ECO. 362—-27-4-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 5—Analysis of Sustainable Development Goals 1-9)

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people-centered and planet-sensitive.  They are universal, applying to all countries while recognizing different realities and capabilities.  The goals are not independent from each other; they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. From what you learnt about the first 9 goals do you think they are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame allotted? If yes, how? if no why? Clearly discuss them one after the the other and explain your points lucidly!

 

Tony Orji

Tony Orji

Dr. Tony Orji is the founder and owner of Success Tonics Blog. He is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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Comments 174

  1. Okoronkwo Emmanuel Ositadinma (2017/242433) (Economics) (level 300) says:

    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10)
    Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production , (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life On Land , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17)
    Partnerships for the Goals.

    We’ve treated the first nine, but the question is, is this goals obtainable with the situation of Nigeria today?
    Firstly, in the area of no poverty Nigeria keep moving towards poor and hungry economy, majority of the families can barely feed twice a day. The price of goods continue skyrocketing without an equal increase in income. With all Nigeria will continue being poor and the goal of eradication of poverty cannot be achieve.

    Secondly, in the side of zero hunger: As mentioned earlier, high population of citizens in Nigeria are very hungry. The people leading us only dwells on selfish interest. Hunger can only reduce drastically when the government understand the place of the citizens and interfere.

    Concerning good health care and well bein: Nigeria government provides some hospitals which helps to facilitate the well being of the people. Though there hospital is not well equipt.

    Concerning Quality Education, in a country where they government provide almost a zero budgeted expenditure to educational sector, how do we expect “Quality Education”. The sum is the government is not trying at all in the area of improving education in Nigeria.

    Speaking of Gender equality, let’s be realistic, in Nigeria the two genders can never be equal. Reason being that, women of this part of the world has this myopic mindset of dependency on men. In such a scenario, men will always dominate. Infact, even the holy Bible makes it clear that men should be the head of the family.

    Furthermore, in the side of clean water and sanitation, Nigerian government is actually putting effort to enhance sanitation and the water system within the country.

    Speaking of affordable and clean energy, Nigeria government continue lagging behind. If this continues we don’t have future in the area of energy.

    Now concerning decent work and economic growth: corrupt politicians who only channel public fund to the family and selfish investment can never bring about economic growth in Nigeria.

    Lastly; industry, innovation and infrastructure: Nigeria has little industries, poor infrastructure and zero innovation. Government don’t care about your giftens and creativities, and this will make the economy to continue depreciating instead of developing.

    In conclusion all the above limitations listed above must be eliminated before we move to the next phase!!!

  2. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
    In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    From my own of view none of the first 9 goals have been achieved and cannot be achieved before 2030.
    There’s still poverty due to high rate of unemployment and also the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.
    There’s also hunger in Nigeria due to the level of poverty people find it very difficult to carter for their daily needs
    Poor medical or health facilities has contributed to unhealthy lives and also medicals practitioners demands are also not meet
    The level of quality education is also nothing to write about due to strike and high level of corruption leading to employment of unqualified teachers and lecturers.
    Due to cultural and religious beliefs women and girl child have been written off in almost all the sector’s in the economy
    Mismanagement of public funds has lead to low level of technology which have also contributed or paid little attention to modern technology and energy

  3. NGWU OSITA ENOCH
    2017/242022
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    OSITANGWU95@GMAIL.COM
    ENOCHONLINE.BLOGSPOT.COM

    The most important Sustainable Development Goals according to their rank and average expert score are:
    1 SDG 1: Reduced Inequalities 4.1569
    2 SDG 2: No Poverty 3.7812
    3 SDG 3: Gender Equality 3.5569
    4 SDG 4: Peace Justice & Strong Institutions 3.0923
    5 SDG 5: Affordable & Clean Energy 2.2784
    6 SDG 6: Quality Education 2.0549
    7 SDG 7: Clean Water & Sanitation 1.8721
    8 SDG 8: Decent Work & Economic Growth 1.7282
    9 SDG 9: Good Health & Well Being 1.6018
    10 SDG 10: Partnerships for the Goals 1.5608
    11 SDG 11: Climate Action 1.3412
    12 SDG 12: Industry Innovation & Infrastructure 1.1950
    13 SDG 13: Responsible Consumption & Production 1.0235
    14 SDG 14: Zero Hunger 0.9412
    15 SDG 15: Life On Land 0.7824
    16 SDG 16: Sustainable Cities & Communities 0.6000
    17 SDG 17: Life Below Water 0.4206
    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    t is common knowledge within development circle that development involves a physical reality and a state of mind. Through development process, the interactions between social, economic and institutional processes must be continually sustained to meet up with increasing future demands in terms of population growth and continuous use of natural, human and material resources. It has been observed that changes in the integrated approach to social, economic and environmental issues have not really facilitated the developmental goals in Nigeria. For instance, problems such as poverty, flooding, ethnicity, environmental pollution corruption, attitudes and lopsided income distribution have been on the increase. A cursory look at the poverty profile in Nigeria showed that in 2004, Nigeria’s relative poverty measurement stood at 54.4%, but increased to 69% in 2010. In absolute terms, 54.7% of Nigerians were living in poverty in 2004 but this increased to 60.9% (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010). Besides these in the early 1990s Nigerian cities experienced flood hazards have more than doubled in the last ten years (Odermeho, 1993). While in recent times, it was recorded that Nigeria experienced the worst flooding as at the year 2012. In view of these challenges, it should be recalled that in the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted by 189 member countries of the United Nations including Nigeria. This was with a view to fast track key developmental issues in Nigeria which include increasing the availability of basic life sustaining goods, raising the standard of people’s living as well as expanding the range of economic and social choices. A set of eight goals to be achieved by 2015 was adopted by the United Nations which were to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development In view of these goals, it is pertinent for the Nigerian economy to understand the prospects and underlying principles for achieving these goals as well as sustaining the process of development desired.
    Environmental protection Nigeria is a member of international and global community and as such share in the effects of technological advancement specifically environmental management is particularly necessary and its major aim should is to avoid stressing a valued ecosystem beyond the limits of its resilience, stability and carrying capacity (Oyeshola, 2008) The oil rich regions such as have a greater effect of most of this environmental degradation challenges in areas such as: oil spillage; crude oil content chemical substances as sulphur nitrogen, oxygen as well as hydrocarbon component oil spillage will affect living things comment will life, aquatic life plant life directly indirectly thereby being implications for the bio-diversity of all living things new and in future.
    • Gas flaring. These flares contribute to greenhouse gases which contain toxins and therefore, exposes everyone to diseases such as asthma, respiratory illness, cancer and premature deaths . To combat these particular environmental issues in Nigeria,
    • We can develop a gas policy which will be favorable to both the population and the investors
    • Articulate a national environmental health policy and national health action plan
    • Review and harmonise existing health Laws
    • Promote safe use of pesticides and other agrochemicals
    • Develop a master plan on solid waste management
    • Develop environmental health performance indicators
    • Bringing pollution and environmental waste under control
    • Phase out ozone-depleting substances
    • Phase out persistent organic pollutant
    • Use alternative Energy services that are more favourable- solar power, wind power and hydro power
    • Comply with international standards in controlling and monitoring of environment.
    Economic Development This involve achieving a balance in all sectors of the Economy in the process of production of goods and services be it agriculture, finance, manufacturing, health, education, e.t.c The Economic challenge inherent in the Nigeria Economy include issues social such as poverty, low per capital income, inequitable distribution of home, low capital formation, inefficiency in the mobilization of resource, over- dependence on a singular commodity oil-as a major source of income, Unemployment, inflation to mention a few. To tackle some of these challenges, some measures to be taken include:
    – Provision of soft loans to less privileged persons to promote Small and Medium scale Enterprise (SMEs).
    – Address the problem of financing the real sector end mobilization of long term savings for investment.
    – Job training of people in skills relevant to their immediate work environment and rural development should be incorporated.
    – Agriculture and food security policies should be enhanced by strengthening research and development to improve production and enhance exportation thereby boosting income.
    – Strengthen the regulation and supervisory framework of the financial sector .
    – Promotion of indigenous goods and services especially through SMEs.
    Social Development This is set to achieve equity in social issues as education, health politics, social infrastructures, e.t.c It is reaffirmed that Nigeria in order to achieve any meaningful development must take care of social services of basic education, functional health care, employment for youth, clean water, security of life and properties, and access to quality infrastructures. To handle some of these issues, giving the nature of their externality, the reasonability of government cannot be overemphasized. To achieve this social development, the Nigeria government in addition to existing policies can adopt the following.
    – Creation of new employment opportunities for young school learners and rural dwellers.
    – Strengthen institutions of governance at all levels including adequate attention to human right and conflict prevention.
    – Provision of basic social and essential sources education, health, clean water, Maintenance of Existing structures and creation of new ones where they are needed.
    Conclusion
    In a bid to address the challenge of sustainable development globally, and particularly in Nigeria, all available means must be employed to tackle related problems of the environment as well as economic and social issues. This can be achieved by taking a conscious step towards the achievement of the goal of sustainable development given as stated in section 5 above. In addition, the issue of sustainability must be a concern to all parastatals (public and private) and individuals. This will require educating everyone on the need for sustainable development and as a result walk towards its actualization. Besides sanctions for erring persons must be ensured if the success of the process of sustainable development is to be attained Finally, policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of individual countries, which are consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development.

