deficit ($ 6.05 billion). Similarly, when oil accounts for 90 percent of Nigeria’s exports, the fall in oil and oil prices will adversely affect the volume and net export value. Indeed, the steep decline in oil prices associated with the pandemic is forcing the Nigerian government to cut planned spending. reiterated that restrictions on movement of people and closing borders heralded a decline in exports. Already, countries around the world have closed their borders to non-essential movements, and global supply chains have disrupted. Although exports of the least depreciated countries due to falling commodity prices (such as Nigeria) will become cheaper, the limited markets for non-essential goods and services eliminate the expected positive impact on net exports.
    QUESTION THREE
    What are the non governmental organizations and their major roles in the society
    Given this unprecedented growth in the numbers and financial power of NGOs, how has the role changed or matured? What we see is that NGOs can have a huge impact. These NGOs are unfettered, not answerable to specific agendas, and, in many instances, can act independently.Even though NGOs are highly diverse organizations, the one common goal is that they are not focused on short-term targets, and, hence, they devote them￾selves to long-term issues like climate change, malaria prevention, or human rights. In addition, public surveys state that NGOs often have public trust, which makes them a useful proxy for societal concerns (Hall-Jones, 2006). Next, we will discuss four important roles of NGOs. These roles are (1) social development, (2) sustainable community development, (3) sustain￾able development, and (4) sustainable consumption.
    Social Development;
    NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI). One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institu￾tional independence and political neutrality. Even though NGOs need to col￾laborate with governments in numerous instances, failure to maintain neutrality and autonomy may severely compromise the NGOs’ legitimacy. Unfortunately, if a government insists upon political allegiance, the NGOs encounter the dilemma of either violating the neutrality position or failing to provide needed services to the population. Indeed, some NGOs have been asked to leave in troubled countries due to political reasons .The major advantages that NGOs bring to this role include “flexibility, ability to innovate, grass-roots orientation, humanitarian versus commercial goal orientation, non-profit status, dedication and commitment, and recruit￾ment philosophy” (Asamoah, 2003). The drawbacks in working with NGOs are similar to the advantages that were previously listed. In addition, some other disadvantages include “over-zealousness, restricted local participation, inadequate feasibility studies, conflicts or misunderstandings with host part￾ner, inflexibility in recruitment and procedures, turf wars, inadequately trained personnel, lack of funding to complete projects, lack of transparency, inability to replicate results, and cultural insensitivity”. Sustainable Community Development
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community devel￾opment. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations. In addition, such NGOs can carry out projects more efficiently and at lower costs than government agencies and, most importantly, promote sustainable develop￾ment (Nikkhah & Redzuan, 2010).
    Using Strategic Means to Point Out Problems
    NGOs are encouraging households to exercise their power as sharehold￾ers. In case shareholder power is substantial, this can raise public awareness and change business policies. For example, Friends of the Earth’s (FoE) Green Paycheck Campaign tells individuals how to use their shareholder power and screen their investments so that “money becomes a tool for change”
    Assessing Environmental Impacts of Products
    NGOs rank products and services based on their environmental perfor￾mance and impacts. The idea is that consumers can then pick and choose what products or brands they would purchase. For example, many consumer organizations have adopted a commitment to sustainability in their mission statements, such as in Austria, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and the Netherlands, and their assessment of products reaches consumers via maga￾zines, websites, and other publications (Kong et al., 2002). Greening the Supply of Products and Services NGOs are developing or designing products that will minimize the envi￾ronmental impacts of consumption. The consumer is simply offered an alter￾native of more sustainable consumption, and this choice is deemed empowering. For example, the WWF is engaging the retail sector to offer more sustainable food products. It also cooperates with the catering sector to design WWF Weeks for the menu and one permanent WWF dish. This cam￾paign has been successful in increasing demand for organic products in Switzerland (Kong et al., 2002).
    Focusing on Market Forces
    Creating a green demand that will drive changes in supply, NGOs are providing information through labels that would empower consumers to make informed choices. For example, WWF has worked with the industry to design labeling schemes to help in the launch of independent certifica￾tion bodies. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was created in 1993 to protect the world’s forest by a coalition of NGOs, businesses, and government entities. Unilever and WWF started the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) to establish a certification scheme for sustainable fishing.

  129. Omeke Anslem Francisco says:

    Omeke Anslem Francisco
    2017/249564
    Economics
    assurance081@gmail.com

    Becker (2004) defines the informal sector as the unregulated, non-formal portionof the market economy that produced goods and services for sale or for other forms of remuneration. In effect, the term informal economy as, it is often used to denote informal sector, refers to all economic activities by workers and economic units that are not covered or are insufficiently covered by formal arrangements. Some of its importance are;
    1. It contributes substantially to the economy and needs to be encouraged and facilitated.
    2. Virtually everywhere the informal economy is efficient and resilient, creating jobs. It is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower-income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP.
    3. Limited absorption of labour, particularly in countries with high rates of population or urbanisation.
    OBSTACLES
    1. Lack of access to official social security scheme
    2. Infrastructure issue
    3. Limited access to finance i.e no access to credit facility by governmen.
    4. Poor knowledge of modern technology can impedes efficiency in production and utilization of resources.
    Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are establishments that are not in direct link with the government of a country. They function free from the government. They could have the aim of working towards a social, political, environmental goal of the sort in the country. Their functions are as follows:
    1. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    2. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    3. They are not profit-oriented therefore aim to pursue social welfare.

  130. Okwuchie Amos says:

    Name: OKWUCHIE AMOS
    REG. NO: 2017/249562
    DEPT: ECONOMICS.
    Email: okwuchieamos@gmail.com

    1. The ways which informal sectors contribute to Nigeria economics growths are as follows:
    a) Employment: The informal sectors of the economy absorb those that were not employed under the formal sector. Through this, the rate of unemployment are reduced drastically.
    b) Promoter of domestic production: The informal sector plays a significant role in promoting domestic production through different production activities which they engages.
    c) Increases Net Export: Informal sector contribute majorly to higher net export of a country. This they do through engaging in informal production activities.
    d) Increase in GDP: If the aggregate demand of the economy are collected adding both of the Informal and informal sector, we will see that the GDP obtained is high based on the activities of the Informal sector.
    e) Increased in the standard of living: when there’s employed, income Increases, this will increase consumption and this bring about an increase in the production capacity of the country, thereby leading to a better life welfare.

    2. Some of the obstacles faced by informal sector are as follows:
    a. Lack of technical know-how.: Lack of technical knowledge in most informal sector activities are setting their progress backwards
    b. Lack of Funds: Because fund are inadequate informal sector find it difficult to grow to a better level anticipated in this country.
    c. Government policy: The government policies and program ignore the importance of informal sector. It is the left at it’s own mercy to grow. This makes its contribution to economics growth to be at a low ebb.
    d. Insecurities: This constitute the major backdrops informal sector growth in Nigeria. Many of people who supposed to engage themselves in informal sector work are hiding on the shade of insecurities. This makes informal sector insignificant.
    e. Lack of infrastructural facilities: the lack of basic amenities that helps informal activities to thrive are no where to be found. This be makes more people to scramble for formal sector job opportunity.

    3. Non- governmental organizations are those organizations that are set up by individual or group with the sole aim of reaching out to public in order to solve one societal problem or the other.
    They are non profit making organizations established for the purpose of touching the life and welfare of the people of a particular society.
    Example, motherless babies home, home for the disable care foundation etc.

  131. Okaome Esther Chioma says:

    Okaome Esther Chioma
    2017/249554
    estherokaome@gmail.com

    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.
    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY??
    1.It has prompted governments to offer stimulus packages and measures to limit business failures and job losses. These efforts focus primarily on the formal sector, thus ignoring the informal economy and the most vulnerable businesses and persons in society.
    2.The informal economy represents all work by individuals or businesses which, by law or practice, is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements.Examples include food and flea markets, street vendors, laundromats and the like, mostly in rural or informal areas. It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees.
    3.This lack of formality also means that little is known of the ‘shadow’ economy and, as such, it is prone to be overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities.
    4.But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy??
    a.Low productivity
    b. Poor governance
    c. Reduced tax revenue
    d. Excessive regulations.
    e. Poverty and income inequality.
    3.What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    a.Community mobilisation
    b. Environment health and sanitation awareness creation.
    c. Promotion of child’s right law.
    d.fight against child labour and human trafficking.
    e.Planner and implementer of development programmers,
    f.Mobiliser of local resources and initiative
    g.Builder of self reliant sustainable society
    h.Mediator of people and government.

  132. Okaome Esther Chioma says:

    Okaome Esther Chioma
    2017/249554
    Economics
    estherokaome@gmail.com
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.
    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY??
    1.It has prompted governments to offer stimulus packages and measures to limit business failures and job losses. These efforts focus primarily on the formal sector, thus ignoring the informal economy and the most vulnerable businesses and persons in society.
    2.The informal economy represents all work by individuals or businesses which, by law or practice, is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements.Examples include food and flea markets, street vendors, laundromats and the like, mostly in rural or informal areas. It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees.
    3.This lack of formality also means that little is known of the ‘shadow’ economy and, as such, it is prone to be overlooked or ill-considered during policy formulation, disregarded in business strategy and too easily associated with nefarious activities.
    4.But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy??
    a.Low productivity
    b. Poor governance
    c. Reduced tax revenue
    d. Excessive regulations.
    e. Poverty and income inequality.
    3.What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    a.Community mobilisation
    b. Environment health and sanitation awareness creation.
    c. Promotion of child’s right law.
    d.fight against child labour and human trafficking.
    e.Planner and implementer of development programmers,
    f.Mobiliser of local resources and initiative
    g.Builder of self reliant sustainable society
    h.Mediator of people and government.

  133. ODOH CHUKWUNONSO MICHAEL 2017/249541 says:

    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy. This represents about $240bn.

    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.

    At times, even Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well- paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the in-evitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria. According to Altman (2008), the first and foremost point on the proportion of employment in the informal sector is that the share of employment in small informal enterprises tends to fall as a country’s per capita income rises. Amin (2002) observes that the proportion of the labour force engaged in the informal sector fell by between 60 and 70 percent of the labour force in low income South Asian economies, by between 30 and 50 percent in middle-income South-East Asian countries, and by about 25 percent in high-income Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore. It was also pointed out however, that in SubSaharan Africa, excluding South Africa, 78 percent of non-agricultural employment is found in informal-sector firms, accounting for about 21 percent of total employment, including domestic workers (ECA, 2005). Considering the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of selfemployment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the average earnings between the formal and informal sector. Though Nigeria does not, at present, have accurate statistics on the proportion of labour force in the informal sector, the CBN/NISER/FOS survey of 1998 indicates that informal manufacturing enterprises are small. The average number of persons employed in an enterprise was about 2. By implication, bulk of the informal employment in Nigeria can be found in non-manufacturing activities such as street trading, barbing saloons, restaurants, and other informal sector activities. The 1998 survey of the Nigerian informal sector gives some interesting insights on size of the labour force employed in the informal manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria. According to Altman (2008), the first and foremost point on the proportion of employment in the informal sector is that the share of employment in small informal enterprises tends to fall as a country’s per capita income rises. Amin (2002) observes that the proportion of the labour force engaged in the informal sector fell by between 60 and 70 percent of the labour force in low income South Asian economies, by between 30 and 50 percent in middle-income South-East Asian countries, and by about 25 percent in high-income Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore. It was also pointed out however, that in SubSaharan Africa, excluding South Africa, 78 percent of non-agricultural employment is found in informal-sector firms, accounting for about 21 percent of total employment, including domestic workers (ECA, 2005). Considering the on-going economic and financial crisis that characterizes the economies of many African countries, including Nigeria, the informal sector has the potential to provide the needed impetus for employment generation. The sector is expected to serve as a viable mechanism for the creation of job for both rural and teaming urban population in Nigeria. This has been the case in Nigeria over the years. Employment in the Nigerian informal sector is characterized by variable hours of work over a period of time, due to lack of contractual relationship in the sector, as well as the prevalence of selfemployment and home-based family workers. It therefore, appears an average worker in the Nigerian informal sector suffers from a significant degree of under-employment. The result is a differential in the average earnings between the formal and informal sector.Though Nigeria does not, at present, have accurate statistics on the proportion of labour force in the informal sector, the CBN/NISER/FOS survey of 1998 indicates that informal manufacturing enterprises are small. The average number of persons employed in an enterprise was about 2. By implication, bulk of the informal employment in Nigeria can be found in non-manufacturing activities such as street trading, barbing saloons, restaurants, and other informal sector activities. The 1998 survey of the Nigerian informal sector gives some interesting insights on size of the labour force employed in the informal manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria.

    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    The informal sector — labor and business that is hidden from monetary, regulatory, and institutional authorities — accounts for about a third of GDP and 70 percent of employment (of which self-employment is more than a half) in emerging market and developing economies. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    Addressing the challenge of pervasive informality will require comprehensive policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Initiatives to boost long-term development might include measures aimed at reducing regulatory and tax burdens, expanding access to finance, improving education and other public services, and strengthening public revenue frameworks.

    Ways to enhance the informal sector
    Nigerian government policies are typically lopsided in favor of the formal economy. The most no-table of the current administration’s policies corroborate this. In the quest for economic diversification from oil, the government has given priority to solid minerals and agricultural sectors. The N-power scheme, which aims to reduce youth unemployment, has also largely involved the employment of graduates in formal activities. With regards to informal economic activities, the government plans to empower 100,000 artisans across the country. This is commendable, albeit with a potential marginal impact as the amount only represents 0.05% of total population and 0.12% of the country’s labor force. More attention is required.

    The first strategy that is worth considering is the development of informal skills amongst Nigeria’s working-age population. The government could create and sponsor well-equipped platforms that bring individuals who intend to learn skills and corresponding experts together. This should be at low costs in order to increase their attractiveness to prospective trainees.

    In addition to skill acquisition, workers in Nigeria’s informal economy have raised concerns over credit accessibility. New graduates from the would-be government skills development institutions are expected to be faced with the same challenge. These workers mostly require funds to acquire tools and equipment that are either fundamental to their operations and/or necessary for them to carry out their activities more easily. This highlights the need for the government to give low interest loans in this space. A grant might even be more effective in reducing poverty, as it has the ad-vantage of taking off the burden of repayment. If this were the case it would allow workers to maximize their profits and further ease their escape from the poverty trap.

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. This paper examines some of the strategies for community development in Nigeria, with a particular emphasis on the role of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). The methods of study include interview, observations, intensive local field studies and extensive travel throughout the state. The beneficiaries of NGOs activities and donor agencies – students,teachers, NGO functionaries, fire burnt victim and head of house holds were interviewed. The findings includes:
    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.

    Name: Odoh Chukwunonso Michael
    Reg: 2017/249541

  134. UFOMADU OSCAR ONYEKACHI ECO 362-DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II INFORMAL SECTOR AND NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS says:

    UFOMADU OSCAR ONYEKACHI
    2017/249579
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    300L
    ECO 362-DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    ASSIGNMENT ON INFORMAL SECTORS AND NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