  4. Onah Hope Nnenna says:

    Name: Onah Hope Nnenna
    Reg no: 2017/249565
    Dept: Economics
    Email: onahnnenna123@gmail.com

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    And so on.
    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
    Firstly, in the issue of Goal one(end poverty in all it’s forms everywhere), Nigeria has not achieved that goal and will not even achieve it in 2030. The reason is that Nigeria’s leaders are so corrupt, instead of developing our country, they loot our money and put it in a bank overseas. Thy don’t create Jobs for the youth, rather increasing unemployment which in turn creates poverty.
    For the second goal, Nigeria will achieve it by 2030 because so many youths now engage in Agriculture due to ban on foreign goods. This will do a lot good in ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition.
    The third Goal can be achieve by 2030 because by achieving goal two, we can be able to live healthy lives and promote our well being.
    For the fourth goal, Nigeria cannot achieve it because there is no way those rich and corrupt politicians will allow their children to stay in the same learning space with the poor.
    The fifth goal can be achieved in the sense that Nigeria has been giving women the opportunity to participate in politics and contest for any post. They have also been empowering women.
    For the sixth and seventh goals, it is impossible to achieve such goals because up til now there are places that haven’t experience the joy of having light since they were born and they are not even making effort to see that it happens. Same goes with erosion that always chases some people out of their homes because Nigeria cannot manage water flows
    The eight goals can be achieved by 2030, and how it can be achieved is by Nigeria helping to reduce restrictions placed on some big companies that generates employment opportunities
    Finally, the ninth goal cannot be achieved because our leaders are not interested in infrastructural development, their only concern is to stuff money in their pockets making innovation difficult to achieve.

  5. ogbonna chika philip says:

    Ogbonna Chika Philip
    2017/242029
    Education/Economics
    chika.ogbonna.242029@unn.edu.ng

    The SDGs first 9 goals; whether they are achievable? is yes, but with the time limit of year 2030, there is likely a no answer to that. However, we proceed to justify the position taken as below;

    1. End poverty in all its form everywhere; Goal 1 may not be feasible for a country as ours within the time frame as there is high level of deprivation and are found in every forms that connotes poverty. An instance is the evidence of the beggars on the streets, the unavailability of jobs that could guarantee the said minimum earning of 1 dollar pay day, with which survival and sustenance is heavily relied on in terms of healthy nutrition that will cure hunger poverty.

    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture;
    Goal 2 within the time frame is unattainable in Nigeria. This is as there is no signs of jobs that will put money into the pockets of million unemployed citizens from which food could be accessed and which in turn will lower hunger and improve citizens nutrition status. added to this is that the environment as in the present Nigeria have been made un-conducive to guarantee food security and sustained agriculture through the activities of unknown gun men, fulani herdsmen depriving farmers of their activities.

    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    Goal 3 is fair and could be attained within the time frame if proper attentions is paid to the sector that guarantees it. the improvement in health services both at the national and at the local/primary level is commendable and have led to reduced mortality cases accessible drugs for cures to various ailments etc.

    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all.
    Goal 4 is also attainable provided the government reverse its attention and give life to public institutions again, by properly funding them, not owing the academic and non academic staffs. improve infrastructures and adopts world best practices in terms of standards and technology in schools.

    5. Achieve Gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    Goal 5 seems not attainable, as in Africa and Nigeria in particular have tribal and cultural inclinations that defines the role of women as against the men. the gender equality may appreciate to some level but will not be possible as is stated or wanted. women are given positions and not takers of position in the political and social environments of ours and this limits the possibility of this goals. also women are seen as weaker and does no have say in public matters. this is a problem that may hinder the attainment of the SDGs program of goal 5.

    6.Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    Goal 6 is possible if the government have it at present and locally as a priority, because in the various ancient localities, the colonial/ earliest governments that followed had a system of functional water management and well managed waste practices and disposals. the government in partnership with the SDGs program can continue from what have been put in place and advance it. But with the level of water scarcity, refuse dumps all around, industrial spillages etc. one should have a doubt of the attaining SDGs program at the time limit.

    7. Ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable and modern energy for all. Goal 7 is far from been achievable in the present Nigeria, because the level of politics been played in the areas of power and energy is unimaginably very bad. there are water bodies in every parts of this country that could be converted to dams. well managed that could generate electricity but that is not the point of focus of the leaders, that of solar energy as alternative that could be harnessed; enough is not done in local research that could help remedy the short fall in energy supply witnessed in the country. how could the SDGs program be achieved in the presence of this underlying problems is the question.

    8. Promote sustained , inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    GOAL 8 is also possible, but on condition that the present leadership addresses the worsening insecurity, how could the SDGs point of decent work for all be possible when herders make some categories of workers to face hostility, where those who are luckily employed are owed and there is little or no power supply that could encourage entrepreneurs and foster innovations. Economic growth is possible within the time frame, if the key critical sectors like; Education, Security, Energy, Agriculture, Industries in partnership with the SDGs program are given proper attention. Full and productive employment are guaranteed by functional social economic system as highlighted above and quality educational system.

    9. Build resilient Infrastructure, Promote Inclusive and sustainable Industrialization and Foster Innovations. Goal 9 may be attained half way with the reasons that outcomes may be seen partly in few selected locations and not in the entire cities. this is accompanied by the politics which drives every growth witnessed in infrastructure in this part of the world. High level of corruption and embezzlement in the system is another blockade that will deprive the attainment of effective SDGs programs at stated time frame.