    NGO is an acronym for nongovernmental organization, which refers to any organization that is not created, operated, or unduly influenced by government or business. NGOs are created to serve some social good, the welfare of society.
    NGOs are a key part of civil society, the so-called third sector:
    Government
    Business
    Civil society
    Each NGO tends to have a focus or mission of either:
    Advocacy.
    Providing services that help to fill gaps in services provided by government and business.
    This informal paper is designed to define and give a brief overview and introduction to NGOs. It is not intended to be an all-encompassing handbook or guide for creating a new NGO. The Wikipedia article contains a fair amount of additional detail.
    Some other key facets of NGOs:
    NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, unless they are too informally organized to have a formal legal charter.
    Technically, all organizations outside of government and business are NGOs, but the usual practice is to refer only to non-traditional organizations as NGOs, excluding religious institutions, labor unions, professional associations, philanthropic foundations, political parties, youth organizations, clubs, educational institutions, etc.
    Advocacy of an NGO is typically for change of some sort, but they can also advocate for maintaining the status quo when important common social assets or public policies are perceived to be under threat.
    Activists and social advocates are the primary moving and motivating force behind NGOs.
    NGOs are the heart and soul of any large-scale grassroots activism.
    NGOs can be international in scope, but may be strictly national, regional, or local as well.
    NGOs are a global phenomenon, not limited to the U.S.
    NGOs can range in size from very small local groups to larger national groups and very large international groups.
    NGOs may be formally organized under nonprofit charters or may be informal organizations or unorganized groups, especially in other countries.
    Staffing for NGOs can vary from purely voluntary to completely paid professionals, or any combination between those extremes.
    Funding for NGOs is generally from private donors, but may be from philanthropies or even government grants as well.
    Purpose
    Each NGO has its own mission or purpose, such as:
    Advocacy
    Governance reform
    Anti-corruption
    Economic opportunity — when the entire national, regional, local economy, or opportunity for an entire segment of society is lacking or struggling
    Any form of injustice or inequitable treatment
    Services, especially for marginalized social groups
    Civic engagement — to fill gaps when government and business are not adequately engaging with citizens
    Advocacy
    Advocacy NGOs most commonly campaign for:
    Change
    Justice, fighting any form of injustice or inequitable treatment
    Opportunity
    Public policy
    Governmental reform
    Anti-corruption
    Human rights of oppressed individuals and groups
    Their first task is to raise awareness, but their main objective is to effect change through the grassroots pressure they bring to bear on government officials and business executives, as well as persuading their fellow citizens of their cause.
    Although political parties may advocate for the same things, NGOs are commonly formed when established, traditional political parties are perceived as failing to adequately advocate either in the areas of interest or with the intensity of the founders and members of the NGOs.
    Areas of advocacy include:
    Social justice
    Economic justice
    Racial justice
    Environmental justice
    Human rights
    Gender rights
    Empowering women and girls, especially education, economic opportunity, and participation in government
    Marginalized social groups
    Worker treatment and rights
    Immigrant treatment and rights
    Rule of law
    Governance reform
    Fair and equitable legal justice system
    Public policy
    Educating people in life skills, such as healthy living practices, family planning, and participation in governance
    Development aid — facilitating infrastructure projects
    Sustainable development — ensuring that development respects the needs of society and the environment
    Activists
    Activists of all stripes are the primary founders and workers of most NGOs.
    Grassroots
    NGOs epitomize grassroots activism and advocacy, in opposition to or complementing established and recognized authorities, NGOs are founded by individuals and groups who don’t have nominal official power in society in order to pursue social objectives that normally would have required official positions of power.
    Change
    The most common theme for NGOs is advocating for change, to move society forward to a more progressive, inclusive, and equitable social structure.
    Maintaining the status quo
    Despite the prominence of advocating for change, there are also numerous reasons for NGOs to advocate for the exact opposite, to maintain the status quo, such as when important common social assets or public policies are under threat, such as:
    Environmental conservation
    Environmental protection
    Historic preservation
    Preserving neighborhoods
    Preserving public open space
    Anti-discrimination laws
    Food regulation and safety
    Safety regulation
    Education requirements and subsidies
    Housing subsidies
    Energy regulation
    Health care requirements, subsidies, and regulations
    Accessibility for the disabled
    Sustainable development
    Granted, in many of these areas additional change may also be desired, but fighting efforts to roll back socially-valuable policies is a key role of NGOs.
    Services
    Government and business provide a wealth of services, but not all needed services are provided by them or affordable to everyone. NGOs help to fill both of those gaps, in areas such as:
    Poverty alleviation
    Health care and related services
    Family planning
    Education
    Housing
    Legal aid
    Disaster aid
    Recreational and athletic opportunities
    Environmental conservation and protection
    Hybrid NGOs
    Most NGOs tend to have a strictly advocacy or service orientation, but some are hybrids.
    For example, Amnesty International, simultaneously advocates for human rights and leads actions to gain freedom for individuals and groups who are oppressed around the world.
    The Committee to Protect Journalists is another example of a hybrid NGO, combining advocacy with action.
    That said, there is a gray area between advocacy, action, and service — some degree of action is really an extension of advocacy rather than being a service per se.
    Nonprofit organization
    NGOs are by definition nonprofit organizations, although not necessarily organized officially in a legal sense.
    Technically all nonprofit organizations would be classified as NGOs, but from a more idealistic perspective, an organization needs to have a strictly social purpose for society as an integrated whole rather than a merely personal, business, recreational, partisan political, or religious motive in order to warrant being categorized as an NGO. Otherwise, they should more appropriately be considered as merely an adjunct to the entity whose interests they are pursuing.
    Organization
    Technically, a group is not a true organization per se unless it has some legally recognized organizational status. In the case of NGOs, they would nominally be nonprofit organizations such as those granted tax-exempt status by the U.S. IRS under section 501(c).
    An informal group would not normally be considered an organization per se, but for the purposes of discussions of civil society, an informal group which acts in a coordinated manner with shared objectives, values, principles, and organized operations is effectively an organization even if not legally recognized as such.
    Governmental entities working with NGOs may have more strict requirements for NGOs, such as the UN requiring that consultative status will only be granted to NGOs which have an established headquarters, constitution, and executive officer. Far from informal.
    Other government entities such as the National Endowment for Democracy are less strict, especially for groups working in challenging countries, but still require at least some semblance of organizational structure, such as a board, even if not formally organized from a legal perspective.
    Informal NGOs
    A group needs to have some semblance of formal organization to be safely considered an NGO, such as at least some minimal sense of coherent guiding principles, values, objectives, and organized operations.
    For example, Black Lives Matter considers itself a chapter-based national organization although it is not formally organized in a legal sense.
    Movements
    Can a movement be considered an NGO? Possibly… it depends, to the degree that there is some sense of organization.
    For example, Black Lives Matter is a movement with some minimal sense of organization.
    Business front groups
    Businesses will sometimes create NGOs which appear to be independent and may be funded by multiple sources but are in reality simply front groups for the business. These nominal NGOs promote and advocate for the economic interests of the business, rather than for society as an integrated whole. They should more appropriately be considered as merely an adjunct to the business whose interests they are pursuing.
    Americans for Prosperity (AFP), a front for the Koch brothers is a prime example.
    Technically, such groups are NGOs, but this is a gray area. Responsible individuals and groups can reasonably argue that business front groups should not be considered or treated as NGOs, but equally responsible individuals or groups may reasonably disagree.
    Political advocacy groups
    Groups of likeminded individuals may create political advocacy NGOs to promote particular political agendas while keeping a distance from the individuals or even their identities.
    They may advertise and lobby in favor of their preferred political agenda but refrain from making political campaign contributions.
    These would be distinct from political parties and political action committees (PACs) to the extent that they do not make campaign contributions.
    Political advocacy groups are another gray area where technically they are NGOs, but from a more idealistic perspective they should more appropriately be considered as merely an adjunct to the entity whose interests they are pursuing.
    Muddying the water even further, business front groups can overlap with political groups, such as Americans for Prosperity (AFP), a front for the Koch brothers, advocating for both their economic and political interests.
    Origin
    According to the Wikipedia, the term non-governmental organization originated with the charter of the United Nations in 1945. NGOs existed in various forms before then, well back into the nineteenth century, but the UN seems to have formalized the use of the term non-governmental organization.
    The acronym NGO appears to have come into use only in the mid-1990’s, at least according to my online search of The New York Times.
    Some well-known large NGOs
    Most of the long-established large NGOs are of the service-oriented variety. Advocacy-oriented NGOs tend to be smaller and local. A number of NGOs have national, regional, and local chapters as well as being organized at the international level.
    Here are some representative larger and more well-known NGOs, listed in the order they were founded:
    YMCA — founded 1844
    Salvation Army — founded 1865
    International Committee of the Red Cross — founded 1863
    National Rifle Association of America (NRA) — founded 1871
    Legal Aid Society — founded 1876
    American Red Cross — founded 1881
    Rotary Clubs, Rotary International — founded 1905
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) — founded 1909
    Anti-Defamation League (ADL) — founded 1913
    Planned Parenthood — founded 1916
    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) — founded 1920
    League of Women Voters — founded 1920
    Plan International — founded 1937
    Oxfam — founded 1942
    The Nature Conservancy — founded 1951
    Amnesty International — founded 1961
    American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) — founded 1963
    National Organization for Women (NOW) — founded 1966
    Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) — founded 1971
    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, Doctors Without Borders) — founded 1971
    Habitat for Humanity — founded 1976
    Human Rights Watch (HRW) — founded 1978
    Human Rights Campaign (HRC) — founded 1980
    Committee to Protect Journalists — founded 1981
    Code Pink: Women for Peace — founded 2002
    Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) — founded 2006
    Civil society organizations (CSOs)
    As previously mentioned, NGOs are a key part of civil society. This earns them the categorization of being civil society organizations (CSOs.)
    Traditional organizations may be active in civil society as well, earning them the companion categorization of civil society actors. All CSOs are civil society actors, but not all civil society actors are CSOs or NGOs.
    The UN considers the concept of CSO to encompass not only NGOs, but institutions, foundations, and associations as well.
    Traditional organizations
    As mentioned, traditional organizations are not usually referred to as NGOs per se, such as:
    Religions
    Labor unions
    Philanthropic foundations, although they tend to give grants to NGOs
    Think tanks
    Professional organizations
    Trade associations
    Industry groups
    Standard setting organizations
    Political parties
    Youth organizations
    Clubs
    Sports leagues, associations, and teams
    Members-only service organizations
    Private schools, colleges, and universities (public education is part of government)
    As an example, the United States Chamber of Commerce (USCC) is an independent organization that may superficially look like an NGO, but is very closely aligned and associated with the business sector. It operates more like a trade association rather than for the general welfare of society.
    Other non-NGO organizations and groups
    Other organizations not considered NGOs include:
    Political action committees (PACs)
    Government sponsored organizations regardless of how independent they may nominally be
    Intergovernmental organizations or treaty organizations and alliances
    Revolutionary groups
    Rebel groups, freedom fighters
    Terrorist groups
    Gangs and criminal organizations
    Informal and ad hoc activist and protest groups
    Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
    Governments may agree to cooperate through some agreement or treaty, such as
    United Nations
    WTO
    IMF and World Bank
    WHO
    Organization of American States
    NATO
    NAFTA
    Regional security agreements, arrangements, alliances, coalitions, or organizations
    Regional development banks
    Whether the European Union (EU) should be considered an intergovernmental organization is unclear, but in many ways it does act as such.
    The tight governmental link precludes intergovernmental organizations from being considered NGOs.
    That said, intergovernmental organizations frequently have a close relationship with NGOs as partners when their missions and objectives are closely aligned.
    Government-sponsored organizations
    As noted earlier, NGOs are fully independent of government and business (even if they do get some grant funding), while some organizations have some organizational independence but are otherwise fully chartered, sponsored, and controlled by government, such as:
    National Endowment for Democracy (NED)
    International Republican Institute (IRI)
    National Democratic Institute (NDI)
    Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
    Solidarity Center — run by AFL-CIO, but primarily funded by USG through NED
    Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) — an affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, but primarily funded by USG through NED
    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
    Note: USG is Washington, DC jargon for U.S. government.
    These organizations may function similar to NGOs in various ways, but are not strictly NGOs nor normally considered NGOs. They are indeed arms of the sponsoring government.
    That said, it is not uncommon for these government-sponsored organizations to give grants to true NGOs when their interests and objectives are in reasonably close alignment.
    GONGO — Government-Organized NGO
    Shady governments will on occasion setup organizations that look and act like true NGOs but are in fact completely created and operated by the government. These are called government-organized NGOs or GONGOs. The intent is that to the average citizen GONGOs will appear to be NGOs, deluding citizens into believing that these mock NGOs represent the interests of the citizens when they do not.
    Whether government-sponsored organizations should be treated as GONGOs is a debatable gray area. They do indeed act as NGOs to a fair extent and have at least some distance from official government agencies, but they are still upfront to at least some degree and do not seek to completely hide their association with the government in the extreme manner that GONGOs do.
    Government grants
    Although independent of government and business, NGOs can commonly be partially funded through grants from governmental organizations, including intergovernmental organizations and government-sponsored organizations when the mission of the NGO is in alignment with some government mission.
    Democracy promotion and democratization
    The U.S. government and EU are very active at promoting democracy around the world, especially in countries with lingering authoritarian governments, fledgling democracies, and democracies in transition. NGOs are key partners if not the leading edge in this effort. A fair amount of their funding flows from the U.S. and EU governments.
    Democracy promotion or democratization is facilitated by NGOs focused on governance reform, anti-corruption, and human rights.
    Protest
    NGOs may participate in or even sponsor protest activities, such as marches, rallies, publicity actions, sit-ins, meetings, leaflets and flyers, or letter-writing campaigns, but protest per se is not exclusively or necessarily an NGO activity.
    On the other hand, many governments, especially in countries suffering from a democracy deficit, will consider any and all NGO activities, especially foreign-funded NGOs as inherently a matter of protest.
    Restricting foreign funding of democracy promotion NGOs
    Authoritarian governments have caught on in recent years and really cracked down on NGOs focused on democracy promotion that receive foreign funding, considering them foreign agents.
    At a minimum, foreign-funded NGOs are being required to register with the local government and disclose their funding, and at the extreme they are being shut down, or at least harassed and restricted to the point where they either voluntarily shut down or cease accepting foreign funding.
    NGO coalitions
    NGOs frequently form coalitions, where any number of NGOs who share some common interest act as a group, with the group being treated as one larger NGO. This can be done to streamline operations, facilitate funding, and to facilitate interaction with government and intergovernmental organizations who seek to partners with these NGOs.
    Volunteers, staff, and internships
    Smaller NGOs may get by strictly with volunteer staff, but larger NGOs will tend to have a full complement of paid professional staff supplemented by volunteers as well.
    Volunteers may work either within the NGO or in conjunction or in sympathy with it. Informal grassroots efforts are common, with NGOs providing direction, guidance, and support.
    Paid and unpaid internships are common.
    Alternative spelling
    The hyphenated form non-governmental organization is fairly common, but the unhyphenated form nongovernmental organization is more common and the preferred form, except that some organizations may prefer the former.
    In Europe and the UK the hyphenated form combined with the s spelling of organization — non-governmental organisation — is more common.
    Civil society
    As noted earlier, NGOs are a key part of civil society, the third sector of society.
    Civil society is defined and summarized more thoroughly in a companion informal paper, What is Civil Society? This informal paper serves as a foundation for that paper.
    When we plan for the future of e-commerce, technology, and employment, we need to improve the working conditions of independent workers, rather than continuing to pretend that regular, formal, contracted employment is the way that people want (or even should want) to earn a living. The informal sector has been the main driver of employment growth in Africa for decades, absorbing rising urban populations. While this sector is unproductive and lacks employee protections, we need to recognize that realistically, it’s where Africa’s youth bulge is going to find their livelihoods.

    African governments face a challenge: finding creative ways for gig workers to gain from the improvements in efficiency and productivity that digital platforms create, and accommodating the progressive inclusion of informal enterprise in the formal economy to generate value for all parties.

    The informal sector is resilient but unproductive
    When we talk about job losses and gains in the developed world, we are generally thinking of formal sector jobs with regular hours, regular pay, various legal protections, and registered for income taxes. But in most of Africa the situation is completely different: almost all workers are in the informal sector, whether in agriculture or informal manufacturing and services. Those who can work, must, as the state social safety net barely exists.

  135. EZIKE MARYCYNTHIA CHIAMAKA says:

    NAME: EZIKE MARYCYNTHIA CHIAMAKA
    Reg no: 2017/242944
    Email: marycynthiachiamaka95@gmail.com
    DEPT: economics

    1). The informal sector is seen to play a huge part in the development of economies, most especially in transitioning and developing nations. Informal sector therefore, plays a significant role in the Nigerian economy for it creates employment and reduces poverty. Although the informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector, the sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low. Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, resulting in a large number of women participating in the informal sector.
    2). I). Informal economy workers often work in the most hazardous jobs, conditions and circumstances across all economic sectors – agriculture, industry and services. Typically, informal sector units are small-scale, engaging mainly non-waged and unorganised workers in precarious work processes and labour arrangements, largely unregulated and unregistered, falling outside of state regulations and control, including those related to OSH and social protection.
    ii). High exposure to risks combined with low coverage of social protection place most informal economy workers in a very vulnerable situation. Although not everyone in the informal economy is poor, a significant proportion of the poor are in the informal economy, and, because they are poor, the occupational risks are compounded by such factors such as precarious housing, low quality nutrition, a lack of access to drinking waters and sanitary facilities, and a lack of basic health services. For many informal sector operators their home and workplace are one and the same place. Vulnerability to diseases and poor health therefore result from a combination of undesirable living and working conditions
    iii). It is well established that gender inequality is more prevalent in the informal economy, where women are concentrated in the lower end and earn significantly less than men. It is also in the informal economy that child labour and bonded labour are most prevalent and most difficult to address.
    3). A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment. Some NGOs rely primarily on volunteers, while others support a paid staff. The World Bank identifies two broad groups of NGOs:
    Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy.
    Role of NGOs
    i). This motive has made NGOs to become an important platform for the involvement of the civil society in public affairs for community development.
    ii). They play service delivery, welfare, technical, legal and financial services in collaboration with community based organizations in basic service and infrastructural provision.
    iii). It often covers the loopholes created by partial service delivery of the government in developing countries.
    iv). The strengthen the state system through their participation in improving the efficacy of government services, acting as strategic partners for reform-oriented ministries, filling the gaps in service provision, and helping the government to forge ties with the grassroots.
    v). NGOs have also been involved in civil society and democratic development, as evident in the politics of development across the developing world, expertise in development software and grassroot representation brining legitimacy and community mobilization to programmes and projects.

  136. Anopueme Franklin Ifeanyi
    2017/249485
    Economics

    No. 1
    (i) The informal sector creates more employment and significantly reduce poverty. In essence, this helps in the growth of the economy. Because by creating more employment the informal sector is aiding towards eliminating the economic problem known as ‘unemployment.’
    (ii) The sector also enables flexibility and the chance for women to work and still fulfil cultural and social gender roles, thereby abolishing one of the limitations for economic growth known as ‘gender inequality.’
    (iii) The informal economy provides low-cost labour, inputs, goods, and services to both formal and informal enterprises, and low-cost goods and services to the general public, especially poorer households.

    No. 2
    The Nigerian Informal sector faces numerous challenges. Some of this challenges including:
    (i) Inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure.
    (ii) Limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    (iii) Low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    No. 3
    None Governmental Organizations can be simply defined as Organizations which are independent of government involvement. NGOs also perform a variety of functions, and some of them include:
    (i) They provide information and technical expertise to governments and international organizations (such as specialized agencies of the UN) on various international issues, often supplying local information unavailable to governments.
    (ii) NGOs may advocate on behalf of specific policies, such as debt relief, and they may provide humanitarian relief and development assistance.
    (iii) NGOs may also monitor human rights or the implementation of environmental regulations.

  137. THE CONTRIBUTION OF INFORMAL SECTOR AND THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE ECONOMY

    The informal sector is any sector of the economy that is not influenced by the government. Examples includes; hairdresser,small scale farmers,street traders and so on.
    Role of the informal sectors in an Economy
    1. They help to reduce crime rate
    2. They help to create employment opportunities.
    3. They help to reduce abject poverty in an Economy.
    4. They help to balance production and it’s uses.
    5. They help to reduce the prices of goods and services and also make goods accessible to people at all times.
    The challenges of the informal sector
    1. Lack of adequate support from the public.
    2. Lack of good security around
    3. Little or no credit facilities.
    4. Lack of funds.
    5. Lack of well trained manpower.
    THE NGOs
    NGO is a nonprofit organization that fuctions independently of the government. There are various NGOs in our economy. They includes:
    I. Global Peace Development
    II. Action Aid for the Unemployed
    III. Old people support international
    IV. The Tony Elumen Foundation and etc
    The Role of NGOs
    1. They mount pressure on the government.
    2. They promote the interest of the poor.
    3. They provide basic social services.
    4. They help to reduce suffering
    5. They help to protect the rights of individuals
    6. They help to build community projects.

  138. Arinze miracle ozioma says:

    Arinze miracle ozioma
    2017/241428
    ozioma.arinze.241428@unn.edu.ng

    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. The informal economy is described as the sum total of economic activity that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing.The size of the informal sector slowly decreases as economies develop, but with wide variations across regions and countries. Today, the informal sector still accounts for about a third of low- and middle-income countries’ economic activity.
    The contributions of the informal sector to development cannot be overlooked. They include:
    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    The informal sector is important not just as a source of employment but also for the production of goods and services. In many countries Informal sector enterprises are a key form of organization of production and an important provider of employment and income opportunities in both rural and urban areas.

    The challenges facing the informal sector include:
    The average informal firm in emerging market and developing economies is only one-quarter as productive as the average firm operating in the formal sector. This is only in part explained by informal firm characteristics such as their younger age, less experience, and smaller size. Moreover, firms in the formal sector that face informal competition are, on average, only three-quarters as productive as those that do not. Better business climates can mitigate some of these productivity differentials.
    Infrastructure and planning
    The study confirms the importance of a fixed place to trade as a priority shared by most traders. Consistency in trading location is economically significant, as returning patronage is a large portion of any trader’s clientele. Thus, displacement due to construction of beautification projects in public spaces and urban developments like public transport can cause disruption to business for informal traders.Further, city services and public amenities need to be in place to support trading conditions. Water, sanitation, waste removal, shelter and storage are important fixtures to have for informal traders, who often occupy public spaces
    Government policy and practice
    A commonly discussed outcome of informal sector regulation is that it provides a framework but often does not allow access to and leverage of that framework by the participants themselves. Additionally, regulation can hamper the dynamism and flexibility that allows certain informal economic activity to exist.

    NGO’s are Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.

  139. Izuogu Chiamaka Goodluck
    2017/242101
    Economics Education
    chiamaka.izuogu.242101@unn.edu.ng
    1) In what way does the Informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    2.) What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    3) What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Answer
    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Their activities include photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting, etc It can also be described as described as the sum total of economic activity that happens outside state regulation, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy.3 This represents about $240bn.
    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements. The Informal economy has contributed in various ways which includes the following:
    1) the informal sector in Nigeria accounts for about 90% of new jobs in the country, about 80% of all non-agricultural employment and about 60% of urban jobs created, earning it the description of being the backbone of the formal sector. In spite of these percentages records indicate that its contribution to the national revenue in the form of tax is minimal.
    2) The informal labour has become a convenient means of pursuing the global agenda of privatisation and liberalisation (Amin, 2002).
    3) It stimulates the growth of the market economy.
    4)It stimulates a flexible labour market, promoting productive activities, and absorbing retrenched labour from the formal sector.
    5) is linked to the formal economy – it produces for, trades with, distributes for, and provides services to the formal economy.
    6) The informal economy is efficient and resilient, creating jobs. It is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower-income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP.
    OBSTACLES THE INFORMAL SECTOR FACES IN THE NIGERIA ECONOMY
    Some of the challenges facing the informal sector of Nigeria include inadequacies, unsafe working conditions, poor enforcement and the non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making. While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.
    Looking at the size of the informal sector, it is found out that it is difficult to obtain information on the size and structure of employment in the informal sector. Citing Peberdy commented on the horrific environmental conditions associated with informal sector activities were unfortunate. This is due to some perennial problems that have affected the development of the sector over the years. These problems has impeded the development of this sector in Nigeria ranging from financial, managerial, marketing, technological, lack of basic physical infrastructure, raw materials and other related problems thus leading to economic crises in the sector.
    NON – GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY.
    The term NGO stands for nongovernmental organiza￾tion, and it includes a variety of organizations such as “private voluntary organizations,” “civil society organizations,” and “nonprofit organization”. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.
    NGO’s are bodies which function free from the control of governmental control. These are said to be nonprofit governmental bodies which work for the welfare of societies. They act as a mediator between society and government.
    a) Provide scholarship/Financial help to poor rural/village people for their overall development.
    b) To provide help to people suffering from Natural calamities such as flood, Earthquakes, otor accidents etc.
    c) To provide free legal advice to poor people.
    d) To create awareness among the people regarding AIDS ertc

  140. Arinze miracle ozioma says:

    Arinze miracle ozioma
    2017/241428
    ozioma.arinze.241428@unn.edu.ng

    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. The informal economy isactivity that happens n, which is neither taxed nor represented in a country’s GDP. The size of the informal sector in Nigeria is estimated at about 65% and consists of activities that range from agricultural production to mining and quarrying, small-scale building and construction and machine-shop manufacturing.The size of the informal sector slowly decreases as economies develop, but with wide variations across regions and countries. Today, the informal sector still accounts for about a third ofactivity.
    The contributions of the informal sector to development cannot be overlooked. They include:
    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 60%
    of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    The informal sector is important not just as a source of employment but also for the production of goods and services. In many countries Informal sector enterprises are a key form of organization of production and an important provider of employment and income opportunities in both rural and urban areas.

    The challenges facing the informal sector include:
    The average informal firm in emerging market and developing economies is only one-quarter as productive as the average firm operating in the formal sector. This is only in part explained by informal firm characteristics such as their younger age, less experience, and smaller size. Moreover, firms in the formal sector that face informal competition are, on average, only three-quarters as productive as those that do not. Better business climates can mitigate some of these productivity differentials.
    Infrastructure and planning
    The study confirms the importance of a fixed place to trade as a priority shared by most traders. Consistency in trading location is economically significant, as returning patronage is a large portion of any trader’s clientele. Thus, displacement due to construction of beautification projects in public spaces and urban developments like public transport can cause disruption to business for informal traders.Further, city services and public amenities need to be in place to support trading conditions. Water, sanitation, waste removal, shelter and storage are important fixtures to have for informal traders, who often occupy public spaces
    Government policy and practice
    A commonly discussed outcome of informal sector regulation is that it provides a framework but often does not allow access to and leverage of that framework by the participants themselves. Additionally, regulation can hamper the dynamism and flexibility that allows certain informal economic activity to exist.

    NGO’s are Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.

  141. AFUBE BLOSSOM CHIBUZOR says:

    AFUBE BLOSSOM CHIBUZOR
    2017/249473
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    blossomafube16@gmail.com

    1. In what way does the informal sector contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    Informal sector is the combination of people who are neither taxed or monitored by the government but are either self employed or work for those who are self employed. This sector contributes to the growth of the Nigerian economy in the following ways:
    i. It provides employment by absorbing labour not already collected or being used by the formal sector. And whilst there is not tax paid making it seem like the sector does not have any impact , with careful measurement and adoption of enhanced taxation system, it can contribute a lot to economic growth.
    ii. It fosters competition making the formal sector enhance its efficiency and effectiveness to deal with the challenge presented by the informal sector. This singular act, grows the economy.
    iii. It aids in the provision of low cost goods, making it affordable and available.
    iv. It fosters inclusive growth, as the informal sector reaches even the grassroots level of the economy.
    v. It provides employment for the women .

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria?
    These include but are not limited to:
    i. Intense competition not only from the formal sector bit also within the sector.
    ii. Lack of social protection from the government who is unconcerned with the sector as it brings no tax.
    iii. Government legislation often times work against them as they are not taken into consideration.
    iv. There is no access to credit or loan facilities as the businesses are not as stable or confidently long term.
    v. The level of skills in the sector are very poor and the training centres and opportunities are far and wide in between.

    3. What are the Non Governmental Organisation and their major roles in society?
    These are organisations free from government control, they are independent of interventions from government and are not for profit. They are organised to serve a particular social and humanitarian objective. However, whilst they are not profit oriented , they still have budgets running to millions which is funded by donations and membership dues. Examples of NGOs in Nigeria include Old Peoples Support International, Total Care Unit, Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation, Action Aid for the Unemployed, Global Peace Development, Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria, Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives, Rural Urban Development .
    Their roles in the society are:
    i. Soliciting for financial aid to fund projects that benefits the society.
    ii. Promotion and defence of human rights
    iii. Influencing citizen’s participation in decision making processes.
    iv. Development and improvement of societies and communities where they are found.

  142. Agba Chidiebere Maryann (2017/249474) says:

    QUESTION 1
    The informal sector is an unstructural economics activities in a country in which there are limited government regulations but sustainably contribute to the household income and the general growth and development of a country. This sector consists of micro small and medium scale enterprises of small traders, entrepreneurs etc. They contribute through stimulation of the growth of the market economy, promotion of a flexible market, stimulating productive activities and absorbing retrenched labour from the former sector.

    QUESTION 2
    Some of the major obstacles the informal sector faces are: infrastructural challenges, financial problems i.e lack of adequate collateral for loan etc., lack of adequate skills, lack of adequate security etc.

    QUESTION 3
    Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society. Their major important roles include: a) social development b)sustainable community development c) sustaIn-able development and d) sustainable consumption.

  143. Osuiwu Adimchinobi peace says:

    1.It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.

    But it offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    It often also offers these goods in a manner more suited to the needs of customers (for example, individual items over pre-packed sizes, and in terms of preferences of taste, price and variety).For example, Parmalat used the Spaza shop network to promote and sell its individually wrapped cheese products, which now contributes more that R1 billion to its revenue.
    The informal sector sources most of its goods from the formal economy, pays rent to landlords, and is clearly an important participant in the value chains of even large companies.

    2.
    A.Little or no governmental support
    B.Lack of basic infrastructures
    C.limited availability of resources
    D.Lack of proper securities
    3
    – Health and sanitation awareness creation:This NGO helps to keep the environment clean and they promote good health too
    -Promotion of child’s rights law:They help to reduce abuse on children which helps to protect their human rights
    , promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking

  144. Okoro Daniel Chidera 2017/241444 says:

    IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL SECTOR AFFECT NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH
    It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a “safety net” of sorts for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    It also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil.
    They often also offer goods in a manner more suited to the needs of customers (for example, individual items over pre-packed sizes, and in terms of preferences of taste, price and variety). And since they are profitable they make more efforts to. Make their goods more exceptional for an affordable price.

    2 Challenges of the informal sector.
    The informal sector faces challenges which include
    High job securities,
    They are not or do not have access to a basic protection services,
    They usually have to labour long extra hours,
    Also there are inadequate social security regulations.
    3 What are the NGOs and their roles.
    Non governmental organizations as the name indicates are organisations that are not affiliated with the government. They are also not profit oriented societies in that they basically fight for the basic interests of the people that fall under their organization.
    As earlier stated these NGOs do not work for profit and one of their major roles is that they fight for rights of their members. NGOs take up and execute projects to promote welfare of the community they work with.
    Other agenders include ;Social Injustice
    Environment Conservation
    Human Rights
    Care for elderly people
    Women Empowerment
    Wildlife Conservation
    Animal Rights
    Sanitation and Hygiene
    Humanitarian Relief etc

  145. Okoye Obinna says:

    NAME: OKOYE OBINNA CHIDIEBERE
    REG NO: 2014/191864
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 1
    Nigeria’s informal sector is vast and encompasses a host of activities ranging from agricultural and food production, small scale building and construction to street trading and vending, small and medium scale enterprises. The informal sector is that section of the economy that does not require any legal procession, any formal mode of entry or registration, or strict governmental control to function. Informal sector can be referred to the shadow economy or underground economy. This is because as the name implies, they are “almost” free from government regulations especially in terms of tax payment. The informal sector of the economy is that sector of the economy where economic activities are not regulated, monitored or supervised by the government of the country either through tax or other regulatory measures. The major contribution of the informal sector to economic growth is the creation of paid employment to a large population of the country. As a matter of fact, the informal sector in most developing countries make up a significant portion of the economies.

    QUESTION 2
    Over the years the informal sector in Nigeria has been encumbered by so many problems they include the following:
    1) long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions;
    2) low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction;
    3) inadequate social security regulation;
    4) difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination;
    5) vulnerable, low-paid or undervalued jobs (particularly for women);
    6) lack of representation.
    7) Lack of capital
    8) no protection from the formal sector.

    QUESTION 3
    Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are establishments that are not in direct link with the government of a country. They function free from the government. They could have the aim of working towards a social, political, environmental goal of the sort in the country. Their functions are as follows:
    1. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    2. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    3. They are not profit-oriented therefore aim to pursue social welfare.

  146. 1. WAYS INFORMAL SECTORS CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The informal economy encompasses those activities that necessitate a cost but are excluded from the benefits and rights of the formal deeds. They may transpire as informal housing, informal transport, informal industrial sector, etc. However, these activities are illegal but are not anti-social activities like the drug trade, smuggling, gambling and pork.The informal economy is expanding its growth with a rapid pace in Pakistan from the last couple of decades. However, the position of the formal sector is on the retreat stage. There are many factors, which play to the continuous growth of the informal economy in Nigeria from the last several years. These factors include a constant share of the formal manufacture sector in total employment and output, a continuous increase of informal jobs in total employment level, the formal economy became the victim of growth share of cash transactions in the overall economy and an important one is a boost in tax gap estimation.

    OBSTACLE INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA.

    The informal economy involves economic activities undertaken by individuals and organizations, which are not subject to full government regulations. Such activities like photography, catering, hairdressing, motorcycle services, tailoring, fashion designing, carpentry, painting. This part of the economy is particularly large in Nigeria, with the International Monetary Fund IMF estimating it to constitute about 60% of the entire Nigerian economy.3 This represents about 240bn.
    Informal activities are usually not captured in the process of computing GDP numbers. Meanwhile, working in the sector is attractive due to the ease attached to operations as a result of the absence of a bureaucratic regulatory framework, and little or no formal educational requirements.

    At times, Nigerians with high formal education find employment in the informal economy when well paid formal sector jobs are unavailable. The big size of this economy, the inevitable demand for their goods and services and the ease attached to working therein, could be a strategic consideration for Nigeria to raise employment. This growth in the informal sector and an increase in employment would imply higher household income and lower poverty in Nigeria.
    CHALLENGES
    Inadequacy of technology,
    Education,
    Markets,
    Land and physical infrastructure,
    limited access to finance, and limited skills development.

    THE NON GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN SOCIETY.
    NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.
    NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. Any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level Task oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.

  147. Izuchukwu Dominic Chinedu says:

    IZUCHUKWU DOMINIC CHINEDU
    2017/249522
    izuchukwudominic2@gmail.com

    Question no. 1: In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    Ans:

    An informal economy or an informal sector is that part of the economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. It consists of units engaged in the production of goods and services with the primary objective of generating employment and incomes to the persons involved. These units typically operate at a low level of organisation, with little or no division between labour and capital as factors of production and on a small scale.
    The informal sector in Nigeria play a significant role in the growth of the economy through:

    a) Job Creation: The informal sector through their engagement in economic activities create job for the unabsorbed labour thereby reducing the unemployment rate in the country. In Nigeria, about 60% the labour force are employed in the informal sector and this shows how vital the sector is to the economy.

    b) Economic stimulation: The informal sector stimulates the economy through the production of cheap goods and services. In a developing country like Nigeria, a greater percentage of her population is poor. They depend on cheap commodities for survival. Therefore, by providing cheap goods and services, the informal sector stimulates the economy.

    Question no. 2: what are the major obstacles the informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    Ans:

    Challenges facing the informal sector of Nigeria include but not limited:
    long working hours, low pay and difficult working conditions, low job security, high turnover rates and low job satisfaction, inadequate social security regulation,difficulty exercising rights, for example combating child and forced labour and discrimination, vulnerable, lack of representation.

    Question no. 3: what are the non-governmental organizations and their role in the society?

    Ans:

    Non-governmental organizations are not-for-profit groups that function independently of any government. NGOs are sometimes called civil societies and are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment. NGOs perform some functions which include but not limited to:
    1)Human rights protection.
    2)Environmental or health care.
    3)Development of communities.
    4)Encourage social responsibility.
    5) Provision of micro finance to small and medium scale enterprises.
    6)Promote education.
    7)Agricultural development.
    8)Supporting human welfare.
    9)Support the poor.
    10) They also give support to the government for instance, during this period of pandemic, NGOs rendered financial support to government for it to be able to arrest the ugly situation.

  148. NAME; Okaforukwu chizaram sandra

    REG NO; 2017/249551

    DEPARTMENT; Economics

    Informal sector
    The Informal Sector includes any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government or other public authorities, such as businesses that are not officially registered and do not keep detailed financial records, and workers who work in jobs that do not provide basic social or legal protection or benefits. Street traders, subsistence farmers, small-scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), and others are examples of informal employment workers.

    Major obstacles the informal sector is facing in the Nigerian economy
    1. Lengthy working hours, poor wages, and occupational stress;
    2. limited job security, high turnover rates, and low job satisfaction;
    3. insufficient social security regulation;
    4. difficulty exercising rights, such as combating child and forced labor and discrimination;
    5. vulnerable, low-paid, or undervalued jobs (especially for women); lack of representation

    Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    While there is no fixed or formal definition of NGOs, they are generally defined as non-profit organizations that are not influenced by governments (although they may receive government funding).

    1) Social development
    The role of the NGOs in global social development is important, which is measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI) to facilitate the success of human development (n.d.).
    The ability of NGOs to preserve institutional independence and neutrality is one of their major strengths. Although NGOs are in numerous situations required to work with governments, failure to maintain neutrality and autonomy can seriously jeopardize the legitimacy of NGOs. Sadly the NGOs face the dilemma of either violating the neutrality position or of not providing the services they are needed in order to insist on political loyalty.

    2) Sustainable community development
    In promoting sustained community development, NgoOs have demonstrated leadership. Because of their ideology and their nature, NGOs are good at reaching and mobilizing the poor, remote communities. They can also empower these communities to regain control of their lives and can work with local organizations and strengthen them. Such NGOs are also more efficient and less costly to conduct projects than government agencies and, above all, to promote sustainable development.

    3) Sustainable development
    At international level, NGOs have played a key role in promoting sustainable development. NGOs focus more than on governments and start addressing large companies. In this regard, NGOs have focused on the social and environmental effects of business activities, partly through advances in IT. The brands of multinational corporations are also vulnerable to pressure on the work, environment or human rights record of the company by activists and NGOs. Even supply chain partners and suppliers feel pressure when downstream customers are targeted.

    4) Sustainable consumption
    As business/industry partners NGOs can also play an important role in fostering sustainable consumption. Some of the successful categories of this partnership are: development of products, sustainable homes, labeling, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), green purchases, marine stewardship, etc. The fundamental principle is whether NGOs can influence behavioral change? In particular, two questions need to be asked: (1) how NGOs educate households to change their consumer behavior, and (2) how NGOs can be potential business partners to promote sustainable consumption?

    5) Business partnerships
    In the past, the main factor in business philanthropy collaboration between NGOs. There is a different wave of collaboration. The current trend is towards strategic partnerships to address internal business issues and corporate external impacts. The partnerships are part of decisions that influence core business practices. NGOs and trade unions participate. As a result, CSR have evolved from what businesses profit to see how businesses make those profits.

  149. Doro Yahaya Adamu says:

    Name: Doro Yahaya Adamu
    Reg No: 2017/249490
    Dept: Econmics

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to the economic growth inNigeria?
    The informal sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regilated by the government and other public authorities. This includes enterprises that are not officially registered and not maintain a complete set of accouts. The Nigerian informal sector is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector account for 65% of Nigeria’s GDP in 2017. Despite its importance, the informal sector is often overlooked and misunderstood, with some viewing it as transient and expected to eventually be absorbed into the formal economy. However, a fast growing view is that informal economy offers significants job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessble goods and srevices. With the signficant contribution of informal sector to the Nigerian economy, an undeniable truth is that any notion of economic evelopment in the country is one that hugely depends on the state of affairs of the informal sector. sustainable and inclusive economic development and job creation are unlikely to be achieved unless the potential and needs of the sector are adquately considered.

    2.What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeri?
    The informal economy is faced with obstacles that are sometimes simialr to those experience by formal sector. However, informal sector are much more vulnerable in reltionto those problems as Infrastrutural issues; poor infrastructure such as transport, storage facilities water, electricity; lack of working premises, poorly developed physical market . Th informal sector are also faced with the institutional issues, no access to formal training and as a result , lack of skills in particular as regards basic basic economic skills and managerial expertise, lack of formal schooling which result in illiteracy, limited access to land and property rights, limited acccess to formal finance and banking institution, limited access ti employer’s organization tha is lack of possibilities to exercise influence, lack of access to official social security schemes, lack of information on prices, fewer market opportunities due to instance to market compliance to international standards.economics issues, limited access to technology, lack of opportunities for bulk purchase of inputs, insufficient funds do not allow for further investment.
    3. What are the non governmental organisaion and their major roles in the society?
    Non- governmental organisation play dual fundamental roles of either service delivery outlets, NGOs provide welfare, technical, legal, and financial services to the poor, or work in collaboration with community based organisation in basic service and infrastructural provision. created by the partual service delivery of governments withdrawing from involvement in provision. NGOs are recieving curreny due to their demonstration of unique and spectacular characteristics features and capabilities.
    Other roles of NGOs are policy advocacy, seeking to effect social change by influencing attitudes, policy and practices, seeking to reform state services on the basis of NGOs experiences and to lobby directly for the policy changes. it includes involvement in participatory, public interest politics and NGOs engaging in such activity realize the increasing infortance of information as they begun to utilize the power of ideas and information to promote positive change in the wider structures of government and the official aid community NGOs.

  150. Eric-nnaji Chiamaka Ngozi says:

    Eric-nnaji Chiamaka Ngozi
    2017/249499
    Economics Department

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    1. The informal sector produces goods and render services which are most times, cheaper than those produced by the formal sector.
    2. The big size of this economy the in-evitable demand for their goods and services leads to creation of employment opportunities for many.

    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    1. Inadequate credit facilities for financing.
    2. Continuous power disruption.
    3. Lack of coordination in some aspects of the informal sector.
    4. The marginalization of the informal sector in Nigeria.

    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level. It is generally established to engage in not for-profit activities. Examples of NGOs in Nigeria include:
    (i) Rehoboth Homes and Skills Acquisition Centre
    (ii) Patriotic Citizen Initiatives
    (iii) African Development Initiative For poverty Alleviation
    (iv) Liftup Care for the Needy Foundation
    (v) Support Physically Challenged
    (vi) Community Life Project
    (vii) Global Youths Awareness and Development Initiative
    (viii) Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies

    Roles of NGOs in the society
    1. Sustainable Consumption: NGOs also play an important role as partners to business/industry in promoting sustainable consumption. Some of the instances where this
    partnership has been successful is in categories such as product development, sustainable housing, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), green purchasing, marine stewardship, and so on.

    2. Social Development:
    NGOs play an important role in global social development work that
    has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI).
    One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institutional independence and political neutrality.

    3. Sustainable Development: NGOs have focused attention on the social and environmental impacts of business activity, helped in part by advances in information and communications technology.

    4. Sustainable Community Development:
    NGOs have shown leadership in promoting sustainable community development. Due to their particular ideology and nature, NGOs are good at reaching out to the poor and remote communities and mobilizing these populations. They can also empower these populations to regain control of their lives and can work with and strengthen local organizations.