  6. NAME: IJIGA CHRISTIAN ADAKOLE
    REG NO: 2017/241255
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SC EDU( Edu/Eco).
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people-centered and planet-sensitive. They are universal, applying to all countries while recognizing different realities and capabilities. The goals are not independent from each other; they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. From what you learnt about the first 9 goals do you think they are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame allotted? If yes, how? if no why? Clearly discuss them one after the the other and explain your points lucidly!
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10)
    Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production , (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life On Land , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17)
    Partnerships for the Goals.
    We’ve treated the first nine, but the question is, is this goals obtainable with the situation of Nigeria today?
    Firstly, in the area of no poverty Nigeria keep moving towards poor and hungry economy, majority of the families can barely feed twice a day. The price of goods continue skyrocketing without an equal increase in income. With all Nigeria will continue being poor and the goal of eradication of poverty cannot be achieve.
    Secondly, in the side of zero hunger: As mentioned earlier, high population of citizens in Nigeria are very hungry. The people leading us only dwells on selfish interest. Hunger can only reduce drastically when the government understand the place of the citizens and interfere.
    Concerning good health care and well bein: Nigeria government provides some hospitals which helps to facilitate the well being of the people. Though there hospital is not well equipt.
    Concerning Quality Education, in a country where they government provide almost a zero budgeted expenditure to educational sector, how do we expect “Quality Education”. The sum is the government is not trying at all in the area of improving education in Nigeria.
    Speaking of Gender equality, let’s be realistic, in Nigeria the two genders can never be equal. Reason being that, women of this part of the world has this myopic mindset of dependency on men. In such a scenario, men will always dominate. Infact, even the holy Bible makes it clear that men should be the head of the family.
    Furthermore, in the side of clean water and sanitation, Nigerian government is actually putting effort to enhance sanitation and the water system within the country.
    Speaking of affordable and clean energy, Nigeria government continue lagging behind. If this continues we don’t have future in the area of energy.
    Now concerning decent work and economic growth: corrupt politicians who only channel public fund to the family and selfish investment can never bring about economic growth in Nigeria.
    Lastly; industry, innovation and infrastructure: Nigeria has little industries, poor infrastructure and zero innovation. Government don’t care about your giftens and creativities, and this will make the economy to continue depreciating instead of developing.
    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
    In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    Conclusion
    In a bid to address the challenge of sustainable development globally, and particularly in Nigeria, all available means must be employed to tackle related problems of the environment as well as economic and social issues. This can be achieved by taking a conscious step towards the achievement of the goal of sustainable development given as stated in section 5 above. In addition, the issue of sustainability must be a concern to all parastatals (public and private) and individuals. This will require educating everyone on the need for sustainable development and as a result walk towards its actualization. Besides sanctions for erring persons must be ensured if the success of the process of sustainable development is to be attained Finally, policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of individual countries, which are consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development.

  7. Okoye Amblessed Amarachi says:

    Name: Okoye Amblessed Amarachi

    Reg No: 2017/249560

    Dept: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people centered as well as planet sensitive. They are universal as they apply to all countries while recognizing the different realities as well as capabilities. Most importantly, they recognize that we can’t reach our development goals without addressing human rights and complex humanitarian issues. These SDGs are stated thus:
    1. End poverty: This is the move to ameliorate poverty in all its forms everywhere. This wouldn’t be attainable in Nigeria since a very large number of it’s citizens are living below $1 per day.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not attainable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: We can’t ensure healthy lives if we don’t exterminate poverty because most unhealthy persons in the country are poverty-stricken.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since poverty is widespread, education for all is not attainable.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Since gender disparity exists between the males and their female counterparts, then this goal wouldn’t be achieved.
    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Thus is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes water toxic for use. Hence adequate sensitization is required to right this wrong.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Since we lack adequate monitoring of electricity generation and distribution, a sustained and accessible energy for all is not attainable. Hence there is need to revitalize the electricity sector.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Since at least 70% of the country’s population is unemployed, underemployed or working poor efforts to curb the rage of unemployment is required to boost economic growth and bring about full employment.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: Since Nigeria lags behind in terms of infrastructure, there is need to build up structures that would foster innovation in the country as well as support innovative minds.

  8. OKONKWO CHIDINMA ALISA
    2017/243086
    ECONOMICS
    300 LEVEL

    ANSWER
    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) brought up by 193 member states held in a UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2000 was actually meant to improve on five areas which I like to call the 5Ps and they are: Planet, People, Peace, Prosperity, and Partnership. Let’s not forget that these SDGs are people-oriented and planet-sensitive. This implies that they are very considerate in putting the different individuals in the various member states into account as well as taking into cognizance their environment or otherwise called planet. They were also of the opinion that these goals could not be achieved if the problem of human rights as well as complex humanitarian issues were not tackled and solved. These goals has said earlier are also not independent of each other and that they need to be implemented or carried out together. This means that the 17 SDGs are meant to be carried out together at the same time; that is when a country is trying to implement the no hunger policy now, she should also take into consideration that as she is trying to address that, she should also address the issue of poverty alongside. This is basically what the UN through the 193 member states aimed to achieve with these goals.
    Goal 1: End poverty
    Goal 2: No hunger
    Goal 3: Promote well-being
    Goal 4: Quality education for all
    Goal 5: Gender Equality and Empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Availability and Sustainable Management of water and sanitation for all.
    Goal 7: Easy access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    Goal 8: Promote economic growth and productive employment for all.
    Goal 9: Promote industrialization and foster innovation.
    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive and conducive for all.
    Goal 12: Ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns.
    Goal 13: Climate Action
    Goal 14: Life below water
    Goal 15: Life on land
    Goal 16: Peace and Justice and Strong Institutions
    Goal 17: Partnership for the goals
    All these are meant to be achieved by the year 2030 of which Nigeria which is our case study and of course, our nation has tried up to an extent but still needs to do more if she really wants to develop. Now we are only considering on the first 9 goals that we treated in class.
    Goal 1 has actually been tackled by Nigeria but still there’s no improvement. Many people still live on the streets till date. In Lagos I for one have seen men, women, children, that are not mad still living on the streets which is really bad even for we as a nation. I think that if the Nigerian Government would sit down and think this through and bring up polices (effective and efficient ones o) that would be implemented by sensible officials, this issue of poverty would be reduced if not eliminated.
    Goal 2 has also be addressed as Nigeria has even gone the length of providing free food for school children though we all know that what brought that up was because of the Covid-19 Pandemic of last year and now, we have not even heard A again of any food being given to school children not to talk of people on the streets.
    Goal 3 has not been addressed at all. My point is that the issue of insecurity has come up again heavily this time around on Nigeria. For the past two weeks now, we have been hearing about students, individuals but mostly students of various tertiary institutions being kidnapped or something; some have even been killed just because they chose to school in their own country. For me, this problem has not been addressed at all.
    Goal 4 has been addressed as there is now free education up to the level of primary education, which is why the Universal Basic Education came up and now children can attain at least a primary education that can enable them to read and write.
    Goal 5 has been achieved as everywhere now, women now have their say in some matters concerning them as well.
    Goal 6 has not been tackled but has been addressed as even the government has fixed a day for the general sanitation for citizens and individuals to come out of their homes and clean their surroundings but still, some individuals will not come out and this has made our surroundings not healthy for us to leave in. Asides that, I have noticed that some individuals after eating biscuits or using anything that has a wrapper, they tend to just dispose it wherever they are which eventually is the ground rather that using the waste bin. This attitude has made us to now leave in a very unhealthy environment as most places are now littered take a look at our hostels and classrooms). The issue of bad water has also been kind of addressed but still there are some interior places in the rural areas that do not have clean water to drink. Some even go as bad as drinking water from the gutter just to survive.
    Goal 7 has not even be tackled but is still a work in progress as we at least have power though not steady.
    Goal 8 is the major issue in this country as a lot of graduates are out there walking aimlessly without jobs. Some even want to become entrepreneurs but there are no enabling environment for such.
    Goal 9 has been introduced but still a work in progress.
    Now coming to the issue whether Nigeria would be able to achieve these by the year 2030. This is 2021 and to say the truth, some not all of these 17 SDGs would be achieved by that year. This due to the fact that our governance is very bad first of all as well as other concerning problems and challenges facing there goals. But with God, this is possible. Thank you.