  151. Ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine 2017/250816 Economic development II Analysis of sustainable development goals says:

    Ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine
    Reg no:2017250816
    Course title:Eco 362 development economics ii
    Assignment on informal secTOR and non Governmental organization (ngo).
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economyis the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.Black market sellers offer watches for sale to US soldiers in Baghdad in.Informal economy: Haircut on a sidewalk in Vietnam.Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s.Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.In many cases, unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP).However, Italy has included estimates of informal activity in their GDP calculations since 1987, which swells their GDP by an estimated 18% and in 2014, a number of European countries formally changed their GDP calculations to include prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%.The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books”, and “working for cash”.NGO is an acronym for nongovernmental organization, which refers to any organization that is not created, operated, or unduly influenced by government or business. NGOs are created to serve some social good, the welfare of society.NGOs are a key part of civil society, the so-called third sector:
    1.Government
    2.Business
    3.Civil society
    Each NGO tends to have a focus or mission of either:Advocacy.Providing services that help to fill gaps in services provided by government and business.This informal paper is designed to define and give a brief overview and introduction to NGOs. It is not intended to be an all-encompassing handbook or guide for creating a new NGO. The Wikipedia article contains a fair amount of additional detail.Some other key facets of NGOs:NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, unless they are too informally organized to have a formal legal charter.Technically, all organizations outside of government and business are NGOs, but the usual practice is to refer only to non-traditional organizations as NGOs, excluding religious institutions, labor unions, professional associations, philanthropic foundations, political parties, youth organizations, clubs, educational institutions, etc.Advocacy of an NGO is typically for change of some sort, but they can also advocate for maintaining the status quo when important common social assets or public policies are perceived to be under threat.Activists and social advocates are the primary moving and motivating force behind NGOs.NGOs are the heart and soul of any large-scale grassroots activism.NGOs can be international in scope, but may be strictly national, regional, or local as well.NGOs are a global phenomenon, not limited to the U.S.NGOs can range in size from very small local groups to larger national groups and very large international groups.NGOs may be formally organized under nonprofit charters or may be informal organizations or unorganized groups, especially in other countries.Staffing for NGOs can vary from purely voluntary to completely paid professionals, or any combination between those extremes.Funding for NGOs is generally from private donors, but may be from philanthropies or even government grants as well.
    Purpose of NGO
    NGO has its own mission or purpose, such as:
    Advocacy
    Governance reform
    Anti-corruption
    Economic opportunity — when the entire national, regional, local economy, or opportunity for an entire segment of society is lacking or struggling
    Any form of injustice or inequitable treatment Services, especially for marginalized social groups Civic engagement — to fill gaps when government and business are not adequately engaging with citizenl advocacy.
    Advocacy NGOs most commonly campaign for:Change Justice,fighting any form of injustice or inequitable treatment Opportunity Public policy Governmental reform Anti-corruption
    Human rights of oppressed individuals and groups.
    Their first task is to raise awareness, but their main objective is to effect change through the grassroots pressure they bring to bear on government officials and business executives, as well as persuading their fellow citizens of their cause.
    Although political parties may advocate for the same things, NGOs are commonly formed when established, traditional political parties are perceived as failing to adequately advocate either in the areas of interest or with the intensity of the founders and members of the NGOs.
    Areas of advocacy include:
    * Social justice
    * Economic justice
    * Racial justice
    * Environmental justice
    * Human rights
    * Gender rights
    * women and girls, especially education, economic opportunity, and participation in government
    * Marginalized social groups
    * Worker treatment and rights
    * Immigrant treatment and rights
    * Rule of law
    Governance reform
    Fair and equitable legal justice system
    Public policy
    Educating people in life skills, such as healthy living practices, family planning, and participation in governance
    Development aid — facilitating infrastructure projects
    Sustainable development — ensuring that development respects the needs of society and the environment
    Activists
    Activists of all stripes are the primary founders and workers of most NGOs.
    Grassroots
    NGOs epitomize grassroots activism and advocacy, in opposition to or complementing established and recognized authorities, NGOs are founded by individuals and groups who don’t have nominal official power in society in order to pursue social objectives that normally would have required official positions of power.
    Change
    The most common theme for NGOs is advocating for change, to move society forward to a more progressive, inclusive, and equitable social structure.
    Maintaining the status quo
    Despite the prominence of advocating for change, there are also numerous reasons for NGOs to advocate for the exact opposite, to maintain the status quo, such as when important common social assets or public policies are under threat, such as:
    *Environmental conservation
    *Environmental protection
    *Historic preservation
    *Preserving neighborhoods
    *Preserving public open space
    *Anti-discrimination laws
    *Food regulation and safety
    *Safety regulation
    *Education requirements and subsidies
    *Housing subsidies
    *Energy regulation
    Health care requirements, subsidies, and regulations
    Accessibility for the disabled
    Sustainable development
    Granted, in many of these areas additional change may also be desired, but fighting efforts to roll back socially-valuable policies is a key role of NGOs.
    Services
    Government and business provide a wealth of services, but not all needed services are provided by them or affordable to everyone. NGOs help to fill both of those gaps, in areas such as:
    *Poverty alleviation
    *Health care and related services
    *Family planning
    *Education
    *Housing
    *Legal aid
    *Disaster aid
    *Recreational and athletic opportunities
    *Environmental conservation and protection
    *Hybrid NGOs
    Most NGOs tend to have a strictly advocacy or service orientation, but some are hybrids.
    For example, Amnesty International, simultaneously advocates for human rights and leads actions to gain freedom for individuals and groups who are oppressed around the world.
    The Committee to Protect Journalists is another example of a hybrid NGO, combining advocacy with action.
    That said, there is a gray area between advocacy, action, and service — some degree of action is really an extension of advocacy rather than being a service per se.
    Nonprofit organization
    NGOs are by definition nonprofit organizations, although not necessarily organized officially in a legal sense.
    Technically all nonprofit organizations would be classified as NGOs, but from a more idealistic perspective, an organization needs to have a strictly social purpose for society as an integrated whole rather than a merely personal, business, recreational, partisan political, or religious motive in order to warrant being categorized as an NGO. Otherwise, they should more appropriately be considered as merely an adjunct to the entity whose interests they are pursuing.
    Organization
    Technically, a group is not a true organization per se unless it has some legally recognized organizational status. In the case of NGOs, they would nominally be nonprofit organizations such as those granted tax-exempt status by the U.S. IRS under section 501(c).
    An informal group would not normally be considered an organization per se, but for the purposes of discussions of civil society, an informal group which acts in a coordinated manner with shared objectives, values, principles, and organized operations is effectively an organization even if not legally recognized as such.
    Governmental entities working with NGOs may have more strict requirements for NGOs, such as the UN requiring that consultative status will only be granted to NGOs which have an established headquarters, constitution, and executive officer. Far from informal.
    Other government entities such as the National Endowment for Democracy are less strict, especially for groups working in challenging countries, but still require at least some semblance of organizational structure, such as a board, even if not formally organized from a legal perspective.
    Informal NGOs
    A group needs to have some semblance of formal organization to be safely considered an NGO, such as at least some minimal sense of coherent guiding principles, values, objectives, and organized operations.
    For example, Black Lives Matter considers itself a chapter-based national organization although it is not formally organized in a legal sense.
    Movements
    Can a movement be considered an NGO? Possibly… it depends, to the degree that there is some of organization.
    For example, Black Lives Matter is a movement with some minimal sense of organization.
    Business front groups
    Businesses will sometimes create NGOs which appear to be independent and may be funded by multiple sources but are in reality simply front groups for the business. These nominal NGOs promote and advocate for the economic interests of the business, rather than for society as an integrated whole. They should more appropriately be considered as merely an adjunct to the business whose interests they are pursuing.
    Americans for Prosperity (AFP), a front for the Koch brothers is a prime example.
    Technically, such groups are NGOs, but this is a gray area. Responsible individuals and groups can reasonably argue that business front groups should not be considered or treated as NGOs, but equally responsible individuals or groups may reasonably disagree.
    Political advocacy groups
    Groups of likeminded individuals may create political advocacy NGOs to promote particular political agendas while keeping a distance from the individuals or even their identities.
    They may advertise and lobby in favor of their preferred political agenda but refrain from making political campaign contributions.
    These would be distinct from political parties and political action committees (PACs) to the extent that they do not make campaign contributions.
    Political advocacy groups are another gray area where technically they are NGOs, but from a more idealistic perspective they should more appropriately be considered as merely an adjunct to the entity whose interests they are pursuing.
    Muddying the water even further, business front groups can overlap with political groups, such as Americans for Prosperity (AFP), a front for the Koch brothers, advocating for both their economic and political interests.
    Origin
    According to the Wikipedia, the term non-governmental organization originated with the charter of the United Nations in 1945. NGOs existed in various forms before then, well back into the nineteenth century, but the UN seems to have formalized the use of the term non-governmental organization.
    The acronym NGO appears to have come into use only in the mid-1990’s, at least according to my online search of The New York Times.
    Some well-known large NGOs
    Most of the long-established large NGOs are of the service-oriented variety. Advocacy-oriented NGOs tend to be smaller and local. A number of NGOs have national, regional, and local chapters as well as being organized at the international level.
    Here are some representative larger and more well-known NGOs, listed in the order they were founded:
    YMCA — founded 1844
    Salvation Army — founded 1865
    International Committee of the Red Cross — founded 1863
    National Rifle Association of America (NRA) — founded 1871
    Legal Aid Society — founded 1876
    American Red Cross — founded 1881
    Rotary Clubs, Rotary International — founded 1905
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) — founded 1909
    Anti-Defamation League (ADL) — founded 1913
    Planned Parenthood — founded 1916
    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) — founded 1920
    League of Women Voters — founded 1920
    Plan International — founded 1937
    Oxfam — founded 1942
    The Nature Conservancy — founded 1951
    Amnesty International — founded 1961
    American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) — founded 1963
    National Organization for Women (NOW) — founded 1966
    Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) — founded 1971
    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, Doctors Without Borders) — founded 1971
    Habitat for Humanity — founded 1976
    Human Rights Watch (HRW) — founded 1978
    Human Rights Campaign (HRC) — founded 1980
    Committee to Protect Journalists — founded 1981
    Code Pink: Women for Peace — founded 2002
    Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) — founded 2006
    Civil society organizations (CSOs)
    As previously mentioned, NGOs are a key part of civil society. This earns them the categorization of being civil society organizations (CSOs.)
    Traditional organizations may be active in civil society as well, earning them the companion categorization of civil society actors. All CSOs are civil society actors, but not all civil society actors are CSOs or NGOs.
    The UN considers the concept of CSO to encompass not only NGOs, but institutions, foundations, and associations as well.
    Traditional organizations
    As mentioned, traditional organizations are not usually referred to as NGOs per se, such as:
    Religions
    Labor unions
    Philanthropic foundations, although they tend to give grants to NGOs
    Think tanks
    Professional organizations
    Trade associations
    Industry groups
    Standard setting organizations
    Political parties
    Youth organizations
    Clubs
    Sports leagues, associations, and teams
    Members-only service organizations
    Private schools, colleges, and universities (public education is part of government)
    As an example, the United States Chamber of Commerce (USCC) is an independent organization that may superficially look like an NGO, but is very closely aligned and associated with the business sector. It operates more like a trade association rather than for the general welfare of society.
    Other non-NGO organizations and groups
    Other organizations not considered NGOs include:
    Political action committees (PACs)
    Government sponsored organizations regardless of how independent they may nominally be
    Intergovernmental organizations or treaty organizations and alliances
    Revolutionary groups
    Rebel groups, freedom fighters
    Terrorist groups
    Gangs and criminal organizations
    Informal and ad hoc activist and protest groups
    Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
    Governments may agree to cooperate through some agreement or treaty, such as
    United Nations
    WTO
    IMF and World Bank
    WHO
    Organization of American States
    NATO
    NAFTA
    Regional security agreements, arrangements, alliances, coalitions, or organizations.

  152. Igbokwe Cynthia Esther says:

    1.The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.
    This has lead to economic growth and the creation of paid employment to a large population of the country and ensure free flow of resources.

    2.The informal sector in Nigeria faces some problems which includes unsafe working conditions, Lack of credit facilities,Illiteracy
    Insecurity,poor enforcement and the non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making,
    Lack of basic amenities etc

    3.Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations,NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.They are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences.
    The roles of an NGO are:
    (I) social development, (ii) sustainable community development, (iii) sustain- able development, and (iv ) sustainable consumption.

  153. Name:ugwuda chidera Blessing
    Reg no:2017/243804
    Dept : Economics Education
    Course title /code: Development economics/eco362

    What is an informal sector ?
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    Black market sellers offer watches for sale to US soldiers in Baghdad in 2004.
    Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor[3][4] and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s.Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.
    In many cases, unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP).[3] However, Italy has included estimates of informal activity in their GDP calculations since 1987, which swells their GDP by an estimated 18% and in 2014, a number of European countries formally chatheir GDP calculations to include prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%.[7] The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.
    Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books”, and “working for cash”.
    The term is also useful in describing and accounting for forms of shelter or living arrangements that are similarly unlawful, unregulated, or not afforded protection of the state. ‘Informal economy’ is increasingly[when?] replacing ‘informal sector’nas the preferred descriptor for this activity.
    Informality, both in housing and livelihood generation has historically been seen as a social ill, and described either in terms of what participant’s lack, or wish to avoid. In 2009, the Dutch sociologist Saskia Sassen viewed the new ‘informal’ sector as the product and driver of advanced capitalism and the site of the most entrepreneurial aspects of the urban economy, led by creative professionals such as artists, architects, designers and software developers.[12] While this manifestation of the informal sector remains largely a feature of developed countries, increasingly systems are emerging to facilitate similarly qualified people in developing countries to participate.
    Social and political implications and issues
    According to development and transition theories, workers in the informal sector typically earn less income, have unstable income, and do not have access to basic protections and services.The informal economy is also much larger than most people realize, with women playing a huge role. The working poor, particularly women, are concentrated in the informal economy, and most low-income households rely on the sector to provide for them.[4] However, informal businesses can also lack the potential for growth, trapping employees in menial jobs indefinitely. On the other hand, the informal sector can allow a large proportion of the population to escape extreme poverty and earn an income that is satisfactory for survival.[46] Also, in developed countries, some people who are formally employed may choose to perform part of their work outside of the formal economy, exactly because it delivers them more advantages. This is called ‘moonlighting’. They derive social protection, pension and child benefits and the like, from their formal employment, and at the same time have tax and other advantages from working on the side.
    From the viewpoint of governments, the informal sector can create a vicious cycle. Being unable to collect taxes from the informal sector, the government may be hindered in financing public services, which in turn makes the sector more attractive. Conversely, some governments view informality as a benefit, enabling excess labor to be absorbed, and mitigating unemployment issues.Recognizing that the informal economy can produce significant goods and services, create necessary jobs, and contribute to imports and exports is critical for governments.
    As the work in informal sector is not monitored or registered with the state, its workers are not entitled to social security, nor can they form trade unions.
    Gender
    A girl selling plastic containers for carrying Ganges water, Haridwar, India
    In developing countries, most of the female non-agricultural labor force is in the informal sector.Female representation in the informal sector is attributed to a variety of factors. One such factor is that employment in the informal sector is the source of employment that is most readily available to women.A 2011 study of poverty in Bangladesh noted that cultural norms, religious seclusion, and illiteracy among women in many developing countries, along with a greater commitment to family responsibilities, prevent women from entering the formal sector.
    Major occupations in the informal sector include home-based workers (such as dependent subcontract workers, independent own account producers, and unpaid workers in family businesses) and street vendors, which both are classified in the informal sector.[48] Women tend to make up the greatest portion of the informal sector, often ending up in the most erratic and corrupt segments of the sector.[44] In India, women working in the informal sector often work as ragpickers, domestic workers, coolies, vendors, beauticians, construction laborers, and garment workAccording to a 2002 study commissioned by the ILO, the connection between employment in the informal economy and being poor is stronger for women than men.[5] While men tend to be over-represented in the top segment of the informal sector, women overpopulate the bottom segment.Men are more likely to have larger-scale operations and deal in non-perishable items while few women are employers who hire others. Instead, women are more likely to be involved in smaller-scale operations and trade food items. Women are under-represented in higher-income employment positions in the informal economy and over-represented in lower-income statuses.As a result, the gender gap in terms of wage is higher in the informal sector than the formal sector.Labor markets, household decisions, and states all propagate this gender inequality.
    Political power of agents
    Workers in the informal economy lack a significant voice in government policy. Not only is the political power of informal workers limited, but the existence of the informal economy creates challenges for other politically influential actors. For example, the informal workforce is not a part of any trade union, nor does there seem a push or inclination to change that status. Yet the informal economy negatively affects membership and investment in the trade unions. Laborers who might be formally employed and join a union for protection may choose to branch out on their own instead. As a result, trade unions are inclined to oppose the informal sector, highlighting the costs and disadvantages of the system. Producers in the formal sector can similarly feel threatened by the informal economy. The flexibility of production, low labor and production costs, and bureaucratic freedom of the informal economy can be seen as consequential competition for formal producers, leading them to challenge and object to that sector. Last, the nature of the informal economy is largely anti-regulation and free of standard taxes, which diminishes the material and political power of government agents. Whatever the significance of these concerns are, the informal sector can shift political power and energies
    Poverty
    The relationship between the informal sectors and poverty certainly is not simple nor does a clear, causal relationship exist. An inverse relationship between an increased informal sector and slower economic growth has been observed though.Average incomes are substantially lower in the informal economy and there is a higher preponderance of impoverished employees working in the informal sector.In addition, workers in the informal economy are less likely to benefit from employment benefits and social protection programs.[4] For instance, a survey in Europe shows that the respondents who have difficulties to pay their household bills have worked informally more often in the past year than those that do not (10% versus 3% of the respondents).
    Children and child labour
    This section possibly contains original research.
    Children work in the informal economy in many parts of the world. They often work as scavengers (collecting recyclables from the streets and dump sites), day laborers, cleaners, construction workers, vendors, in seasonal activities, domestic workers, and in small workshops; and often work under hazardous and exploitative conditions. It is common for children to work as domestic servants in parts of Latin America and parts of Asia. Such children are very vulnerable to exploitation: often they are not allowed to take breaks or are required to work long hours; many suffer from a lack of access to education, which can contribute to social isolation and a lack of future opportunity. UNICEF considers domestic work to be among the lowest status, and reports that most child domestic workers are live-in workers and are under the round-the-clock control of their employers. Some estimates suggest that among girls, domestic work is the most common form of employment.
    During times of economic crisis many families experience unemployment and job loss, thus compelling adolescents to supplement their parents’ income by selling goods or services to contribute to the family economy. At the core, youth must compromise their social activities with other youth, and instead prioritize their participation in the informal economy, thus manufacturing a labor class of adolescents who must take on an adult role within the family. Although it revolves around a negative stigma of deviance, for a majority of individuals, mostly people of color, the informal economy is not an ideal choice but a necessity for survival. Participating in the informal economy is becoming normalized due to the lack of resources available in low-income and marginalized communities, and no matter how hard they have to work, will not advance in the economic hierarchy. When a parent is either unemployed or their job is on low demand, they are compelled to find other methods to provide for themselves but most importantly their children. Yet, due to all the limitations and the lack of jobs, children eventually cooperate with their parent/s and also work for their family’s economic well-being. By having to assist in providing for the family, children miss out on their childhood because instead of engaging in activities other youth their age participate in, they are obligated to take on an adult role, put the family first and contribute to the family’s well-being.
    The participation of adolescents in the informal economy, is a contentious issue due to the restrictions and laws in place for youth have to work. One of the main dilemmas that arise when children engage in this type of work, is that privileged adults, denounce children participation as forced labor. Due to the participant being young, the adults are viewed as “bad” parents because first they cannot provide for their children, second they are stripping the child from a “normal” childhood, and third, child labor is frowned upon. Furthermore, certain people believe that children should not be working because children do not know the risks and the pressure of working and having so much responsibility, but the reality is that for most families, the children are not being forced to work, rather they choose to help sustain their family’s income. The youth become forced by their circumstances, meaning that because of their conditions, they do not have much of a choice. Youth have the capability to acknowledge their family’s financial limitations and many feel that it is their moral obligation to contribute to the family income. Thus, they end up working without asking for an allowance or wage, because kids recognize that their parents cannot bring home enough income alone, thus their contribution is necessary and their involvement becomes instrumental for their family’s economic survival.
    Emir Estrada and Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo have gone to predominantly Latino communities of Los Angeles, CA. to observe the daily actions of street vendors. They analyze why adults participate in the informal economy. Although it revolves around a negative stigma of deviance, for a majority of individuals, the informal economy is not an ideal choice but an action necessary for survival. While witnessing the constant struggle of Latino individuals to make ends meet and trying to earn money to put food on the table, they witnessed how the participation of children either benefits the family or even hurt it. Through field notes derived from their participation, Estrada states, “children are not the ‘baggage’ that adult immigrants simply bring along. In the case of street vendors, we see that they are also contributors to family processes”. Estrada’s findings demonstrate that children are working in order to help contribute to their household income, but most importantly, they play a vital role when it comes to language barriers. The kids are not simply workers, they achieve an understanding of how to manage a business and commerce.
    Expansion and growth
    Policy suggestions
    As it has been historically stigmatized, policy perspectives viewed the informal sector as disruptive to the national economy and a hindrance to development.[60] The justifications for such criticisms include viewing the informal economy as a fraudulent activity that results in a loss of revenue from taxes, weakens unions, creates unfair competition, leads to a loss of regulatory control on the government’s part, reduces observance of health and safety standards, and reduces the availability of employment benefits and rights. These characteristics have led to many nations pursuing a policy of deterrence with strict regulation and punitive procedures.
    In a 2004 report, the Department for Infrastructure and Economic Cooperation under SIDA explained three perspectives on the role of government and policy in relation to the informal economy.
    Markets function efficiently on their own; government interference would only lead to inefficiency and dysfunction.
    The informal economy functions outside of government control, largely because those who participate wish to avoid regulation and taxation.
    The informal economy is enduring; suitable regulation and policies are required.
    As informal economy has significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services, many stakeholders subscribe to the third perspective and support government intervention and accommodation.[3][61] Embedded in the third perspective is the significant expectation that governments will revise policies that have favored the formal sphere at the expense of the informal sector.
    Theories of how to accommodate the informal economy argue for government policies that, recognizing the value and importance of the informal sector, regulate and restrict when necessary but generally work to improve working conditions and increase efficiency and production.
    The challenge for policy interventions is that so many different types of informal work exist; a solution would have to provide for a diverse range of circumstances.A possible strategy would be to provide better protections and benefits to informal sector players. However, such programs could lead to a disconnect between the labor market and protections, which would not actually improve informal employment conditions.In a 2014 report monitoring street vending, WIEGO suggested urban planners and local economic development strategists study the carrying capacity of areas regularly used by informal workers and deliver the urban infrastructure necessary to support the informal economy, including running water and toilets, street lights and regular electricity, and adequate shelter and storage facilities. That study also called for basic legal rights and protections for informal workers, such as appropriate licensing and permit practices.
    An ongoing policy debate considers the value of government tax breaks for household services such as cleaning, babysitting and home maintenance, with an aim to reduce the shadow economy’s impact. There are currently systems in place in Sweden[62] and France[63] which offer 50 percent tax breaks for home cleaning services. There has also been debate in the UK about introducing a similar scheme, with potentially large savings for middle-class families and greater incentive for women to return to work after having children. The European Union has used political measures to try to curb the shadow economy. Although no definitive solution has been established, the EU council has led dialogue on a platform that would combat undeclared work.
    The World Bank’s 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work[66] discusses the extension of social assistance and insurance schemes to informal workers given that, in 2018, 8 in 10 people in developing countries still receive no social assistance and 6 in 10 work informally.(NGO)
    WHAT is Non government organization
    Organizations which are independent of government involvement[2] are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations,[3] with NGO as an acronym.[4][5] NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.[6] However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum.[7][8][9][10] According to NGO.org (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), “[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information
    A roomful of people
    Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the “Europe in a suitcase” project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase cooperation between European politicians, journalists and representatives of the civic sector and academia with their counterparts in Georgia.[1]
    Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had about two million NGOs in 2009 (approximately one per 600 Indians), many more than the number of the country’s primary schools and health centers.[13][14] The term “NGO” is used inconsistently; it is sometimes a synonym for a civil society organization, any association founded by citizens.[15] NGOs are known in some countries as nonprofit organizations, and political parties and trade unions are sometimes considered NGOs. NGOs are classified by orientation and level of operation; orientation refers to the type of activities an NGO undertakes. Activities may include human rights, consumer protection, environmentalism, health, or development. An NGO’s level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works: local, regional, national, or international.
    Types
    NGOs may be classified by their orientation and level of operation.
    Orientation
    Charities: Often a top-down effort, with little participation or input from beneficiaries, they include NGOs directed at meeting the needs of disadvantaged people and groups.
    Service: Includes NGOs which provide healthcare (including family planning) and education.
    Participation: Self-help projects with local involvement in the form of money, tools, land, materials, or labor
    Empowerment: Aim to help poor people to understand the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to increase awareness of their power to control their lives. With maximum involvement by the beneficiaries, the NGOs are facilitators.
    Level of operation
    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are popular initiatives which can raise the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them understand their right to services, and providing such services.
    City-wide organizations include chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups, and community organizations.
    State NGOs include state-level organizations, associations, and groups. Some state NGOs are guided by national and international NGOs.
    National NGOs include national organizations such as YMCAs and YWCAs, professional associations, and similar groups. Some have state or city branches, and assist local NGOs.
    International NGOs range from secular agencies, such as Save the Children, to religious groups. They may fund local NGOs, institutions and projects, and implement projects.
    Similar terms include third-sector organization (TSO), nonprofit organization (NPO), voluntary organization (VO), civil society organization (CSO), grassroots organization (GO), social movement organization (SMO), private voluntary organization (PVO), self-help organization (SHO) and non-state actors (NSAs). In Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian and other Romance languages, the synonymous abbreviation ONG is in use (for example organisation non gouvernementale in French, Organização Não Governmental in Portuguese, Organización no gubernamental in Spanish, and Organizzazione non governativa in Italian). Other acronyms include:[citation needed]