  9. Oko nkem frankline says:

    Name: Oko Nkem Frankline
    Reg No:2017/243813
    Dept:Economics
    Answer
    1. The most important Sustainable Development Goals according to their rank and average expert score are:
    1: Reduced Inequalities 4.1569
    2: No Poverty 3.7812
    3: Gender Equality 3.5569
    4: Peace Justice & Strong Institutions 3.0923
    5: Affordable & Clean Energy 2.2784
    6: Quality Education 2.0549
    7: Clean Water & Sanitation 1.8721
    8: Decent Work & Economic Growth 1.7282
    9: Good Health & Well Being 1.6018
    10: Partnerships for the Goals 1.5608
    11: Climate Action 1.3412
    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    t is common knowledge within development circle that development involves a physical reality and a state of mind. Through development process, the interactions between social, economic and institutional processes must be continually sustained to meet up with increasing future demands in terms of population growth and continuous use of natural, human and material resources. It has been observed that changes in the integrated approach to social, economic and environmental issues have not really facilitated the developmental goals in Nigeria. For instance, problems such as poverty, flooding, ethnicity, environmental pollution corruption, attitudes and lopsided income distribution have been on the increase. A cursory look at the poverty profile in Nigeria showed that in 2004, Nigeria’s relative poverty measurement stood at 54.4%, but increased to 69% in 2010. In absolute terms, 54.7% of Nigerians were living in poverty in 2004 but this increased to 60.9% (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010). Besides these in the early 1990s Nigerian cities experienced flood hazards have more than doubled in the last ten years (Odermeho, 1993). While in recent times, it was recorded that Nigeria experienced the worst flooding as at the year 2012. In view of these challenges, it should be recalled that in the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted by 189 member countries of the United Nations including Nigeria. This was with a view to fast track key developmental issues in Nigeria which include increasing the availability of basic life sustaining goods, raising the standard of people’s living as well as expanding the range of economic and social choices. A set of eight goals to be achieved by 2015 was adopted by the United Nations which were to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development In view of these goals, it is pertinent for the Nigerian economy to understand the prospects and underlying principles for achieving these goals as well as sustaining the process of development desired.
    Environmental protection Nigeria is a member of international and global community and as such share in the effects of technological advancement specifically environmental management is particularly necessary and its major aim should is to avoid stressing a valued ecosystem beyond the limits of its resilience, stability and carrying capacity (Oyeshola, 2008) The oil rich regions such as have a greater effect of most of this environmental degradation challenges in areas such as: oil spillage; crude oil content chemical substances as sulphur nitrogen, oxygen as well as hydrocarbon component oil spillage will affect living things comment will life, aquatic life plant life directly indirectly thereby being implications for the bio-diversity of all living things new and in future.
    • Gas flaring. These flares contribute to greenhouse gases which contain toxins and therefore, exposes everyone to diseases such as asthma, respiratory illness, cancer and premature deaths . To combat these particular environmental issues in Nigeria,
    • We can develop a gas policy which will be favorable to both the population and the investors
    • Articulate a national environmental health policy and national health action plan
    • Review and harmonise existing health Laws
    • Promote safe use of pesticides and other agrochemicals
    • Develop a master plan on solid waste management
    • Develop environmental health performance indicators
    • Bringing pollution and environmental waste under control
    • Phase out ozone-depleting substances
    • Phase out persistent organic pollutant
    • Use alternative Energy services that are more favourable- solar power, wind power and hydro power
    • Comply with international standards in controlling and monitoring of environment.
    Economic Development This involve achieving a balance in all sectors of the Economy in the process of production of goods and services be it agriculture, finance, manufacturing, health, education, e.t.c The Economic challenge inherent in the Nigeria Economy include issues social such as poverty, low per capital income, inequitable distribution of home, low capital formation, inefficiency in the mobilization of resource, over- dependence on a singular commodity oil-as a major source of income, Unemployment, inflation to mention a few. To tackle some of these challenges, some measures to be taken include:
    – Provision of soft loans to less privileged persons to promote Small and Medium scale Enterprise (SMEs).
    – Address the problem of financing the real sector end mobilization of long term savings for investment.
    – Job training of people in skills relevant to their immediate work environment and rural development should be incorporated.
    – Agriculture and food security policies should be enhanced by strengthening research and development to improve production and enhance exportation thereby boosting income.
    – Strengthen the regulation and supervisory framework of the financial sector .
    – Promotion of indigenous goods and services especially through SMEs.
    Social Development This is set to achieve equity in social issues as education, health politics, social infrastructures, e.t.c It is reaffirmed that Nigeria in order to achieve any meaningful development must take care of social services of basic education, functional health care, employment for youth, clean water, security of life and properties, and access to quality infrastructures. To handle some of these issues, giving the nature of their externality, the reasonability of government cannot be overemphasized. To achieve this social development, the Nigeria government in addition to existing policies can adopt the following.
    – Creation of new employment opportunities for young school learners and rural dwellers.
    – Strengthen institutions of governance at all levels including adequate attention to human right and conflict prevention.
    – Provision of basic social and essential sources education, health, clean water, Maintenance of Existing structures and creation of new ones where they are needed.
    Conclusion
    In a bid to address the challenge of sustainable development globally, and particularly in Nigeria, all available means must be employed to tackle related problems of the environment as well as economic and social issues. This can be achieved by taking a conscious step towards the achievement of the goal of sustainable development given as stated in section 5 above. In addition, the issue of sustainability must be a concern to all parastatals (public and private) and individuals. This will require educating everyone on the need for sustainable development and as a result walk towards its actualization. Besides sanctions for erring persons must be ensured if the success of the process of sustainable development is to be attained Finally, policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of individual countries, which are consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development.

  10. UDUMA IKECHUKWU OBASI says:

    UDUMA IKECHUKWU OBASI
    Economics
    2017/241441
    ikechukwuuduma9@gmail.com

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS( SDGs)
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s form and everywhere..
    It’s possible: through effective and efficient use of nations available resources. This resources magament will bring about increase in the nations productivity, national output ( GDP) and development of all form. Through development poverty will be eradicated
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    This is possible; through the practice of large scale agriculture with advance maintenance techniques. These techniques will improve agriculture products, reduce cost and ensure food availability.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    This is possible; through revitalization of our nations health sector. This revitalization will come in the form of improved health facilities, payment of medical personnels, public education on health issues etc.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunity for all.
    This is possible; if the government policies on education will be void of any form of tribalism and favoritism. Our government should take education seriously by ensuring proper ministration to it’s matters.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is possible; if our government and society will see the need to provide a field of equal opportunity for all gender without any form of favoritism towards any gender.
    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This is possible; if all and sundry will come to the realization of the importance of water and proper sanitation is to our environment. And taking required steps to ensure it stays in it’s best form.
    Goal 7: build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Innovation and infrastructure is a product of good governance. Thus it is possible if good governance is ensured.
    Goal 8: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    The pursuit of human rights and equality of all before the law by all nations is the way of making this goal possible
    Goal 9: Make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
    This is possible; through the eradication of discrimination of humans by all nations of the world.

  11. UDUMA IKECHUKWU OBASI says:

    UDUMA IKECHUKWU OBASI
    Economics
    2017/241441
    ikechukwuuduma9@gmail.com

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS( SDGs)
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s form and everywhere..
    It’s possible: through effective and efficient use of nations available resources. This resources magament will bring about increase in the nations productivity, national output ( GDP) and development of all form. Through development poverty will be eradicated
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    This is possible; through the practice of large scale agriculture with advance maintenance techniques. These techniques will improve agriculture products, reduce cost and ensure food availability.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    This is possible; through revitalization of our nations health sector. This revitalization will come in the form of improved health facilities, payment of medical personnels, public education on health issues etc.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunity for all.
    This is possible; if the government policies on education will be void of any form of tribalism and favoritism. Our government should take education seriously by ensuring proper ministration to it’s matters.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is possible; if our government and society will see the need to provide a field of equal opportunity for all gender without any form of favoritism towards any gender.
    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This is possible; if all and sundry will come to the realization of the importance of water and proper sanitation is to our environment. And taking required steps to ensure it stays in it’s best form.
    Goal 7: build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Innovation and infrastructure is a product of good governance. Thus it is possible if good governance is ensured.
    Goal 8: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    The pursuit of human rights and equality of all before the law by all nations is the way of making this goal possible
    Goal 9: Make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
    This is possible; through the eradication of discrimination of humans by all nations of the world.