    BINGO: Business-friendly international NGO or Big international NGO
    SBO: Social benefit organization, a goal-oriented designation
    TANGO: Technical assistance NGO
    GONGO: Government-organized non-governmental organization
    DONGO: Donor-organized NGO
    INGO: International NGO
    Quango: Quasi-autonomous NGO, set up and funded by the government. Prevalent in the UK (where there are more than 1,200), the Republic of Ireland, and the Commonwealth.
    National NGO: An NGO which exists in only one country; they are rare.
    CSO: Civil society organization
    ENGO: Environmental NGO, such as Greenpeace and the WWF.
    NNGO: Northern (UK) NGO
    PANGO: Party NGO, addressing political matters
    SNGO: Southern (UK) NGO
    SCO: Social change organization
    TNGO: Transnational NGO; coined during the 1970s due to the increase of environmental and economic issues in the global community. TNGOs exist in two (or more) countries.
    GSO: Grassroots Support Organization
    MANGO: Market advocacy NGO
    NGDO: Non-governmental development organization.
    PVDO: Private voluntary development organization; The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) refers to NGOs as “private voluntary organizations”.
    NGOs further the political or social goals of their members (or founders): improving the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. Their goals cover a wide range of issues. to religious groups. They may fund local NGOs, institutions and projects, and implement projects.[17]

    Similar terms include third-sector organization (TSO), nonprofit organization (NPO), voluntary organization (VO), civil society organization (CSO), grassroots organization (GO), social movement organization (SMO), private voluntary organization

    Activities
    The World Bank classifies NGO activity as operational and advocacy.[21] NGOs act as implementers, catalysts, and partners. They mobilize resources to provide goods and services to people who have been affected by a natural disaster; they drive change, and partner with other organizations to tackle problems and address human needs.

    NGOs vary by method; some are primarily advocacy groups, and others conduct programs and activities. Oxfam, concerned with poverty alleviation, may provide needy people with the equipment and skills to obtain food and drinking water; the Forum for Fact-finding Documentation and Advocacy (FFDA) helps provide legal assistance to victims of human-rights abuses. The Afghanistan Information Management Services provide specialized technical products and services to support development activities implemented on the ground by other organizations. Management techniques are crucial to project success.

    Operational
    Operational NGOs seek to “achieve small-scale change directly through projects”,[18] mobilizing financial resources, materials, and volunteers to create local programs. They hold large-scale fundraising events and may apply to governments and organizations for grants or contracts to raise money for projects. Operational NGOs often have a hierarchical structure; their headquarters are staffed by professionals who plan projects, create budgets, keep accounts, and report to and communicate with operational fieldworkers on projects.They are most often associated with the delivery of services or environmental issues, emergency relief, and public welfare. Operational NGOs may be subdivided into relief or development organizations, service-delivery or participatory, religious or secular, and public or private. Although operational NGOs may be community-based, many are national or international. The defining activity of an operational NGO is the implementation of projects.[18]

    Campaigning
    Campaigning NGOs seek to “achieve large-scale change promoted indirectly through the influence of the political system.”[18] They require an active, efficient group of professional members who can keep supporters informed and motivated. Campaigning NGOs must plan and host demonstrations and events which will attract media, their defining activity.Campaigning NGOs often deal with issues related to human rights, women’s rights, and children’s rights, and their primary purpose is to defend (or promote) a specific cause.
    Combined
    NGOs may conduct both activities. Operational NGOs will use campaigning techniques if they face issues in the field which could be remedied by policy change, and campaigning NGOs (such as human-rights organizations) often have programs which assist individual victims for whom they are trying to advocacate.
    Public relations
    Non-governmental organisations need healthy public relations to meet their goals, and use sophisticated public-relations campaigns to raise funds and deal with governments. Interest groups may be politically important, influencing social and political outcomes. A code of ethics was established in 2002 by the World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations.
    Staffing
    Some NGOs rely on paid staff; others are based on volunteers. Although many NGOs use international staff in developing countries, others rely on local employees or volunteers. Foreign staff may satisfy a donor who wants to see the supported project managed by a person from an industrialized country. The expertise of these employees (or volunteers) may be counterbalanced by several factors: the cost of foreigners is typically higher, they have no grassroots connections in the country, and local expertise may be undervalued.[21] By the end of 1995, Concern Worldwide (an international anti-poverty NGO) employed 174 foreigners and just over 5,000 local staff in Haiti and ten developing countries in Africa and Asia.
    On average, employees in NGOs earn 11-12% less compared to employees of for-profit organizations and government workers with the same number of qualifications .[25] However, in many cases NGOs employees receive more fringe benefits.
    Funding
    Foreign funding of NGOs
    NGOs are usually funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding and are run by volunteers. NGOs may have charitable status, or may be tax-exempt in recognition of their social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increased role in international development,[27] particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation.
    Funding sources include membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and private donations. Although the term “non-governmental organization” implies independence from governments, many NGOs depend on government funding;[29] one-fourth of Oxfam’s US$162 million 1998 income was donated by the British government and the EU, and World Vision United States collected $55 million worth of goods in 1998 from the American government. Several EU grants provide funds accessible to NGOs.
    Government funding of NGOs is controversial, since “the whole point of humanitarian intervention was precise that NGOs and civil society had both a right and an obligation to respond with acts of aid and solidarity to people in need or being subjected to repression or want by the forces that controlled them, whatever the governments concerned might think about the matter.”[30] Some NGOs, such as Greenpeace, do not accept funding from governments or intergovernmental organizations. The 1999 budget of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) was over $540 million.
    Overhead
    Overhead is the amount of money spent on running an NGO, rather than on projects.[34] It includes office expenses,[34] salaries, and banking and bookkeeping costs. An NGO’s percentage of its overall budget spent on overhead is often used to judge it; less than four percent is considered good.[34] According to the World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations, more than 86 percent should be spent on programs (less than 20 percent on overhead). The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has guidelines of five to seven percent overhead to receive funding;[36] the World Bank typically allows 37 percent. A high percentage of overhead relative to total expenditures can make it more difficult to generate funds. High overhead costs may generate public criticism.
    A sole focus on overhead, however, can be counterproductive.[40] Research published by the Urban Institute and Stanford University’s Center for Social Innovation have shown that rating agencies create incentives for NGOs to lower (and hide) overhead costs, which may reduce organizational effectiveness by starving organizations of infrastructure to deliver services. An alternative rating system would provide, in addition to financial data, a qualitative evaluation of an organization’s transparency and governance:
    An assessment of program effectiveness
    Evaluation of feedback mechanisms for donors and beneficiaries
    Allowing a rated organization to respond to an evaluation by a rating agency
    Monitoring and control
    In a March 2000 report on United Nations reform priorities, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan favored international humanitarian intervention as the responsibility to protect[44] citizens from ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. After that report, the Canadian government launched its Responsibility to Protect (R2P)project outlining the issue of humanitarian intervention. The R2P project has wide applications, and among its more controversial has been the Canadian government’s use of R2P to justify its intervention in the coup in Haiti.
    Large corporations have increased their corporate social responsibility departments to preempt NGO campaigns against corporate practices. Collaboration between corporations and NGOs risks co-option of the weaker partner, typically the NGO.
    In December 2007, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs S. Ward Casscells established an International Health Division of Force Health Protection & Readiness.[48] Part of International Health’s mission is to communicate with NGOs about areas of mutual interest. Department of Defense Directive 3000.05,in 2005, required the US Defense Department to regard stability-enhancing activities as equally important as combat. In compliance with international law, the department has developed a capacity to improve essential services in areas of conflict (such as Iraq) where customary lead agencies like the State Department and USAID have difficulty operating. International Health cultivates collaborative, arm’s-length relationships with NGOs, recognizing their independence, expertise, and honest-broker

    Although NGOs are subject to national laws and practices, four main groups may be found worldwide:
    Unincorporated and voluntary association
    Trusts, charities, and foundations
    Not-for-profit companies
    Entities formed (or registered) under special NGO or nonprofit laws
    The Council of Europe drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations in Strasbourg in 1986, creating a common legal basis for European NGOs. Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to associate, which is fundamental for NGOs.
    Economic theory
    The question whether a public project should be owned by an NGO or by the government has been studied in economics using the tools of the incomplete contracting theory. According to this theory, not every detail of a relationship between decision makers can be contractually specified. Hence, in the future the parties will bargain with each other to adapt their relationship to changing circumstances. Ownership matters because it determines the parties’ willingness to make non-contractible investments. In the context of private firms, Hart (1995) has shown that the party with the more important investment task should be owner.[64] Yet, Besley and Ghatak (2001) have argued that in the context of public projects the investment technology does not matter.[65] Specifically, even when the government is the key investor, ownership by an NGO is optimal if and only if the NGO has a larger valuation of the project than the government. However, the general validity of this argument has been questioned by follow-up research. In particular, ownership by the party with the larger valuation need not be optimal when the public good is partially excludable (Francesconi and Muthoo, 2011), when both NGO and government may be indispensable (Halonen-Akatwijuka, 2012), or when the NGO and the government have different bargaining powers (Schmitz, 2013).Moreover, the investment technology can matter for the optimal ownership structure when there are bargaining frictions (Schmitz, 2015),when the parties interact repeatedly (Halonen-Akatwijuka and Pafilis, 2020),or when the parties are asymmetrically informed (Schmitz, 2021).
    Influence on world affairs
    Group of people (mostly women) in a room, with a woman speaking into a microphone
    World NGO Day 2014 in Afghanistan
    Today we celebrate the World NGO Day, we celebrate the key civil society’s contribution to public space and their unique ability to give voice to those who would have went [sic] otherwise unheard.
    European Commission Vice-President Federica Mogherini, commemorating the 2017 World NGO Day in Brussels
    Service-delivery NGOs provide public goods and services which governments of developing countries are unable to provide due to a lack of resources. They may be contractors or collaborate with government agencies to reduce the cost of public goods. Capacity-building NGOs affect “culture, structure, projects and daily operations”.Advocacy and public-education NGOs aim to modify behavior and ideas through communication, crafting messages to promote social, political, or environmental changes. Movement NGOs mobilize the public and coordinate large-scale collective activities to advance an activist agenda.
    Since the end of the Cold War, more NGOs in developed countries have pursued international outreach; involved in local and national social resistance, they have influenced domestic policy change in the developing world. Specialized NGOs have forged partnerships, built networks, and found policy niches.
    Track II diplomacy
    Track II diplomacy (or dialogue) is transnational coordination by non-official members of the government, including epistemic communities and former policymakers or analysts. It aims to help policymakers and policy analysts reach a common solution through unofficial discussions. Unlike official diplomacy, conducted by government officials, diplomats, and elected leaders, Track II diplomacy involves experts, scientists, professors and other figures who are not part of government affairs.

  154. OZUMBA RACHEL CHIDINMA says:

    (*A*)IN WHAT WAYS DOES THE INFORMAL ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA?

    The importance of the informal economy can not be overemphasized.
    Virtually everywhere the informal economy is efficient and resilient, creating jobs. It is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower-income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP. It exists separately from the formal economy.

    (*B*)WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTACLES INFORMAL SECTOR IS FACING IN NIGERIA?
    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including
    1) Inadequacy of technology
    2)Education
    3)Markets
    4)Land and Physical Infrastructure 5)Limited access to finance: This can be as a result of bad job opportunities (unemployment)/ underemployment.
    6)Limited Skills development: Most times people are not given the opportunities to learn skills that will help them in the 21st century or at times most of this skills are too expensive for an average man to learn.

    (*C*)WHAT ARE THE NGO’s AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY?
    Non Governmental Organisations, or NGOs, as they are called in common parlance, are organisations which are involved in carrying out a wide range of activities for the benefit of underprivileged people and the society at large. As the name suggests, NGOs work independently, without any financial aid of the government although they may work in close coordination with the government agencies for executing their projects.

    Their roles in the society includes:
    The roles for such NGOs include 1)Counseling and support service, 2)Awareness raising and advocacy,
    3)Legal aid and microfinance and all this can be done/achieved by :

    *Funding projects
    *Contributing to awareness, and *Promoting the self-organization of various groups.

  155. NWAFOR CLARA DABELECHI says:

    NWAFOR CLARA DABELECHI
    2017/249534
    ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 1
    employment opportunities: the sector has a very high propensity to create jobs for the unemployed in the Nigeria economy.
    Reduction of poverty in Nigeria: The informal sector provides jobs for people thereby reducing unemployment which is one of the Major causes of poverty in Nigeria.
    A means for Diversification of the economy: The informal sector is diverse and comprises all industries, not just trade. Most of the multi-person, employing enterprises are in construction, retail trade and services, but also in manufacturing and communication.
    QUESTION 2
    Access to finance: credit facilities is one of the major problems facing the informal economy in Nigeria. Loan is not easily accessible which will limit their expansion.
    Infrastructures: the bad infrastructural state of Nigeria does not provide a conducive Environment for the inform economy. The lack of constant electricity supply, bad roads network, water and others gives a negative impact on the economy
    Limited skills development: most persons in the informal sector are not educated or have necessary skills to promote their business. This forms a big obstacles to the informal sector
    Other obstacles include: Lack of adequate technology, insecurities, corruption, etc.
    QUESTION 3
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. It is avoluntary group of individuals or organizations, usually not affiliated with any government. It’s roles in the society includes:
    1.community mobilization on environment Protection,
    2. health and sanitation awareness creation
    3. promotion of child’s rights law 4.promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education
    5.fight against child labour and human trafficking

  156. Nweke Ngozi Veronica 2017/242946 says:

    Informal sector is the sector good of government control. The accounts for most percentage of national income in Nigeria as it ansorbs most individuals in the labour market.
    The jnformal sector is faced with several challenges such as lack of capital, harsh working conditions, unfavorable market policies, poorly constructed buildings, insecurity to mention a few.
    Non governmental organisations (NGO’s) are not profit making organization that see to the upholding of human rights and improving welfare of citizens.

  157. ANTHONY OLUCHI PRECIOUS says:

    1) In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    Answer:
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR:
    1. It is a major provider of employment for the majority population in Nigeria.
    2. The informal sector is responsible for the provision of goods and services for lower-income groups, and thus contributes significantly to GDP.
    4. Although it exists separately from the formal economy, it is linked to the formal economy – it produces for, trades with, distributes for, and provides services to the formal economy.
    2) What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    Answer:
    1. High taxes and license fees:
    In Nigeria, most businesses in the informal sector are levied with high tax rates and license fees. This acts as a major obstacle.
    2. Unavailability of credit:
    The informal sector has little or no access to loans, credit or grants from government or commercial banks. And this is also an obstacle.
    3. Difficulties with existing regulations:
    Most regulations are cumbersome and difficult and thus, do not easily encourage the informal sector.
    4. Lack of capital equipment:
    Another obstacle faced by the informal sector is that, they is little or no available capital equipment that can boost their businesses.
    3) What are the non governmental organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Answer:
    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), “[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.”
    The following are lists of NGOs in Nigeria:
    1. Old Peoples Support International.
    2. Total Care Unit.
    3. Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation.
    4. Action Aid for the Unemployed.
    5. Global Peace Development.
    6. Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria.
    7. Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives.
    8. Rural Urban Development.
    Roles of NGOs in Nigeria are:
    1. human rights.
    2. environment or health.
    3. develop communities.
    4. encourage social responsibility.
    5. Micro finance.
    6. promote education.
    7. agricultural development.
    8. supporting human welfare.

  158. Bright Anayo says:

    Name: Anayo Bright Udochukwu
    Reg Number: 2017/249482
    Department: Economics

    1. An overview: foremost, the informal sector is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. However, informal sector has contributed in the growth of Nigeria economy in the following ways: Increase in gross domestic product, Increase in employment, Reduction of poverty and hunger, Share equality, Help in informal education etc.

    2. The major obstacles facing informal sector in Nigeria are many to be accounted for: Bulling by government agencies, Negliance by government via social needs, Operating capital, Limited technology, Inadequate enterprenurial and managerial skills and lack of access to credit facilities etc.

    3(a). Non – governmental ogransations is a non- profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.

    3(b). A good number of non governmental organisations plays a typical role in the society which are very significant in the societal growth. Thus, they are funded by consensus of good citizens. Such roles includes: community mobilization, environmental cleaning , health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.

  159. Ugwu Amaechi Jude says:

    Ugwu Amaechi Jude
    2017/242434
    Economics Department
    Informal sector comprises any economic activities that are not under the control of the government. Informal sector contributes immensely to the Nigerian economy by creating an alternative source of economic activities for majority of Nigerian. This is because the formal sector cannot absorb everyone in this country.
    The major obstacles to informal sector includes but not limited to economic issues, infrastructure problems, excessive registration, high cost of running business etc.
    Non governmental organisation refers to organisations that are not under the control of the nation state or government. Their roles are mainly charity based which include but not limited to catering for internally displaced persons, medical charities, providing food and clothing to the less privileged.

  160. ANTHONY OLUCHI PRECIOUS says:

    Anthony oluchi precious 2017/249486
    Economics
    Anthonyprecious36@gmail.com

    1) In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    Answer:
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR:
    1. It is a major provider of employment for the majority population in Nigeria.
    2. The informal sector is responsible for the provision of goods and services for lower-income groups, and thus contributes significantly to GDP.
    4. Although it exists separately from the formal economy, it is linked to the formal economy – it produces for, trades with, distributes for, and provides services to the formal economy.

    2) What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    Answer:
    1. High taxes and license fees:
    In Nigeria, most businesses in the informal sector are levied with high tax rates and license fees. This acts as a major obstacle.
    2. Unavailability of credit:
    The informal sector has little or no access to loans, credit or grants from government or commercial banks. And this is also an obstacle.
    3. Difficulties with existing regulations:
    Most regulations are cumbersome and difficult and thus, do not easily encourage the informal sector.
    4. Lack of capital equipment:
    Another obstacle faced by the informal sector is that, they is little or no available capital equipment that can boost their businesses.

    3) What are the non governmental organizations and their major roles in the society?

    Answer:
    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), “[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.”
    The following are lists of NGOs in Nigeria:
    1. Old Peoples Support International.
    2. Total Care Unit.
    3. Ven Dr. Josiah Alozie Foundation.
    4. Action Aid for the Unemployed.
    5. Global Peace Development.
    6. Society for Telemedicine and E-Health in Nigeria.
    7. Lygel Youths & Leadership Initiatives.
    8. Rural Urban Development.
    Roles of NGOs in Nigeria are:
    1. human rights.
    2. environment or health.
    3. develop communities.
    4. encourage social responsibility.
    5. Micro finance.
    6. promote education.
    7. agricultural development.
    8. supporting human welfare.

  161. ONAH GEORGE CHIEDOZIE says:

    Name: ONAH GEORGE CHIEDOZIE.
    REG. NO: 2017/241453.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.
    Informal sector in Nigeria is the existence of large, informal firms. This goes against the widely-held belief that informal firms are small, family-run enterprises. These small firms do exist. But they coexist with a smaller number of very large enterprises. Understanding this heterogeneity of the informal sector is crucial for designing appropriate policies. The existence of successful, large, informal firms is testimony to the entrepreneurial potential of West African economies. This dynamism is throttled, however, by weak business climates and lack of enforcement of regulations, which encourage and allow large informal operators to operate with near impunity. It also impacts the jobs picture in these countries.
    The informal sector is largely characterized by several qualities: skills gained outside of a formal education, easy entry (meaning anyone who wishes to join the sector can find some sort of work which will result in cash earnings), a lack of stable employer-employee relationships, and a small scale of operations. Workers who participate in the informal economy are typically classified as employed. The type of work that makes up the informal economy is diverse, particularly in terms of capital invested, technology used, and income generated.
    The spectrum ranges from self-employment or unpaid family labor to street vendors, shoe shiners, and junk collectors. On the higher end of the spectrum are upper-tier informal activities such as small-scale service or manufacturing businesses, which have more limited entry. The upper-tier informal activities have higher set-up costs, which might include complicated licensing regulations, and irregular hours of operation. However, most workers in the informal sector, even those are self-employed or wage workers, do not have access to secure work, benefits, welfare protection, or representation. These features differ from businesses and employees in the formal sector which have regular hours of operation, a regular location and other structured benefits.
    The informal sector has been expanding as more economies have started to liberalize.This pattern of expansion began in the 1960s when a lot of developing countries didn’t create enough formal jobs in their economic development plans, which led to the formation of an informal sector that didn’t solely include marginal work and actually contained profitable opportunities.In the 1980s, the sector grew alongside formal industrial sectors. In the 1990s, an increase in global communication and competition led to a restructuring of production and distribution, often relying more heavily on the informal sector.

    NON GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
    A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.

  162. Ugwoke Cornelius Esomchi says:

    Ugwoke Cornelius Esomchi
    2017/249581
    Economics department
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal sector is that sector of the economy that doesn’t receive government funding thereby they are not regulated by the government…
    For a country like Nigeria with a failed government, the informal sector provides much economic boost for the nation by various means such as:
    Provision of job opportunities or employment
    Provision of social amenities by the rich individuals

    What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    Some of the threats facing the informal sector are;
    Insecurity
    Long hours of work with little or no pay
    Lack of basic amenities by the government I.e roads
    Lack of capital to start up
    What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    NGOs are non governmental organizations, they operate without the involvement of the government
    Some of their roles are
    Protection of human right
    Protection of the girl child
    Creating awareness on some specific areas or events I.e aids
    Helping in building community projects I.e borehole

  163. Ojigwe Shalom Chinaza says:

    Name: Ojigwe Shalom Chinaza
    Department: Economics
    Reg No:2017/249549

    How does the informal sector affect the economic growth in Nigeria?

    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides criaiical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.
    The informal economy is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state. The concept originally applied to self-employment in small unregistered enterprises. It has been expanded to include wage employment in unprotected jobs. The people in the informal economy include black marketers, hair dressers, subsistence farmers, private cab drivers, students who are industrious job(who bake, sell clothes, cook, and offer different services)
    Now, how does this informal sector affect economic growth in Nigeria?
    Personally, I believe that the informal economy (also called the informal sector) is not in its entirety bad for the economy
    Apart from the fact that due to the nature of the jobs in this sector is no definite wage rate, not registered; it is impossible to tax them directly and are often times disorganized; the informal sector have been of more help to the economy. The informal Sector in it’s actual sense contributes a large percentage in the country’s GDP.
    In economic development, it has also aided redistribution of wealth amongst the poor and the middle classes. It has also aided employment because in this sector, small businesses owned by individuals also get to employ people.
    The fact that people are also employed also aids the creation of wealth in an economy.

    What are the obstacles facing the informal Sector in Nigeria?

    While offering the advantage of employment flexibility in some economies, a large informal sector is associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    Addressing the challenge of pervasive informality will require comprehensive policies that take into account country-specific conditions. Initiatives to boost long-term development might include measures aimed at reducing regulatory and tax burdens, expanding access to finance, improving education and other public services, and strengthening public revenue frameworks.

    Also, the disorganization in the informal Sector could give room to extortion of the masses as well as the individuals in the businesses. Also, the fact that there isn’t any government interference in the informal Sector, is an obstacle in its self. Government interference provides a source of stable regulation in an economic sector. The informal Sector is without government interference, and this does not support the growth of the sector.

    What are the non-governmental organizations in Nigeria and the roles they play?

    First of all, what’s a non-governmental organization? Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as acronym are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.
    The following is a List of NGO’s in Nigeria:

    • The Havids Centre for environment and Development
    • Children of Farmers Club (CFC)
    • Initiative for Community Dev
    • Women of Vision Association
    • The Nigerian Foundation
    • Afro Centre for Dev. Of Peace & Justice
    • Africa Initiative for Education and Economic Development
    • Global Women Empowerment Association (GLOWEM)
    • C.Y.E.
    • Initiative for Basic Rights of Nigeria Citizens (IBRONC)
    • Centre for Community Empowerment for underprivileged
    • Voluntary Work camps Association of Nigeria
    • Grace Center
    • Female Leadership Forum
    • BAOBAB for Women’s Human Right
    • Stelben Foundation on VVF/STIs
    • Pathfinder International
    • Torjir-Agber Foundation
    • Women Solace & Enablement Foundation
    • Civil Society Coalition for Poverty Eradication
    • Women Environmental Programme (WEP)
    • Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Center (CISLAC)
    • Research and Training for Real Empowerment
    • Aya International Development Indigenous Knowledge Initiative Nigeria
    • Challenged Children Foundation (3CF)
    • Rahi Medical Outreach
    • Center for Peace building and Socio Economic Resources Development
    • Global Network for Peace and Anticorruption Initiative
    • Center for Care of Vulnerable and Development Initiatives
    • Center for Organizational and professional Ethics (COPEAFRICA)
    • Kanem Bornu Human Development Association (KABHUDA)
    • Vantaged Teems Center
    • Poverty Alleviation for the Poor Initiative
    • Health & Social Service Initiative
    • Afri-Growth Foundation
    • Ken Nnamani Centre for Leadership Dev.
    • Africa Safe Water Foundation
    • Grassroots Community Development Initiative
    • Foundation for Promotion of Good Health

    Non governmental organizations are known for doing the following:
    1. A number of these NGOs are into various aspects of community development such as: community mobilization, environment, health and sanitation awareness creation, promotion of child’s rights law, promotion of sexuality and reproductive health education and fight against child labour and human trafficking etc.
    2. Some of the NGOs are self financing – Owen Obaseki foundation, Sir Osunde foundation and Emmanuel Arigbe Osula foundation – while others relies on support from donor agencies.
    3. Donor agencies in Edo state includes : World Bank, European Union and Niger Delta Development Commission(NDDC) and some individuals.
    4. Some of the NGOs whose activities are prominent in Edo state includes: Body Enhancement, Annual Reconstructive Surgery (BEARS) foundation, Lift Above Poverty Organization (LAPO), Girls Power Initiative (GPI) and Pro-Health International. It is suggested that NGOs should as a matter of necessity collaborate with each other, in order to have their efforts fully appreciated by majority of those in need of their services. Also the government should participate in the funding of NGOs activities.
    In general, the Non-Governmental Organization is a positive approach to rural development.

  164. Igboka Chizoba Edna (2017/249512) says:

    The Informal Sector contributes a great deal to economic growth in Nigeria. The following are the major ways:
    (i) Creation of Employment: It is no news that Nigeria is faced with the problem of unemployment as there are many labour personnels chasing few readily available formal jobs in the nation. So the next best option or way out of being unemployed is to be self-employed. That is, to either start up a business of buying and selling or develop and learn a skill that would make one automatically part of the Informal sector and hence reduce the rate of unemployment. The higher the number of people that are employed or have jobs, the higher the level of productivity, income and consequently, the higher the rate of economic growth.
    (ii) Increase in Productivity
    (iii) Eradication of Poverty: When people are able to earn a living outside the formal sector, it leads to increase in the standard of living of the citizens and eradication of poverty to a great extent, there by enhancing economic growth
    QUESTION TWO
    The Informal sector is also faced with some challenges or obstacles which includes:
    Institutional inadequacies
    Unsafe working conditions
    Poor enforcement
    Inadequacy of technology
    Limited access to finance
    Non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making.
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL
    What is an NGO? The term NGO stands for nongovernmental organization, and it includes a variety of organizations such as “private voluntary organizations,” “civil society organizations,” and “nonprofit organization”
    Their roles are:
    * Social Development
    NGOs play an important role in global social development—work that has helped facilitate achievements in human development as measured by the UN Human Development Index (HDI) (n.d.).
    One of the major strengths of NGOs is their ability to maintain institutional independence and political neutrality.NON-GOVERNMENTAL
    What is an NGO? The term NGO stands for nongovernmental organization, and it includes a variety of organizations such as “private voluntary organizations,” “civil society organizations,” and “nonprofit organization”
    Their roles are:
    * Social Development

  165. NAME: ACHONWA DAVID CHUKWUDI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/249472
    In what ways does the informal sector contribute to the economic growth in Nigeria
    The informal sector provides low cost labour inputs goods and services to bothformal and informal enterprises and low cost goods and services to the general public especially poorer household. Informal enterprises and workers are less productive than formal entreprise and workers.
    In terms of gross domestic output the informal sector is estimated to contribute about 6% to the GDP, still these are economic activities that provides income for many people.
    The informal sector is a major provider of employment, goods and services for lower income groups. It contributes significantly to GDP. A job in the informal sector reduces poverty about as much as job in the formal sector. Earnings from jobs in the informal sector plays a small role in reducing poverty rates, especially because there are fewer informal sector jobs. As employment increased, inflation reduces and hence maintains political stability in the economy despite of the existence of a huge pool of surplus laborers.
    What are the major obstacles the informal sector is facing in Nigeria Economy.
    Nigeria informal sector faces several problems, which includes
    1. Inadequate technology
    2. Limited markets, lands and infrastructures.
    3. Limited skills development.
    4. Low productivity.
    5. Reduced tax revenues.
    6. Poor governance.
    7. Excessive regulations.
    8. Poverty and income inequalities.
    9. Lack of social protection and legal representation.
    10. Finally lack of governmental and institutional support.
    Non governmental organizations and roles..
    Non governmental organizations are organizations which are independent of governments organizations. They are also subgroups of organizations founded up by citizens which includes clubs and associations that provides services to their members and others. They are non profit groups interested in the public interest.
    The roles of non governmental organizations to the society includeson
    1. They advocates on behalf of specific policies, such as debt relif or the banning of landmines and they also provides humanitarian relief and development assistance eg the red cross society.
    2. They provides information and technical expertise to governments and international organizations.
    3. They provides social justice, development and human right.
    4. They develope local markets and local products, develop social, capital and human resources, encourage and motivates people to participate in activities.

  166. Asika Joy ogechukwu
    2017/242025
    Economics dept

    The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    Covid 19: Implications on the Informal Sector ,Nigeria is the largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. Following the global financial crisis of 2008-09, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation improved. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by the growth of agriculture, telecommunications and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant reduction in poverty levels; as more than 62% of Nigeria’s 180 million people still live in extreme poverty .The outbreak of the new corona virus (COVID-19) in China has changed the world tremendously, as it has become a major pandemic and affects millions of people around the globe regardless of geographical location, age, race, gender, etc. While this crisis is primarily a public health issue that has claimed the lives of thousands of people worldwide and is still counting, the economic impact will undoubtedly be overwhelming and likely to lead to major economic crises both in the formal and informal sector. Statistics on the informal sector are unreliable by virtue of the subject, yet they can provide a tentative picture of its relevance (Oluranti, Odunaike & Jawando, 2015). The Nigerian Ministry of Labour and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the nation’s economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job openings in Nigeria. In the same vein, the Lagos office of Federal Ministry of Labour declared that the informal sector accounts for 80 per cent of non-agricultural employment, 60 per cent of urban employment and over 90 per cent of new jobs in Nigeria . Arguably, the informal sector constitutes the largest employer of labour and a source of living for many Nigerian. It therefore, contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of employment and income sourcing. In Nigeria, the Bank of Industry (BoI) has declared the informal sector an important economic factor that contributed to about 65% of the
    country’s GDP in 2017. With a pervasive informal sector and outbreak of Covid-19, the Nigerian economy is expected to drop drastically. It was opined that COVID-19 crisis is causing all components of aggregate demand, except for government purchases, to fall in different dimensions.The informal economy is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state. The informal sector is responsible for the provision of goods and services for lower-income groups, and thus contributes significantly to GDP. Although it exists separately from the formal economy, it is linked to the formal economy – it produces for, trades with, distributes for, and provides services to the formal economy.

    The major obstacle include:
    High taxes and license fees:
    In Nigeria, most businesses in the informal sector are levied with high tax rates and license fees. This acts as a major obstacle.
    2. Unavailability of credit:
    The informal sector has little or no access to loans, credit or grants from government or commercial banks. And this is also an obstacle.
    3. Difficulties with existing regulations:
    Most regulations are cumbersome and difficult and thus, do not easily encourage the informal sector.
    4. Lack of capital equipment:
    Another obstacle faced by the informal sector is that, they is little or no available capital equipment that can boost their businesses.

    Non governmental organization
    What Is an NGO?
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.While “NGO” has various interpretations, the term is generally accepted to include non-profit, private organizations that operate outside of government control. Some NGOs rely primarily on volunteers, while others support a paid staff. The World Bank identifies two broad groups of NGOs:

    Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy.1
    Some NGOs may fall under both categories simultaneously. Examples of NGOs include those that support human rights, advocate for improved health or encourage political participation.How NGOs are Funded
    As non-profits, NGOs rely on a variety of sources for funding, including:
    membership dues
    private donations
    the sale of goods and services
    grants
    Despite their independence from governments, some NGOs rely heavily on government funding. Large NGOs may have budgets in the millions or billions of dollars.
    Types of NGOs
    A number of variations of the NGO acronym exist, including:
    INGO: An international NGO. For example, the Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe is comprised of more than 300 participating INGOs.2
    GONGO: This means government-organized NGO, often derogatory. Foreign Policy describes GONGOs as a government-backed NGOs set up to advocate on the behalf of a repressive regime in the international arena.3
    QUANGO: Chiefly a British term, often derogatory. A quango is a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization that relies on public funding. Its senior officials are appointed by the government. A Financial Times opinion piece writes that quangos are seen as useless and are often staffed by quangocrats.4
    ENGO: An environmental NGO, for example, Greenpeace or the World Wildlife Fund. Both groups operate internationally in addition to advocating for the environment. They are often simply referred to as NGOs.
    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, were first called such in Article 71 in the Charter of the newly formed United Nations in 1945. While NGOs have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence (although they may receive government funding).

    As one can tell from the basic definition above, the difference between nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and NGOs is slim. However, the term “NGO” is not typically applied to U.S.-based nonprofit organizations. Generally, the NGO label is given to organizations operating on an international level although some countries classify their own civil society groups as NGOs.

    NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  167. Sunday Emem Mfon says:

    Name: Sunday Emem Mfon
    Reg No: 2017/242429
    Department: Economics

    1. It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty.
    But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates. The cooperatives and SMMEs in these areas thus have an important role to fulfil. Yet, despite its size, businesses in this sector are extremely vulnerable to external shocks. While formal companies may have built up reserves, can access debt financing or can afford insurance against loss of income, informal businesses often live hand-to-mouth and thus need to operate daily to survive.The impact on unemployment and business continuity as a result of this crisis on this sector will be immediate and severe. Linked to the role of the sector in job creation is the vital impact of informal-sector employment on poverty alleviation. The work of Cichello and Rogan (see Chapter 9 in the book and their Econ3x3 article) shows that informal-sector income is relatively effective in reducing poverty. This is because income from informal-sector work mostly flows to households that are poor. In terms of poverty impact, the destruction of 100 jobs in the informal sector is the equivalent of losing about 60 to 80 formal-sector jobs. From a poverty-reduction viewpoint this is a major finding for policy-makers: one cannot be cavalier about losing or destroying informal-sector jobs.
    At this point we can already say that the overall policy goal must be to retain existing informal-sector employment (i.e. measures should do no harm), to improve the livelihoods, security and income of those already in the informal sector, and address barriers to entry and growth to create room for newcomers and employment expansion. In short, policy must enable and support enterprises and workers in the informal sector. The informal sector simply is, to borrow a phrase, ‘too big to fail’. Recognising the informal sector as an integral part of the economy, rather than ignoring it, is a crucial first step towards such a policy approach.

    2. – Inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land
    – Physical infrastructure,
    – Limited access to finance, and
    – Limited skills development.

    3. NGOs are Non-governmental organizations set up purposely as a beneficial program for the less privileged and socially affected citizens of a country. It is a non-profit making organization which is organized on a local, national and international level. It is driven by people with a common interest to perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions. NGOs bring citizen concerns to the Government, monitor and advocate policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. NGOs focus on numerous aspects that are indeed important to the citizens of a country. Such aspects include:
    human rights, legal support, promoting education, agricultural development, encouraging social responsibility, poverty alleviation, supporting human welfare, development of communities, health or environment, etc.
    NGOs are mostly set up to improve the lives of people by providing much-needed services free of charge. There are lots of NGOs in Nigeria with various activities that cannot be overlooked. Living in a country where many of its citizens are subjected to untold hardship, emotional trauma, poverty, etc. The presence of NGOs helps to bring the solution to such problems and ensuring that it is reduced to the minimum. There are many people out there who seek help which the Government cannot necessarily provide due to poor administration and the NGOs exist to ensure such help is provided to such distressed citizens.
    The following are the list of NGOs in Nigeria and their activities:
    – Angels Discovery Circle Initiative:
    This is a non-profit organization in Nigeria that offers humanitarian services, scholarship programs, skill acquisitions, safety awareness and rehabilitating.

    -Sought After Women and Children Foundation:
    This is a registered non-governmental organization in Nigeria dedicated to ministering to abused women and abandoned children in the society.
    Their activities include: Rehabilitation programs, Orphanage homes and Outreaches to other NGOs and Homes.
    Services: Shelter for children, Empowering women, Saving a family.

    -Association for Reproductive and Family Health
    This is one of the leading indigenous non-governmental organization in Nigeria committed to improving the quality of life of undeserved and vulnerable communities by promoting access to quality health care and harnessing community capacity for sustainable development.

    -Africa Youth Growth Foundation
    This is a non-governmental organization set up with the sole purpose of contributing to positive change in the economic and social status of African youth through effective programs that deliver sustainable outcomes.

    Their activities: Migration, Democratic Governance and Development of individuals, communities and societies.

    -CLEEN Foundation
    This non-governmental organization was established to promote public safety, security and accessible justice through the strategies of empirical research, legislative advocacy, democratic programmes and publication in partnership with government, civil society.

    – Tender Arts Nigeria
    This non-profit making organization positively impacts children and youths with focus on art therapy , art education, talent development, community development.

    -Friends of The Environment
    This NGO promotes environmental sustainability through advocacy, education, awareness creation and initiatives in the area of renewable energy sources, waste management, economic empowerment and gender issues.

    -Plan International
    This is an NGO established to promote children’s rights and equality for girls Their activities:
    . Ensuring that children continue their education in safety
    . Reducing maternal and child mortality amongst
    marginalised and vulnerable women and girls
    . Nutritional support for mothers and young children
    . Protecting children from violence
    . Empowering young people to stand up for their rights and seek accountability from leaders. Contact Information

    -Nigerian Heart Foundation
    This NGO promotes heart health, scientific research in cardiovascular health, healthy lifestyles and advocacy on heart issues.

    – Access to Education for Children
    This is an NGO that promotes education for indigent children Contact Information:

    – Business and Professional Women
    Their Activities:
    . Provision of education, training and opportunities to
    help women achieve economic independence.