  12. Uduma Ikechukwu Obasi says:

    Uduma Ikechukwu Obasi
    Economics
    2017/241441
    ikechukwuuduma9@gmail.com

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s form and everywhere..
    It’s possible: through effective and efficient use of nations available resources. This resources magament will bring about increase in the nations productivity, national output ( GDP) and development of all form. Through development poverty will be eradicated
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    This is possible; through the practice of large scale agriculture with advance maintenance techniques. These techniques will improve agriculture products, reduce cost and ensure food availability.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    This is possible; through revitalization of our nations health sector. This revitalization will come in the form of improved health facilities, payment of medical personnels, public education on health issues etc.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunity for all.
    This is possible; if the government policies on education will be void of any form of tribalism and favoritism. Our government should take education seriously by ensuring proper ministration to it’s matters.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is possible; if our government and society will see the need to provide a field of equal opportunity for all gender without any form of favoritism towards any gender.
    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This is possible; if all and sundry will come to the realization of the importance of water and proper sanitation is to our environment. And taking required steps to ensure it stays in it’s best form.
    Goal 7: build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Innovation and infrastructure is a product of good governance. Thus it is possible if good governance is ensured.
    Goal 8: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    The pursuit of human rights and equality of all before the law by all nations is the way of making this goal possible
    Goal 9: Make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
    This is possible; through the eradication of discrimination of humans by all nations of the world.

  13. Idoko Patience Uchenna. Reg. No. 2017/241111 says:

    Idoko Patience Uchenna
    Education Economics
    2017/241111
    uchennapatience50@gmail.com

    Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs) from number I to 9
    Goal 1
    No Poverty
    To end poverty in all its forms everywhere by 2030.
    What can you do about it?
    Your active engagement in policy making can make a difference in addressing poverty. It ensures that your rights are promoted and that your voice is heard, that intergenerational knowledge is shared, and that innovation and critical thinking are encouraged at all ages to support transformational change in people’s lives and communities. Governments can help create an enabling environment to generate productive employment and job opportunities for the poor and the marginalized. The private sector has a major role to play in determining whether the growth it creates is inclusive and contributes to poverty reduction. It can promote economic opportunities for the poor. The contribution of science to end poverty has been significant. For example, it has enabled access to safe drinking water, reduced deaths caused by water-borne diseases, and improved hygiene to reduce health risks related to unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitation.

    Goal 2
    Zero Hunger
    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    What can you do about it?
    You can make changes in your own life—at home, at work and in the community—by supporting local farmers or markets and making sustainable food choices, supporting good nutrition for all, and fighting food waste. You can also use your power as a consumer and voter, demanding businesses and governments make the choices and changes that will make Zero Hunger a reality. Join the conversation, whether on social media platforms or in your local communities.

    Goal 3
    Good Health & Wellbeing
    Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all, at all ages.
    What can you do about it?
    You can start by promoting and protecting your own health and the health of those around you, by making well-informed choices, practicing safe sex, and vaccinating your children. You can raise awareness in your community about the importance of good health, healthy lifestyles, as well as peoples’ rights to quality health care services -especially for the most vulnerable, such as women and children. You can also hold your government, local leaders, and other decision makers accountable to their commitments to improve people’s access to health and health care.

    Goal 4
    Quality Education
    Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Ask our governments to place education as a priority in both policy and practice. Lobby our governments to make firm commitments to provide free primary school education to all, including vulnerable or marginalized groups.

    5.Gender equality and women’s empowerment
    Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    What can you do about it?
    If you are a girl, you can stay in school, help empower your female classmates to do the same, and fight for your right to access sexual and reproductive health services. If you are a woman, you can address unconscious biases and implicit associations that form an unintended and often an invisible barrier to equal opportunity. If you are a man or a boy, you can work alongside women and girls to achieve gender equality and embrace healthy, respectful relationships. You can fund education campaigns to curb cultural practices like female genital mutilation and change harmful laws that limit the rights of women and girls and prevent them from achieving their full potential.

    Goal 6
    Clean Water & Sanitation
    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Civil society organizations should work to keep governments accountable, invest in water research and development, and promote the inclusion of women, youth, and indigenous communities in water resources governance. Generating awareness of these roles and turning them into action will lead to win-win results and increased sustainability and integrity for both human and ecological systems. You can also get involved in the World Water Day and World Toilet Day campaigns that aim to provide information and inspiration to take action on hygiene issues.

    Goal 7
    Affordable & Clean Energy
    Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Countries can accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system by investing in renewable energy resources, prioritizing energy efficient practices, and adopting clean energy technologies and infrastructure. Businesses can maintain and protect ecosystems and commit to sourcing 100% of operational electricity needs from renewable sources. Employers can reduce the internal demand for transport by prioritizing telecommunications and incentivize less energy intensive modes such as train travel over auto and air travel. Investors can invest more in sustainable energy services, bringing new technologies to the market quickly from a diverse supplier base. You can save electricity by plugging appliances into a power strip and turning them off completely when not in use, including your computer. You can also bike, walk, or take public transport to reduce carbon emissions.

    Goal 8
    Decent Work & Economic GrowthHunger
    Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Providing youth with the best opportunity to transition to a decent job calls for investing in education and training of the highest possible quality, providing youth with skills that match labour market demands, giving them access to social protection and basic services regardless of their contract type, as well as levelling the playing field. This way all aspiring youth can attain productive employment regardless of their gender, income level, or socio-economic background. Governments can work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative, and people-centered economies In particular, they may promote youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, as well as decent work for all. Implementing adequate health and safety measures and promoting supportive working environments are fundamental to protecting the safety of workers; especially health workers and those providing essential services.

    Goal 9
    Industry, Innovation, & Infrastructure
    Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
    What can you do about it?
    Establish standards and promote regulations that ensure company projects and initiatives are sustainably managed. Collaborate with NGOs and the public sector to help promote sustainable growth within developing countries. Think about how industry impacts on your life and well-being and use social media to push for policymakers to prioritize the SDGs.
    So through planned and well-managed policies for the millions of people who have left their homes seeking better lives due to war, discrimination, poverty, lack of opportunity, and other drivers of migration

  14. Idoko Patience Uchenna. Reg. No. 2017/241111 says:

    Idoko Patience Uchenna
    Education Economics
    2017/241111
    uchennapatience50@gmail.com

    Sustainable development goals

    Goal 1
    No Poverty
    To end poverty in all its forms everywhere by 2030.
    What can you do about it?
    Your active engagement in policy making can make a difference in addressing poverty. It ensures that your rights are promoted and that your voice is heard, that intergenerational knowledge is shared, and that innovation and critical thinking are encouraged at all ages to support transformational change in people’s lives and communities. Governments can help create an enabling environment to generate productive employment and job opportunities for the poor and the marginalized. The private sector has a major role to play in determining whether the growth it creates is inclusive and contributes to poverty reduction. It can promote economic opportunities for the poor. The contribution of science to end poverty has been significant. For example, it has enabled access to safe drinking water, reduced deaths caused by water-borne diseases, and improved hygiene to reduce health risks related to unsafe drinking water and lack of sanitation.

    Goal 2
    Zero Hunger
    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    What can you do about it?
    You can make changes in your own life—at home, at work and in the community—by supporting local farmers or markets and making sustainable food choices, supporting good nutrition for all, and fighting food waste. You can also use your power as a consumer and voter, demanding businesses and governments make the choices and changes that will make Zero Hunger a reality. Join the conversation, whether on social media platforms or in your local communities.

    Goal 3
    Good Health & Wellbeing
    Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all, at all ages.
    What can you do about it?
    You can start by promoting and protecting your own health and the health of those around you, by making well-informed choices, practicing safe sex, and vaccinating your children. You can raise awareness in your community about the importance of good health, healthy lifestyles, as well as peoples’ rights to quality health care services -especially for the most vulnerable, such as women and children. You can also hold your government, local leaders, and other decision makers accountable to their commitments to improve people’s access to health and health care.

    Goal 4
    Quality Education
    Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Ask our governments to place education as a priority in both policy and practice. Lobby our governments to make firm commitments to provide free primary school education to all, including vulnerable or marginalized groups.

    5.Gender equality and women’s empowerment
    Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    What can you do about it?
    If you are a girl, you can stay in school, help empower your female classmates to do the same, and fight for your right to access sexual and reproductive health services. If you are a woman, you can address unconscious biases and implicit associations that form an unintended and often an invisible barrier to equal opportunity. If you are a man or a boy, you can work alongside women and girls to achieve gender equality and embrace healthy, respectful relationships. You can fund education campaigns to curb cultural practices like female genital mutilation and change harmful laws that limit the rights of women and girls and prevent them from achieving their full potential.

    Goal 6
    Clean Water & Sanitation
    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Civil society organizations should work to keep governments accountable, invest in water research and development, and promote the inclusion of women, youth, and indigenous communities in water resources governance. Generating awareness of these roles and turning them into action will lead to win-win results and increased sustainability and integrity for both human and ecological systems. You can also get involved in the World Water Day and World Toilet Day campaigns that aim to provide information and inspiration to take action on hygiene issues.

    Goal 7
    Affordable & Clean Energy
    Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Countries can accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system by investing in renewable energy resources, prioritizing energy efficient practices, and adopting clean energy technologies and infrastructure. Businesses can maintain and protect ecosystems and commit to sourcing 100% of operational electricity needs from renewable sources. Employers can reduce the internal demand for transport by prioritizing telecommunications and incentivize less energy intensive modes such as train travel over auto and air travel. Investors can invest more in sustainable energy services, bringing new technologies to the market quickly from a diverse supplier base. You can save electricity by plugging appliances into a power strip and turning them off completely when not in use, including your computer. You can also bike, walk, or take public transport to reduce carbon emissions.

    Goal 8
    Decent Work & Economic GrowthHunger
    Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Providing youth with the best opportunity to transition to a decent job calls for investing in education and training of the highest possible quality, providing youth with skills that match labour market demands, giving them access to social protection and basic services regardless of their contract type, as well as levelling the playing field. This way all aspiring youth can attain productive employment regardless of their gender, income level, or socio-economic background. Governments can work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative, and people-centered economies In particular, they may promote youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, as well as decent work for all. Implementing adequate health and safety measures and promoting supportive working environments are fundamental to protecting the safety of workers; especially health workers and those providing essential services.

    Goal 9
    Industry, Innovation, & Infrastructure
    Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
    What can you do about it?
    Establish standards and promote regulations that ensure company projects and initiatives are sustainably managed. Collaborate with NGOs and the public sector to help promote sustainable growth within developing countries. Think about how industry impacts on your life and well-being and use social media to push for policymakers to prioritize the SDGs.
    So through planned and well-managed policies for the millions of people who have left their homes seeking better lives due to war, discrimination, poverty, lack of opportunity, and other drivers of migration

  15. Ugwoke kasiemobi Roseline reg NO: 2016/231449 economics major says:

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030.The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.

    Based on the question which is, if the goals are achivable in Nigeria within the time frame?
    From the angel of no poverty the goal is not achivable the reason because looking at what happened during the period of covid-19 was a clear reason that I said is not achivable because Nigeria, as a whole is corrupted, everyone is interested in his or her personal pocket without considering others in the society.
    End hunger, the goal is not achivable because we depend on other countries to feed, i.e we import food. Majority of Nigerians are subsistence farmers, while they produce a little of what they consume. Governors are not interested in agriculture,over the years I learnt that Nigeria is the major dealer in agriculture but now what is really happening? Nigeria is endowned with natural resources like land but our government don’t care about all these things. Local farmers should be enquiped with farm implements especially areas in the north that have high fertilized Land for more agricultural revolution.
    The area of healthy lives and well-being, this goal is not achivable in Nigeria reason because a country that whenever the president is not in a good state of health he will travel out of the country for treatment how can there be healthy lives where some of our hospitals are not equipped with necessary facilities.
    The quality education in Nigeria it is assumed that people struggling for education is just there for a waste of time because how can we asure a quality education in a country where the president does not have ordinary o’ level certificate, it is assumed that the head does not know what education is all about. Taking University of nigeria nsukka as case study where the books in the library is of the ancient days, while the lecturers are not well paid so they will be happy to give students the best. How can it be achivable where the president will give pubic speech and say don’t depend on your degrees and you think this goal can be achieved. To me the goal is not achivabe.
    Achieve gender equality it is still obvious that some sectors in the economy still don’t recognize this goal, where the president will dissolve the office of first lady and publicly said that she only belongs to the kitchen. Some religious organization this goal is still not recognized the aims and objectives of this goal is shattered already so it not achivable in all angles.
    Promote, sustainable inclusive and substainable Economics growth full and productive employment and decent work for all. the goal is just for a mare saying because a situation where from year to year no industry no new project based on job Creation how can this be achived the reason I said that this goal is just a mare say to Nigeria for instance the refinaries they promised so many years have they started it, the answer is no and we still hope that this goal will be achivable anyway to me it is not
    Reduce inequality within and among countries this goal lies where they said it. looking at what happened during the period of end sars where the president ordered the soldiers to kill innocent armless citizens and Nigeria as a member country to UN Nigerians taged UN to know their reaction towards this issue, up till now nothing have been done. We are talking about reduction of inequality where our president prefer his cow to humans this goal is not achivable until we seek for alignment within our self because we still face the problems of ethnic groups which some are called major and some minor.

  16. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are individuals focused just as planet delicate. They are generally as they apply to all nations while perceiving the various real factors just as abilities. In particular, they perceive that we can’t arrive at our improvement objectives without tending to common liberties and complex philanthropic issues. These SDGs are expressed accordingly:

    1. End Poverty: This is the transition to enhance destitution in the entirety of its structures all over the place. This wouldn’t be feasible in Nigeria since an exceptionally huge number of its residents are living underneath $1 each day.

    2. End hunger, accomplish food security and improved sustenance and advance feasible horticulture: This isn’t achievable since destitution isn’t yet destroyed, henceforth we need to annihilate neediness seething craving in the country.

    3. Guarantee sound lives and advance prosperity for all at all ages: We can’t guarantee solid lives on the off chance that we don’t kill neediness because most undesirable people in the nation are destitution blasted.

    4. Guarantee comprehensive and evenhanded quality training and advance deep-rooted learning openings for all: Education is central at essential levels at any rate all-inclusive fundamental instruction. Since neediness is broad, schooling for everything isn’t achievable.

    5. Accomplish sexual orientation equity and engage all ladies and young ladies: Since sex uniqueness exists between the guys and their female partners, at that point, this objective wouldn’t be accomplished.

    6. Guarantee accessible and feasible administration of water and sterilization for all: This is beyond the realm of imagination since Nigerians don’t take part in local area disinfection and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes the water harmful for use. Subsequently, sufficient sharpening is needed to right this wrong.