    -Women in Management and Business
    A Non Governmental organization (NGO) formed to
    improve the success rate of female entrepreneurs and
    increase the proportion of women in senior positions in
    corporate organizations.

    – Guidance Community Development Foundation
    This NGO provides free computer training, children,
    youth, family support, empowerment, farmers forum,
    community development, etc.

    -Foundation for Skills Development
    This NGO was established to empower unemployed
    Persons with vocational & technical skills to become
    self-employed.

    – Breast Cancer Association of Nigeria (BRECAN)

    – African Sports Support & Education Trust
    This non- governmental organization promotes the education of sports people and support aged, retired sports people.

    -The Courage Education Foundation
    This non-profit organization is dedicated to the empowerment of the Nigerian children through the provision of quality education. It was set up to provide educational assistance to brilliant children who are shackled by poverty.

    -Mentally Aware Nigeria Initiative
    This NGO was established to fight stigma and create an environment that makes it possible for people to seek care for their mental health without fear of discrimination.

    -New Nigeria Foundation
    New Nigeria Foundation (NNF) is a non-governmental organization that promotes sustainable community development initiatives through public-private partnerships.

    – Centre for Law Enforcement Education
    This NGO Promotes respect for human rights & co-operation between civil society & law enforcement agencies.

    -United Nations of Youth Network Nigeria (UNOY)

    -World Scholarship & Career Helpers
    This NGO provides free training for young lads in Computer Studies for poverty eradication.

    – Action Health Incorporated (AHI)

    -Accord For Community Development

    -Africa Citizens Development Foundation

    -Alcohol Prevention Youth Initiative
    – AIDS Alliance in Nigeria
    – Best Foundation Community Child Education
    – Better Life Foundation
    -Breastfeeding Promotion and Counselling Group (BPCG)
    -Care for Youth Future Initiative
    -Center for Education on Population, AIDS and Drug Abuse
    -Destitute Careers and Rehabilitation Center of Nigeria
    -Diaspora Africa Association & Services
    -EarthRights Environmental Network Initiative
    -Faith Alive Foundation
    -Family Health and Population Action Committee
    -Gender and Child Care Advancement Initiative
    -Global Community Health Foundation
    -Healthcare Essentials for the Disadvantaged Foundation
    -Health Initiatives for Safety and Stability in Africa
    -Campaign Against Spread of AIDS
    -Farmers Development Union

  168. Ogbonna Anthony says:

    NAME: OGBONNA ANTHONY CHUKWUDUBEM
    REG NO: 2017/243368
    Question 1:
    The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks.
    There is a widespread assumption that the informal economy has low productivity and, therefore, contributes to low growth in countries (Levy 2007).However, the informal economy does contribute to growth, especially in developing countries with large informal economies. But more work needs to be done to improve the concepts, measures, and methods for measuring the contribution of the informal economy.

    Estimates from the mid-1990s of the contribution of informal enterprises to non-agricultural GDP in 26 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America ranged from 17 per cent in the Republic of Korea to 58 per cent in Ghana (ILO 2002). These estimates do not include the contribution of the informal workforce outside informal enterprises. Thus, adequately measuring the contribution of the informal economy will require better estimates of the contribution of informal enterprises as well as estimates of the contribution of informal workers outside informal enterprises: in formal firms, in global value chains, for households (i.e. domestic workers), in agriculture, and in secondary activities.

    The table below provides estimates of the contribution of the informal sector to the trade sector in nine countries in the late 1990s.
    The informal economy is expanding in many contexts, appearing in new places and new guises. It plays a significant role in the global economy and, if supported, in reducing poverty and inequality. The informal economy does not, however, offer a “cushion” during economic crisis.
    Question 2:
    Little or no job security.
    Unprotected by labour laws.
    Odd working hours.
    No pension, insurance or health insurance scheme.
    Summary dismissals.
    Difficult to make any savings due to low wages.
    A brief illness or injury or injury can mean no financial means to survive.
    Question 3:
    NGOs ought to develop local products and local markets; develop social, capital, and human resources; encourage and moti- vate people to participate in activities; and act as network liaisons between community and systems.Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) play an important role in the economic development of developing countries. They provide services to society through welfare works for community development, assistance in national disasters, sustainable system development, and popular movements.

  169. Odo Chinenye Precious says:

    Name :Odo Chinenye Precious
    Reg no: 2017/244758
    Unit: Education/Economics
    Informal sector
    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. The term includes illegal activities, such as drug pushing and smuggling. It also includes cleaning car windshields at traffic lights or doing construction work, i.e., legal work.

    This sector includes situations where people must work without receiving any pay. It also includes sectors in which individuals work and in exchange receive something other than money.

    Unlike the formal economy, economists do not include the informal sector’s components in GDP computations. This means that countries are probably richer than official statistics suggest. GDP stands for gross domestic product.
    While NGO

    Organizations which are independent of government involvement, are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations, with NGO as an acronym. are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations, and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), “[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level … Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.”

  170. Eke Promise Chinaza
    2017/241531
    Economic Education
    Development Economic
    Eco 362

    1. In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    Answer
    This academic book analyses the potential link between the informal sector and economic development. The informal sector is seen to play a huge part in the development of economies, most especially in transitioning and developing nations. The Sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) region informal sector entails mostly small enterprises and is seen as a provider of certain social services such as employment and gender equality, which are factors crucial to the economic development of a country. Although the informal sector creates a base in which firms can expand and migrate to the formal sector, the sector also provides employment opportunities in both rural and urban settings for economic actors that are often excluded from the formal sector due to their lack of desirable skills. This is vital to an economy as it creates a safety valve for unemployment when the economic climate of a country is low. Various evidence indicates that the informal sector creates employment opportunities for women that is potentially lacking in the formal sector and is seen an avenue in which they can obtain additional income thereby improving their standard of living. The sector also enables flexibility and the chance.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    Answer
    The new virus (COVID-19) apparently appeared in

    Wuhan, China, in late December 2019 and has since spread

    worldwide, affecting several countries and regions. No

    continent has been able to escape this virus, which has a

    mean mortality rate of about 2.3% (according to [9]).

    Presently, there have been nearly 450,686 deaths, with more

    than 8,385,440 cases confirmed in 215 countries and regions

    worldwide, showing the seriousness of the virus worldwide

    [39].

    According to scenario simulations of the International

    Monetary Fund [21], global growth could be reduced by

    0.5% in 2020. Various other sources also predict global

    growth as a result of the immediate impact of the COVID-

    19 pandemic. The worldwide economy may be in recession

    at least in the first half of 2020, adding to the immediate and

    indirect effects of the crisis e.g. supply and demand

    disruptions, falling goods, declining tourist arrivals, etc.,

    (African Union Commission Report 2020). In Nigeria,

    however, the effects of COVID-19 are felt in different ways,

    and situations that contributed to the crisis were different in

    the areas of focus and fullness.

    [24] argue that Nigeria’s public health sector has

    experienced many infrastructural deficits such as poor

    emergency services, few ambulance services, ineffective

    health insurance systems, inadequate primary health care

    and more common health problems are associated with

    maternal mortality and high infant rates. [7] confirmed that

    most health care costs in Nigeria are still governed by direct

    costs, which account for 70% of total health spending,

    indicating that most Nigerian health insurers are not

    recommended or trusted. Despite the launch of the National

    Health Insurance System (NHIS) in 2004, the population

    covered by health insurance in 2019 accounted for about 5%

    of the total population. This can be attributed to the lack of

    funds in health insurance [3The new virus (COVID-19) apparently appeared in

    Wuhan, China, in late December 2019 and has since spread

    worldwide, affecting several countries and regions. No

    continent has been able to escape this virus, which has a

    mean mortality rate of about 2.3%.

    Presently, there have been nearly 450,686 deaths, with more

    than 8,385,440 cases confirmed in 215 countries and regions

    worldwide, showing the seriousness of the virus worldwide.

    According to scenario simulations of the International

    Monetary Fund [21], global growth could be reduced by

    0.5% in 2020. Various other sources also predict global

    growth as a result of the immediate impact of the COVID-

    19 pandemic. The worldwide economy may be in recession

    at least in the first half of 2020, adding to the immediate and

    indirect effects of the crisis e.g. supply and demand

    disruptions, falling goods, declining tourist arrivals, etc.,

    (African Union Commission Report 2020). In Nigeria,

    however, the effects of COVID-19 are felt in different ways,

    and situations that contributed to the crisis were different in

    the areas of focus and fullness.

    argue that Nigeria’s public health sector has

    experienced many infrastructural deficits such as poor

    emergency services, few ambulance services, ineffective

    health insurance systems, inadequate primary health care

    and more common health problems are associated with

    maternal mortality and high infant rates. confirmed that

    most health care costs in Nigeria are still governed by direct

    costs, which account for 70% of total health spending,

    indicating that most Nigerian health insurers are not

    recommended or trusted. Despite the launch of the National

    Health Insurance System (NHIS) in 2004, the population

    covered by health insurance in 2019 accounted for about 5%

    of the total population. This can be attributed to the lack of

    funds in health insurance.

    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?

    The new virus (COVID-19) apparently appeared in

    Wuhan, China, in late December 2019 and has since spread

    worldwide, affecting several countries and regions. No

    continent has been able to escape this virus, which has a

    mean mortality rate of about 2.3% (according to [9]).

    Presently, there have been nearly 450,686 deaths, with more

    than 8,385,440 cases confirmed in 215 countries and regions

    worldwide, showing the seriousness of the virus worldwide

    [39].

    According to scenario simulations of the International

    Monetary Fund [21], global growth could be reduced by

    0.5% in 2020. Various other sources also predict global

    growth as a result of the immediate impact of the COVID-

    19 pandemic. The worldwide economy may be in recession

    at least in the first half of 2020, adding to the immediate and

    indirect effects of the crisis e.g. supply and demand

    disruptions, falling goods, declining tourist arrivals, etc.,

    (African Union Commission Report 2020). In Nigeria,

    however, the effects of COVID-19 are felt in different ways,

    and situations that contributed to the crisis were different in

    the areas of focus and fullness.

    [24] argue that Nigeria’s public health sector has

    experienced many infrastructural deficits such as poor

    emergency services, few ambulance services, ineffective

    health insurance systems, inadequate primary health care

    and more common health problems are associated with

    maternal mortality and high infant rates. [7] confirmed that

    most health care costs in Nigeria are still governed by direct

    costs, which account for 70% of total health spending,

    indicating that most Nigerian health insurers are not

    recommended or trusted. Despite the launch of the National

    Health Insurance System (NHIS) in 2004, the population

    covered by health insurance in 2019 accounted for about 5%

    of the total population. This can be attributed to the lack of

    funds in health insurance [3The new virus (COVID-19) apparently appeared in

    Wuhan, China, in late December 2019 and has since spread

    worldwide, affecting several countries and regions. No

    continent has been able to escape this virus, which has a

    mean mortality rate of about 2.3%.

    Presently, there have been nearly 450,686 deaths, with more

    than 8,385,440 cases confirmed in 215 countries and regions

    worldwide, showing the seriousness of the virus worldwide.

    According to scenario simulations of the International

    Monetary Fund, global growth could be reduced by

    0.5% in 2020. Various other sources also predict global

    growth as a result of the immediate impact of the COVID-

    19 pandemic. The worldwide economy may be in recession

    at least in the first half of 2020, adding to the immediate and

    indirect effects of the crisis e.g. supply and demand

    disruptions, falling goods, declining tourist arrivals, etc.,

    (African Union Commission Report 2020). In Nigeria,

    however, the effects of COVID-19 are felt in different ways,

    and situations that contributed to the crisis were different in

    the areas of focus and fullness.
    argue that Nigeria’s public health sector has

    experienced many infrastructural deficits such as poor

    emergency services, few ambulance services, ineffective

    health insurance systems, inadequate primary health care

    and more common health problems are associated with

    maternal mortality and high infant rates. confirmed that

    most health care costs in Nigeria are still governed by direct

    costs, which account for 70% of total health spending,

    indicating that most Nigerian health insurers are not

    recommended or trusted. Despite the launch of the National

    Health Insurance System (NHIS) in 2004, the population

    covered by health insurance in 2019 accounted for about 5%

    of the total population. This can be attributed to the lack of

    funds in health insurance

  171. Ozokwelu Emmanuel C says:

    Question 1

    The informal economy contributes massively to national output by providing jobs for the unemployed population, thereby absorbing excess labor from the formal economy.

    Question 2

    The informal sector faces various challenges which include the following:

    Inadequate Fund:

    Some informal sectors lack the capital to inject into their business for proper growth and cannot meet up with the requirements needed to access loans from Banks.

    Unregulated Wage Scale:

    The earnings of workers in the information economy are not regulated by any government agency, thus some of them earn lower than the amount of time invested in their job.

    No Retirement Packages:

    Unlike workers in the formal sector, people working in the information economy have no access to any retirement benefits.

    Lack of Job Security:

    In practice, workers in the informal sector can lose their source of livelihood arbitrarily. There is no assumption of job security, unlike the formal sector.

    Question 3

    Non-Governmental Organisations are non-profit entities independent of Government Involvements or influence.

    They include all forms of associations that provide social and other services to their members and other people.

    Major Roles of Non-Governmental Organisations in the Society:

    NGOs perform many roles in society, which includes the following:

    Promotion of members welfare
    They carry on projects for the benefits of communities and humanity
    They serve as a mouthpiece of the majority on important national issues, there ye influencing the government on decisions affecting the majority

  172. Okoronkwo Emmanuel Ositadinma ( Reg no: 2017/242433) (Department: Economics) says:

    A. Contribution of information sector:

    Informal sector involve activities in the economy that are not fully regulated by government and other public authorities. Examples of informal sectors are street traders, farmers, small scale manufactures, service providers (private taxi drivers, hairdressers, Carpenters). The contributions of informl sectors to the economy include the following:

    1. They offers significant job creation and income generation potential.

    2. To an extent the informal sectors have the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services (e.g. small scale manufacturers, Carpenters, e.t.c.)

    3. Informal sectors help to reduce the high rate of unemployment in an economy since the formal sector cannot provide gainful employment for all the labour force in a country.

    B. Obstacles faces by the informal sectors in Nigeria:

    1. Lack of basic Amenities: Due to lack of social amenities, the activities of the informal sectors are being limited.

    2. Crime (Robbery): some informal sectors like street traders has face many challenges of robbery to the extent that they cannot access some locations of the market because of the high robbery rate associated with that locality.

    3. Lack of capital: several informal sectors wishing to expand their business lacks the capital to do so. And so many informal sectors folded because of lack of capital, especially in Nigeria.

    4. Inability to access loan: Banks and other financial institutions easily offers loan to the formal sectors while the informal sectors are left to feed on their flesh.

    C. Non-governmental organizations___ meaning, and roles in the society:

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are institutions and groups that are largely or totally independent of government ( although might receive funds from the government) with the major aim of protecting human rights and other humanitarian works without the mindset of profit making. The roles of Non-governmental organizations include:
    Trainings and technical assistance, advocacy for the poor, research evaluation.

  173. Agbo Jennifer Amarachi says:

    Agbo Jennifer Amarachi
    2017/249476
    jenniferamarachi.agbo@gmail.com
    Economics

    1. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.

    Although it is widely known there is always a low rate of productivity in the informal sector because of the absence of large and sophiscated machineries, small working capital and little government assistance, the informal sector invariably, does contribute to Economic growth especially in a developing country like Nigeria where there are large informal economies.

    The informal sector in Nigeria provide low cost labor, inputs, goods and services to the general public especially poorer households. It has also contributed to the environmental preservation and Sustainable Development. Also it provides employment, livelihood and income for for millions of workers and business owners.

    Thus, in Nigeria, the informal sector’s activities should be encouraged because it is an important vehicle for gainful employment and earning income, given the high level of unemployment and poverty existing in Nigeria.

    2. OBSTACLES OF INFORMAL SECTORS IN NIGERIA.

    The Nigeria informal sector face a myriad of problems and challenges of which some are; Inadequacy ok f technology, education, markets, land, and physical infrastructure, Limited access to finance, and limited skills’ development. Also, there are the problems of inadequate customers, nonpayment of debts, high taxes and license fees, unavailability of finance, lack of capital equipment and difficulties withe existing regulations.

    3. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES.

    NGO is a nonprofit group that functions independently of any government. NGO is an organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes of the environment. NGO activities include; environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can promote social or political change on a broad scale or locally.

    The major roles of NGO can be summarized as; Social Development, Sustainable community Development, Sustainable Development and Sustainable Consumption.

    However, generally, the roles of NGO are:
    ✓To help educate those sections of society which were left behind in the society.
    ✓Helps in eliminating gender inequality.
    ✓Try to create awareness about the over utilization of natural resources and Its consequences.
    ✓Enhance greater participation for everyone.
    ✓Provides shelter for the poor and displaced people.
    ✓They are helping and restoring the dignity of those who always have been ignored and never enjoyed those activities.

    In summary, these NGOs are walking on a national and international level and have gained great importance in the development of the society. It helps in maintaining a society which is free from all the biases and social evils. They help in creating awareness and guidance, and also pressuring government when the fail to meet their duties.

  174. Anachuna Chisom says:

    Anachuna Chisom
    2017/249481
    Economics Department

    IN WHAT WAYS DOES INFORMAL SECTOR ECONOMY CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMY GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    The initial strategy that merits considering is the improvement of casual abilities among Nigeria’s working-age populace. The public authority could make and support exceptional stages that bring people who plan to acquire abilities and relating specialists together. This ought to be at low expenses to expand their appeal to forthcoming learners.

    Notwithstanding expertise securing, laborers in Nigeria’s casual economy have raised worries over credit availability. New alumni from the eventual government abilities advancement organizations are required to be confronted with a similar test. These specialists for the most part expect assets to obtain instruments and hardware that are either major to their tasks or potentially vital for them to complete their exercises all the more without any problem. This features the requirement for the public authority to give low interest advances in this space. An award may even be more powerful in decreasing neediness, as it has the promotion vantage of removing the weight of reimbursement. On the off chance that this were the case it would permit laborers to expand their benefits and further facilitate their break from the destitution trap.

    Moreover, casual representatives in Nigeria for the most part require power for their tasks, al-however it fluctuates across various fragments. For example, the power necessities are tremendous in regions, for example, clothing administrations, styling and printing, while it is moderate for photography and cooking for example. Exercises, for example, transport benefits for the most part have minor power interest. Given the helpless state of force supply in the country, the greater part of the individuals who fall in the classification of high clients resort to generators.

    This is discovered to be generally costly and means a greater expense of creation. Tending to control framework challenges requests gigantic capital necessities and sets aside a long effort to appear. Notwithstanding, a momentary spotlight on expanding gas accessibility would be a decent beginning. Nigeria’s normal power yield each day of about 3,500MW/hour has been fundamentally underneath introduced limit of about 7,500MW, while gas inaccessibility represents around 45% of all out age imperatives.

    Expanding gas accessibility could bring about critical advantages, for the casual economy, however Nigeria overall. Meanwhile, the public authority could zero in on tying down a satisfactory stockpile of gas to control stations. This could move genuine force yield nearer to its potential forthcoming the time the nation sees other huge ventures that could raise limit.

    Difficulties OF INFORMAL SECTOR

    The Nigerian Informal area face alot of difficulties including insufficiency of innovation, instruction, markets, land and actual framework, restricted admittance to fund, and restricted abilities improvement.

    WHAT ARE THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES IN THE SOCIETY?

    The term NGO represents nongovernmental association, and it incorporates an assortment of associations, for example, “willful associations,” “common society associations,” and ” not revenue driven association” The term NGO portrays a scope of gatherings and associations from guard dog extremist gatherings and help offices to improvement and strategy associations. As such, NGOs are characterized as associations that seek after a public interest plan, as opposed to business interests.

    Nigeria is overwhelmingly a rustic economy. In the event that advancement is to occur and become self-supporting, it should along these lines, accentuation more on rustic change. The center issues of broad destitution, developing disparity, fast populace development and rising joblessness all discover their beginnings in the stagnation and time and again retrogression of financial life in rustic regions. Besides, the vast majority of the country individuals are poor and distraught. Their sufferings stem from low pay as well as from lack of education, weakness, obliviousness and different sorts of hardships. It is all around recognized that country regions are vital to a country. They fill in as the base for the creation of food and fiber. They are additionally the significant wellsprings of capital arrangement for a country and a chief market for homegrown produces, [1]. In everyday terms, the country regions participate in essential exercises that structure the establishment of any financial turn of events. However, in spite of the significance of the provincial regions, they have been ignored for long. Ordinarily, there is nonattendance of frameworks like (water, power supply and motorable streets) which improve personal satisfaction. For sure, the continuous disregard of provincial regions keeps on augmenting the hole between the country and metropolitan regions with respect to the degrees of social and financial freedoms, actual turn of events and accessible infrastructural administrations.

    Jobs of NGOs

    Social Development

    Manageable Community Development

    Manageable Development

    Economical Consumption, and so forth

  175. ODOH KOSISOCHI DORIS says:

    NAME: ODOH KOSISOCHI DORIS
    REG NO: 2017/249542
    E-MAIL: kosisochidoris@gmail.com
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?

    The Nigerian informal sector encompasses various economic activities that are not regulated by the government. Such as hairdressing, tailoring, farming, fashion designing, craftsmanship and so on. The sector currently accounts for over half of global employment and as much as 90% of employment in some of the less developing countries. A fast growing view is that informal economy offers significant job creation and income generation potential, as well as the capacity to meet the needs of poor consumers by providing cheaper and more accessible goods and services. For a country like Nigeria with a failed government, the informal sector has played a vital role in the economic revamp over the years by various means such as ; provision of job opportunities, provision of basic social amenities like pipe borne water, drainages and so on.
    The informal sector acts as a support to the economy, thus allowing the unemployed to be able to get a job to earn a living. the informal sector impacts significantly on the GDP of the country, though it is not directly accounted for because there is no remittances of tax from that sector of the economy to the government.

    What are the major obstacle informal sectors is facing in Nigeria’s economy?

    Lack of adequate funds and capital: accessing of loans from the financial institution and grants from the government are almost impossible for people in the informal sector of the economy.
    Financial Insecurity: the informal sector is prone to external shocks such as financial crisis since they do not have insurance against loss of income or certain uncertainties.
    Technological know-how: the informal sector lacks adequate technical skills to promote most of their businesses.
    d. Lack of proper regulation: since the informal sector is not regulated by the government and most of its economic activities are not accounted for and most of the workers are exploited since there is no minimum wage legislation in this sector.
    What are the non-governmental organizations and their major roles in the society?
    These organizations are voluntary citizen’s groups which are formed for the benefit and welfare of the society. They are mostly concerned with humanitarian objectives and are instruments in solving environmental, social, and human right issues. There major roles In the society are:
    They advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through the provision of information.
    The non-governmental organizations mobilize and empower the poor citizens by training them through skill acquisition and so on.
    Most NGOs are human right driven and they strive to protect the interest of the citizens
    They act as watch dogs to the government ensuring that they provide the basic amenities for the citizen of the country.

  176. Ani, Gabriel ogbonna says:

    Name : Ani Gabriel Ogbonna
    Reg. Number: 2017/249483
    Department: Economics
    Email: anigabriel05@gmail.com

    INFORMAL ECONOMY VS NIGERIA ECONOMY

    The informal economy also known as grey market represents all work by individuals or businesses which, by law or practice, is not sufficiently catered for through formal arrangements. Examples include food and flea markets, street vendors, laundromats and the like, mostly in rural or informal areas. It is considered informal since these businesses are rarely registered at national or regional levels, are cash-based and thus do not pay taxes and usually do not have formal arrangements with employees.

    It’s contribution to Nigeria Economy
    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. In 2017 Nigeria record its first full year of growth after experiencing its first recession in 25 years. While this recovery brought about an increase in business confidence, concerns remain as the GDP growth achieved was less than national population growth. This concern persists even as the IMF projected 2.1% growth for 2018, which falls below the population growth forecast of 2.6%. Population growth,coupled with high underemployment and unemployment rates (combined 40%), will result in an increase in the number of job seekers in 2018. It also translates to an increase in the number of people who look to the informal sector for economic survival. It is easy to assume that informal trade exists as a result of joblessness alone, but this does not consider its true value. The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal economy, thus allowing the unemployed and unemployable to find work or start their own businesses, boosting income and alleviating poverty. But it also offers goods and services in areas that may be impossible or unattractive for formal networks. Townships and informal settlements are spatially distant from central business areas, where formal trade usually operates.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    The informal sector are more vulnerable in Nigeria Economy as a result of the following;
    – Poor infrastructure such as transport, storage facilities, water, electricity.
    – poorly developed physical markets
    – Lack of access to official social security schemes
    – Limited access to formal finance and banking institutions
    – No access to formal training and as a result lack of skills in particular as regards basic Economic skills and managerial expertise.

    3. What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are establishments that are not in direct link with the government of a country. They function free from the government. They could have the aim of working towards a social, political, environmental goal of the sort in the country. Their functions are as follows:
    1. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    2. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    3. They are not profit-oriented therefore aim to pursue social welfare.
    4. They act inform of pressure group and as a watchdog to the political institutions.
    Finally, NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation.

  177. Michael Iloba says:

    2014/19191
    Economics

    Question 1
    The informal sector is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. The term includes illegal activities, such as drug pushing and smuggling. It also includes cleaning car windshields at traffic lights or doing construction work, i.e., legal work. This sector includes situations where people must work without receiving any pay. It also includes sectors in which individuals work and in exchange receive something other than money.The Nigerian Informal Sector is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. The Nigerian Ministry of Labour and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the nation’s economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job openings in Nigeria. In the same vein, the Lagos office of Federal Ministry of Labour declared that the informal sector accounts for 80 per cent of non-agricultural employment, 60 per cent of urban employment and over 90 per cent of new jobs in Nigeria . Arguably, the informal sector constitutes the largest employer of labour and a source of living for many Nigerian. It therefore, contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of employment and income sourcing.

    Question 2
    Due to the nature of the informal sector, they are faced with a number of challenges that includes but not limited to:
    1. They are exposed to long hours of working, harsh working environment and situation and low wage or compensation.
    2. There is lack of job satisfaction and job security.
    3. Absence of social security and welfare packages.
    4. Women particularly receive considerable lower wages than their male counterpart for the same job and are more vulnerable to abuse.
    5. It is difficult to fight for or exercise rights e.g fighting against physical and verbal abuse and discrimination of women.

    Question 3
    NGO stands for non-governmental organization. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition of an NGO, typically it is a voluntary group or institution with a social mission, which operates independently from the government. NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation. The roles performed by NGO include:
    1. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    2. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination
    5. They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level.

  178. Michael Iloba says:

    2014/19191
    Economics

    Question 1
    The informal sector is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources. People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. The term includes illegal activities, such as drug pushing and smuggling. It also includes cleaning car windshields at traffic lights or doing construction work, i.e., legal work. This sector includes situations where people must work without receiving any pay. It also includes sectors in which individuals work and in exchange receive something other than money. The Nigerian Informal Sector is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for 65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP. The Nigerian Ministry of Labor and Productivity is of the view that the informal sector of the economy accounts for no less than 90% of new job in Nigeria. The Lagos office of Federal Ministry of Labor declared that the informal sector accounts for 80 % of non-agricultural employment, 60 % of urban employment and over 90 % of new jobs in Nigeria . Arguably, the informal sector constitutes the largest employer of labor and a source of living for many Nigerian.

    Question 2
    Due to the nature of the informal sector, they are faced with a number of challenges that includes but not limited to:
    1. They are exposed to long hours of working, harsh working environment and situation and low wage or compensation.
    2. There is lack of job satisfaction and job security.
    3. Absence of social security and welfare packages.
    4. Women particularly receive considerable lower wages than their male counterpart for the same job and are more vulnerable to abuse.
    5. It is difficult to fight for oppressions or exercise rights.

    Question 3
    NGO stands for non-governmental organization. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition of an NGO, typically it is a voluntary group or institution with a social mission, which operates independently from the government. NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a critical part in developing society, improving communities, and promoting citizen participation. The roles performed by NGO include:
    1. They help in developing a society, improving communities as well as promote citizen participation.
    2. They embark on projects that would help develop the community they are established in.
    3. They also help to monitor and criticize the policies and actions of government.
    4. They complement the function of government in fighting against Human Rights abuse and discrimination
    5. They can also be seen to facilitate political participation at the grassroots level.

  179. Ngene Michael C. says:

    Name: Ngene Michael C.
    Reg no: 2017/246022
    Dept: Economics
    1. The Informal Sector comprises any economic activity or source of income that is not fully regulated by the government and other public authorities; this includes enterprises that are not officially registered and do not maintain a complete set of accounts;and workers who hold jobs lacking basic social or legal protection and employment benefits. Examples of informal employment workers include: street traders, subsistence farmers, small scale manufacturers, service providers (e.g. hairdressers, private taxi drivers, and carpenters), etc.
    The Nigerian Informal Sector (IS) is a major contributor to the Nigerian economy, accounting for a significant portion of employment and national GDP. According to the IMF, the Nigerian informal sector accounted for ~65% of Nigeria’s 2017 GDP.

    2. The Nigerian Informal sector players face a myriad of challenges including
    inadequacy of technology, education, markets, land and physical infrastructure, limited access to finance, and limited skills development.
    informal sector is also associated with low productivity, reduced tax revenues, poor governance, excessive regulations, and poverty and income inequality.

    3. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) AND THEIR MAJOR ROLES.
    NGO have no fixed or formal definition, they are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of government influence (although they may receive government funding) .
    NGO is a nonprofit group that functions independently of any government. NGO is an organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes of the environment. NGO activities include; environmental, social, advocacy and human rights work. They can promote social or political change on a broad scale or locally.
    The genera the roles of NGO are:
    *To help educate those sections of society which were left behind in the society.
    *Helps in eliminating gender inequality.
    *Try to create awareness about the over utilization of natural resources and Its consequences.
    *Enhance greater participation for everyone.
    *Provides shelter for the poor and displaced people.
    *They are helping and restoring the dignity of those who always have been ignored and never enjoyed those activities.
    Moreover, the major roles of NGO can be summarized as;
    i.Social Development,
    ii.Sustainable community Development,
    iii.Sustainable Development and
    iv.Sustainable Consumption.

  180. Ezeamaku Chukwuemeka Victor says:

    Name: Ezeamaku Chukwuemeka Victor
    Reg no : 2017/243370
    Email : victorezeamaku76@gmail.com
    Dept: Economics

    In what’s easy does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria
    What’s is the informal economy?
    The informal sector, also known as the underground economy, black economy, shadow economy, or gray economy, is part of a country’s economy that is not recognized as normal income sources.
    People who work in the informal sector do not declare their income and pay no taxes on them. The term includes illegal activities, such as drug pushing and smuggling. It also includes cleaning car windshields at traffic lights or doing construction work, i.e., legal work.

    This sector includes situations where people must work without receiving any pay. It also includes sectors in which individuals work and in exchange receive something other than money.

    HOW THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONTRIBUTES TO THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY:
    1. The informal sector gives employment to a high percentage of the Nigerian labour force
    2. Goods and services enjoyed by people of the lower/middle income groups are majorly produces and delivered by the informal service
    3. The informal sector consists of a vibrant trade network where economic actions improve the live of several citizens
    4. Although it exists separately from the formal economy, it is linked to the formal economy – it produces for, trades with, distributes for, and provides services to the formal economy.

    2) What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    Answer:
    1. High taxes and license fees:
    In Nigeria, most businesses in the informal sector are levied with high tax rates and license fees. This acts as a major obstacle.
    2. Unavailability of credit:
    The informal sector has little or no access to loans, credit or grants from government or commercial banks. And this is also an obstacle.
    3. Difficulties with existing regulations:
    Most regulations are cumbersome and difficult and thus, do not easily encourage the informal sector.
    4. Lack of capital equipment:
    Another obstacle faced by the informal sector is that, they is little or no available capital equipment that can boost their businesses.
    5. No economics of scale, since the informal sector is made up mostly of small time merchants and artisans they therefore cannot take advantage of Economics of scale

    What are NGO’s and the Roles they perform
    Organisations.
    Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are non-governmental, non profit making and self governing, set out to ameliorate the plight of the people in dare need of life sustaining facilities in the society.
    NGO Types by level of operation:
    Community-based Organizations (CBOs)
    Citywide Organizations
    Nation NGO’s
    International NGO’s

  181. ENEH KENECHUKWU says:

    ENEH KENECHUKWU FRANKLIN
    2017/249496
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1. how the informal sector contribute to economic growth in Nigeria
    The informal economy is the way of life in Nigeria. According to a study by Phillips Consulting in 2014, 80 percent of participants approved of the informal economy. The unemployment rate is currently at 19 percent and growing. What this means is that people have to find ways to survive. Short of committing a crime, the alternative is entrepreneurship of any level. Students and young graduates are setting up small businesses. These range from serving as make-up artists to selling call-cards under umbrellas on street corners. Most of them are involved in informal businesses because they’ve failed to secure jobs in the formal sectors (activities from businesses that are included in the economic calculations of gross national product and gross domestic product of a country). These small businesses are seen as stepping stones and placeholders pending when they’re able to secure a place in the formal job market. The effect is that everywhere you turn, there is a business starting or blooming. These businesses require low capital and even fewer skills. In Nigeria, you can acquire goods and services of any kind informally. From cars to food, there isn’t anything that isn’t supplied by informal businesses.

    2. What are the major obstacles informal sector is facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    -Corruption
    -poor human development
    -insecurity
    -lack of enabling envirnment
    -lack of infrastructure

    3.What are the Non Governmental Organizations and their major roles in the society?
    Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in the shaping and implementation of participatory democracy. Their credibility lies in the responsible and constructive role they play in society. Formal and informal organizations, as well as grass-roots movements, can be recognized as partners in the implementation of People’s Agenda 21. The nature of the independent role played by non-governmental organizations within a society calls for real participation; therefore, independence is a potential attribute of non-governmental organizations and is the precondition of real participation. The community of non-governmental organizations, therefore, offers a global network that can be tapped, enabled and supported in conjunction with efforts to achieve these common goals.
    NGOs are an integral part of a democratic society. Sociological sciences emphasize their importance in enhancing social integration, implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, building civil society, social dialogue and participatory democracy. The main tasks of NGOs in the health system are providing services and health advocacy. Provision of services includes medical, social and psychological services as well as, integration activities, care and nursing, material and financial support, educational and information services and training. Health advocacy is a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or program. An important task carried out by NGOs is participation in the formation of health policy. The increasing role of NGOs in providing social services and the participation in political processes, result in the need to confirm the validity and credibility of their operation. One of the ways could be to introduce the mechanisms to assess quality and efficiency, such as registration as a part of a legal system, self-regulatory activities (card rules, codes of ethics), certification, participation in networks, monitoring and audit.

  182. The informal sector contribute a lot to the Nigerian economy by creating room for employment opportunities. Employment opportunities in the informal sector is not as tight as that of the formal sector since there are barriers of entry in the formal sector.

    QUESTION 2
    The major obstacles facing the informal sector in Nigeria’s are as follows:

    1. Limited rights to land property

    2. No access to formal training and, as a result, lack of skills in particular as regards basic economic skills and managerial expertise.

    3. Fewer market opportunities due for insurance to non-compliance to international standards.

    4. Lack of access to financial security schemes.

    5. No access to access to formal training and, as a result, lack of skills in particular as regards basic economic skills and managerial expertise.

    QUESTION 3

    Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations (NGO), NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations that provide services to their members and others.

    Roles of Non-governmental Organizations
    1. Social development
    2. Sustainable community development
    3. Sustainable development
    4. Sustainable consumption

  183. Name: Oroke Charity Nnedimma
    Reg no : 2017/243816
    Department : Economics
    Course:Eco 362
    Informal economy
    An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
    Black market sellers offer watches for sale to US soldiers in Baghdad in 2004.
    Informal economy: Haircut on a sidewalk in Vietnam.
    Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poo and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge.
    In many cases, unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP).However, Italy has included estimates of informal activity in their GDP calculations since 1987, which swells their GDP by an estimated 18% and in 2014, a number of European countries formally changed their GDP calculations to include prostitution and narcotics sales in their official GDP statistics, in line with international accounting standards, prompting an increase between 3-7%.The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.
    Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include “under the table”, “off the books”, and “working for cash”.

    Characteristics of informal sector
    No entry requirement
    Doesn’t really require professional qualification
    Skills are often acquired outside formal education
    Mostly house hold ownership
    Those in the informal sector doesn’t pay tax
    No minimum wage legislation
    Thety don’t need government approval

    Non Governmental organization (NGO)
    A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group that functions independently of any government. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies, are organized on community, national and international levels to serve a social or political goal such as humanitarian causes or the environment.
    KEY TAKEAWAYS
    NGOs, or non-governmental organizations, play a major role in international development, aid and philanthropy.
    NGOs are non-profit by definition, but may run budgets of millions or up to billions of dollars each year.
    As such, NGOs rely on a variety of funding sources from private donations and membership dues to government contribution.
    While “NGO” has various interpretations, the term is generally accepted to include non-profit, private organizations that operate outside of government control. Some NGOs rely primarily on volunteers, while others support a paid staff. The World Bank identifies two broad groups of NGOs:
    (1).Operational NGOs, which focus on the design and implementation of development projects.
    (2).Advocacy NGOs, which defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence public policy.1
    Some NGOs may fall under both categories simultaneously. Examples of NGOs include those that support human rights, advocate for improved health or encourage political participation.
    How NGOs are Funded
    As non-profits, NGOs rely on a variety of sources for funding, including:
    membership dues
    private donations
    the sale of goods and services
    grants
    Despite their independence from governments, some NGOs rely heavily on government funding. Large NGOs may have budgets in the millions or billions of dollars.

  184. Umelo Chidera Nicole says:

    NAME: UMELO CHIDERA NICOLE
    REGISTERATION NUMBER: 2017/249589
    EMAIL: nicoleumelo@gmail.com.
    Most times when people argue about the perils of the informal economy, their main concern is on the many ways that the informal economy has caused numerous problems in the overall economy. Many persons are quick to point out that through the informal economy, money is laundered, tax duties are evaded, crime rate increases. However, I believe that while these accusations against the informal economy may not all be unfounded, there I certain benefits of the informal economy that have been overlooked by its critics.
    1. Source of employment: while the critics of the informal economy are quick to point out its many shortfalls, they have failed to recognize that it is in fact the informal economy that absorbs the bulk of labor and manpower that the formal economy has failed to absorb. One only need look at Nigeria to understand this point.
    2. Cheap source of goods and services: while the formal sector have high prices of most goods and services, the informal sector on the other hand is a source of low cost goods and raw materials. This can be efficiently harnessed by forming a coalition between the informal sector and the formal manufacturing sector.
    3. Income generation: we live in a country where the poor are overlooked in favor of the elites. Welfare policies have been rigged to favor the elite’s in the society to the detriment of the poor masses. In this case, the poor have no choice but to create a source of income on their own, one that is outside the regulation and control of the government.
    4. Financial stability: the presence of the informal sector also helps to facilitate financial stability and economic growth. This is because the income generated is pumped into the economy and this helps to increase investments and economic growth through increased productivity.

    2. Major obstacles include:
    • Lack of credit facilities
    • Bureaucratic processes
    • Lack of adequate education and training
    • Lack of working capital
    • Lack of capital from profits for reinvestment
    • Insufficient income
    • Lack of adequate infrastructural facilities
    3. THE NGO’S AND THEIR ROLES.
    • OXFAM
    • Amnesty international
    • Compassion
    • Save the children
    • CAFOD
    • World Vision
    • Action Aid
    Their roles:
    1. They ensure social development by empowering the people to fight for their rights and their lives
    2. They ensure sustainable community development by raising awareness about the effect of certain activities on the larger community
    3. They help to ensure sustainable development by keeping companies, corporations, the government and even individuals on track concerning the SDG’s
    4. They also ensure sustainable consumption patterns in the society through a variety of program thus ensuring that the environment does not suffer in the face of consumption.
    5. They help to ensure security of live and property
    6. They help to ensure gender equality
    7. They help in the provision of needed resources for countries ravaged by war or other related man-made or natural disasters.
    8. THANK YOU.

  185. Okeke Nancy Ogadimma says:

    NAME: OKEKE NANCY
    REG NO:2017/249557
    Email :ogadimmanancy12@gmail.com

    In what ways does the informal economy contribute to economic growth in Nigeria?
    The informal sector comprises of any form of business activities that are not regulated by the government.The informal sector does act as a safety net for the formal sector thereby allowing the unemployed and the unemployable to find work or start their own business thus alleviating poverty and boosting income
    The informal sector basically gives people the opportunity to create jobs and make their own income.So it thereby provides significant job opportunities, income generation that will help them.This in turn boost the GDP of a country thereby leading to economic growth
    What are the major obstacles the informal sectors are facing in Nigeria’s economy?
    A.Insecurity: Workers in the informal sector have low job security because they don’t know what will happen next .This is because of inadequate regulations or lack of proper regulations at the workplace due to the fact that it is not being monitored, controlled or regulated by the government
    B.Exploitation:Most of the workers in the informal sectors are being expl