    7. Guarantee admittance to moderate, dependable, manageable and present-day energy for all: Since we need satisfactory observing of power age and appropriation, stained and available energy for everything isn’t feasible. Subsequently, there is a need to renew the power area.

    8. Advance maintained, comprehensive and practical monetary development, full and gainful business and good work for all: Since at any rate, 70% of the country’s populace is jobless, underemployed or working helpless endeavours to check the pace of joblessness is needed to support financial development and achieve full business.

    9. Construct a tough foundation, advance comprehensive and practical industrialization and encourage development: Since Nigeria slacks regarding framework, there is a need to develop structures that would cultivate advancement in the nation just as help creative personalities.

  17. Nnamani Great Ogomuegbunam says:

    Name: Nnamani, Great Ogomuegbunam
    REG NO: 2017/249532
    Email: nnamanigreat20@gmail.com

    Out of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world, the following 9 were studied. Attached after each of these goals are my view pertaining their feasibility given the limied time frame.
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    Poverty is now and always a global phenomenon. But it’s rate in different countries differ. In the Nigerian case. Eradicating poverty up till the point of it’s non existence termed, “No poverty” is not feasible. Truth be told, there has always been a wide inequality gap in Nigeria. While therich are getting richer, the poor are getting poorer. Except this gap is bridged, poverty issues in Nigeria will continue to escalate.

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    Goal 1 and 2 are intertwined. People get hungry because they are poor. In other words, goal 2 will not be solved, unless the right actions are taken to achieve goal 1.

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    Good health and well being has always been expensive in Nigeria. There are still riding cases of child and women mortality. The men are not left behind, as some die out of over stress. Good health doesn’t just involve maintaining good hygiene, but equally deals with having the right set of infrastructures for the general well being of the populace. As it stands, such is far from Nigeria. Hence, this goal will still remain unachievable.
    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    Every where and everyday, feminist arise- both from the make and female gender. So far, Nigerians are beginning to understand the need to ensure that no gender is left behind in this ever evolving world. From my perspective, this goal is achievable.

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    There has always been a misconduct about clean water and sanitation. Some persons believe that clean water can only come through rain, whilst in the case of sanitation, some persons believe that it should be left for only the organization in charge. Unless this mentality is corrected, this issue will continue to exist.
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    Globally, Energy is gradually becoming cheap. This is prevalent in the developed world, where various sources of energy are emerging. However, the African case is different. Although innovative methods arise from the intellectually curious youth, the government are not read to give it their best. They would rather use funds for less important things. Generally, clean energy may never be affordable, since a good number of Nigerians live below the poverty level.
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    Economic growth has always been the goal of every country. This is because it encompasses all activities going on in the country. However, this is not achievable in Nigeria because of the increasing rate of embezzlement.
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    When I think of innovation, it reminds me of so many bright Nigerians that have spent time together inventing and innovating mind blowing things. However, the illiterate government will have meaningless agendas as priority. This is heart rending. Howbeit, we’ll keep hoping that someday Nigeria will be better.

  18. No I don’t think the goals are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame; looking at the goals one by one,
    The first goal End poverty in all its forms -it is almost impossible with the current problem of corruption in Nigeria, Nigeria is named the world poverty capital by the world bank over 70 percent Nigerians are poor it would take good, transparent and accountable leaders to end poverty and we don’t have that here.
    Second goal -end hunger and achieve food security ; it cannot be achieved, using the covid 19 lockdown for example, the palliatives meant for our hungry population who were deprived of going to their places of work were withheld by our leaders , how then can these leaders end hunger when they could not distribute palliatives during a pandemic imagine how evil this is

    Goal 3 ensure healthy lives
    With the high rate of population and the low rate of development or standard of living our health is not guaranteed in this country we don’t have good hospitals that is why most people travel abroad for treatment , even our so called president, the life span of a Nigerian currently is 53 years

    Goal 4 ensure inclusive and equitable quality education
    It Is extremely obvious by now that our leaders do not care at all about our education judging from the the increasing number of strikes In our universities

    Goal 5 achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    With the predominance of culture and religion In Nigeria , I would say that gender equality would take a very long time to be achieved

    Goal 6 ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation
    Due to corruption and embezzlement of funds we can’t have access to good water supply in our communities

    Goal 7 ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable energy this cannot be achieved because of greed of our leaders

    Goal 8 promote sustained inclusive and sustainable economic growth
    A buoyant economy is industrious, we are far from industrious in Nigeria

    Goal 9 build infrastructure promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Our leaders will embezzle the money for these projects and take it abroad and develop the white countries

    It saddens me to conclude that in the next 10 years we could be far worse than we are now at this rate.

  19. OKEKE NANCY OGADIMMA says:

    NAME:OKEKE NANCY OGADIMMA
    REG NO:2017/249557
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    EMAIL:ogadimmanancy@gmail.com

    I will be stating the goals and the reasons why I think or believe rather that they are not achievable in Nigeria
    Goal 1: End poverty in all its form everywhere: This goal is not achievable in 9yrs because the rate of hunger in the economy is still on a increase .A poor country will obviously have poor citizens living in it. And also due to the high rate of unemployment in the economy, the rate of hunger has been on a increase because people don’t have a income to fall in to.
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture: This goal is not achievable because when there is a high rate of poor people in the country, the rate of hunger will still be on an increase because poor people are obviously hungry. Also since these goals go side by side, if the rate of poverty in the country is not been taken care of ,then the rate of hunger will still be on an increase. In other words, if there is still high rate of unemployment in the country, the rate of poverty will be on an increase ,and when the rate of poverty on an increase, there will be a corresponding increase in hunger. So if Nigeria cannot curb the issue if unemployment in the country ,there still be high rate of poverty and hunger.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages: This goal is also not achievable in 9 yrs. This is because you cannot promote the well-being of hungry people. If there is a high rate of hunger in a country how can they improve the well-being of such people without first curbing the problem of hunger and poverty.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: This goal is not quite achievable in 9yrs because some people most especially the poor don’t really give education a top priority because they can’t afford it. Another reason is because of the notion that school nah scam. This has made many people to be ignorant and feels or believe rather that going to school is not an assurance that they will be prosperous in life.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: This goal is also not achievable in 9yrs .This is due to the fact that there is still the existence of patriarchal system especially in the Eastern part and strong cultural practices in the northern part of the country. There is still this mentality that women should be under a man and that women are inferior and cannot do everything a man can do. IN some parts of the country especially the northern parts, women are not allowed to do some certain types of work and some are not allowed to work are all. SO until their traditional practices are looked into this particular goal is not achievable in 9 yrs or more than .Also even though there has been an improvement in girl child education which I must highly commend, there is still disparities that exist in the work place as men are giving more sensitive and higher positions than women because they believe that women are not fit and thereby cannot carry the weight that comes with such positions
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: This goal is mot achievable because of the problem of mismanagement of funds that is caused by corruption ,greed and wickedness. Most times ,the money meant for rural developments are been squandered by the top officials and thereby leading to uneven development in the communities.
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Modern energy will not be sustainable for all as far as there is the problem of inadequate checks and balances. Most times, the people responsible for this modern energy makes it possible for people to access it ,and impossible for people that already have access to it to enjoy it. they discomfort people with heavy bills, unsteady light and poor services to people that don’t have access to it Even those that are meant to check their excesses are more corrupt than them which makes it easier and give them more boldness to do as they please. As far as the problem of checks and balances by honest officials is not taken into consideration and corruption still prevails in the country, this goal is not achievable even in 30yrs.
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: As we can see, there is still high rate of unemployment in Nigeria which is a very big problem that seems quite difficult .Also .there is still high rate of imports and low level of exports as Nigeria produces basically nothing and therefore imports almost all of its finished goods. This high level of imports makes it hard for local and infant industries to grow and thereby reducing economic growth in the country. This goal is not achievable as the level of industrialization in the country is very poor and people are not being given the opportunity to be creative and innovative. And also, the inaccessibility of government grants and loans with cheap interest make it impossible for people with little capital to start up something even though they might have good ideas that will definitely boost the country’s GDP.
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructures, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: If goal 8 is not achievable ,then this is obviously not achievable even in 100yrs.Because in a country like Nigeria where there is low level of unemployment, rate of poverty accompanied with hunger ,and there is low or no quality education, with an unsustainable economic growth, then a resilient infrastructure and inclusive and sustainable industrialization sounds like a joke and quite laughable. And with the current state of Nigeria does not give room for innovation and creativity and that’s part of the reason why the economy is stagnant.
    In conclusion, all these goals are not achievable even in the next 100 if the problem of corruption is not curbed in Nigeria and youths given the opportunities they deserve to make a change and give Nigeria what she deserves.

  20. Mbaukwu Nkiruka Precious says:

    Mbaukwu Nkiruka Precious
    2017/242425
    Economics
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) are as follows;
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    Now in my own opinion, Looking at only the first nine(9) goals, it is evident that it cannot be achieved before 2030. It even seems to me that we’re moving in the opposite directions of the goals. Take a look at our dear country, there’s still poverty and rate at which it continues to increase is alarming, these days , the rich is getting poorer and the poor are just in pure danger.
    The level of hunger in Nigeria due to the level of poverty people find it very difficult to carter for their daily needs. The price of goods in the market keeps climbing everyday.
    Poor medical or health facilities has contributed to careless deaths,
    The level of quality education is also nothing to write about due to strike and high level of corruption leading to employment of unqualified teachers and lecturers. Due to cultural and religious beliefs women and girl child have been written off in almost all the sector’s in the economy which leads to Nigeria not making optimum use of the labour force.
    Mismanagement of public funds has lead to low level of technology and have also contributed or paid little attention to the benefits of the development of modern technology and energy in Nigeria.
    From our current year(2021) to 2030,is approximately nine(9) years. I feel it’s too short for our dear country to achieve those goals. These times are becoming way too scary and it’s only God that can help us.

  21. The 17 sustainable development goals
    1. Eliminate Poverty
    2.Erase Hunger
    3.Establish Good Health and Well-Being
    4.Provide Quality Education
    5.Enforce Gender Equality
    6.Improve Clean Water and Sanitation
    7.Grow Affordable and Clean Energy
    8.Create Decent Work and Economic Growth
    9.Increase Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
    10.Reduce Inequality
    11.Mobilize Sustainable Cities and Communities
    12.Influence Responsible Consumption and Production
    13.Organize Climate Action
    14.Develop Life Below Water
    15.Advance Life On Land
    16.Guarantee Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
    17. Partnerships for the Goals
    Nigerians Achievement of the SDGs
    Following the adoption of the 2030 Agenda,Nigeria
    began to implement the SDGs almost immediately.
    First,it established institutional frameworks at the
    national and sub-national levels to support effective
    implementation.With this early headstart,several
    strategic initiatives were implemented between 2016
    and now,while others are still on going.
    Nevertheless,just as Nigeria commenced the‘Decade
    of Action’for the SDGs inJanuary 2020,the outbreak
    of COVID-19 took place,thus challenging the prospects
    of achieving the SDGs in Nigeria.This Report examines
    the impact of COVID-19 on specific SDGs.It would
    be recalled that Nigeria recorded its first index case
    on 27 February 2020.Despite measures taken by the
    federal and state governments to curtail the spread of
    the pandemic across the country,its adverse impact on
    socio-economic development and other consequences
    will last beyond 2020.
    Expectedly,the most significant impacts of COVID-19
    havebeenontheNigerianeconomyandthehealth
    system.Pre-COVID-19,in 2019,the health sector
    received only 25percent of its funding requirements,
    putting a strain on the coping capacity of the ‘country’s
    health systems(WHO Nigeria:2019).Funding is now
    shifting towards COVID-19,leaving other healthcare
    needs to suffer a further reduction in funding allocation.
    Federal and state governments,as well as development
    partners andborganized privatebsector,have stepped up
    efforts to increase the financing of the health sector.The
    inauguration of the presidential TaskForce on COVID-19
    and the establishment of the fiscal stimulus package are
    steps in the right direction.The Federal government has
    secured life insurance for all frontlinebhealth workers
    participating in the ongoing fight against the spread
    of COVID-19 in Nigeria and cash transfers have been
    extended to over 10-million Nigerians,using the existing
    database within the National Social Investment Office
    (NSIO).

  22. Asika joy ogechukwu
    2017/242025
    Economics
    joy.asika.242025@unn.edu.ng

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
    In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    From my own of view none of the first 9 goals have been achieved and cannot be achieved before 2030.
    There’s still poverty due to high rate of unemployment and also the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.
    There’s also hunger in Nigeria due to the level of poverty people find it very difficult to carter for their daily needs
    Poor medical or health facilities has contributed to unhealthy lives and also medicals practitioners demands are also not meet
    The level of quality education is also nothing to write about due to strike and high level of corruption leading to employment of unqualified teachers and lecturer.

  23. Name: Ikechukwu Chizoba Peace
    Reg no: 2017/249517
    Dept: Economics

    The sustainable development Goals which call for building peaceful, inclusive and well governed societies with responsive institutions as the basis for shared prosperity.
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere. This is not possible in Nigeria given the specified time, because according to UN every citizen of a country is expected to have up to $1 per day which is not achievable by almost average Nigeria.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This is not achievable since poverty have not been alleviated.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages. Since it’s from first and the second agenda that this can be made possible, if the above is not achievable this also it’s not achievable.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all. I think this can be achievable in Nigeria if and only if the mindset of self interest of our political leaders are being arrested. And again disabled and LCDs interest are being included in the budget.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. This is also achievable in Nigeria because the motion is in progress. Whereby women are being included in political and some offices now.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    It’s also achievable if individuals and government join efforts in keeping the environment clean and also provide public water ( borehole) for less priveleged communities.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. It’s achievable too because when the NEPA management was in the hands of government an average Nigeria can afford for electricity because it was likely like public goods. And if adequate supervision should be done on public workers an even distribution of light will be achievable.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    Looking at number two, if Nigeria should look into her Agricultural, health sector and infant industries, and also deal with corruption and self interest group, thereby providing enough raw material, good health and a sustainable manufacturing industry. And hence increasing her GDP and attracting more investors. If all this should be put in place I think agenda 8, is achievable.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive, and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. To me it can be achieved in Nigeria if only our leaders should put the interest of the public first in their decisions.

  24. Ideba Tochukwu Emmanuel says:

    Ideba Tochukwu Emmanuel
    2017/241435

    One problem: SDG tracking isn’t incorporated into common tools used by organizations and governments, according to Erik Arnold, chief technology officer, Microsoft Tech for Social Impact.

    “The SDGs are a little bit inaccessible,” Arnold said at the Global Washington Goalmakers 2019 conference.

    Although the SDGs lack a true accountability mechanism, donors, NGOs, and governments need to hold themselves and each other accountable in addressing global issues and achieving the SDGs.

    “At the end of the day, we are trying to change lives,” said Diana Fletschner, senior director of research, Monitoring and Evaluation at Landesa.

    Accountability must rely on evidence. Effective evaluation is not a given. Learn more about building effective evaluations for the global goals. Impact investors can similarly evaluate the progress driven by investments.

    Unfortunately, the current evidence suggests that progress has not been sufficient. Most U.S. states are not meeting SDG standards. While global progress has been made, it has been inequitable. Those most in need have seen the least progress. The 2018 High-level Political Forum, a venue for review of progress, revealed early learnings. This event highlighted ways for governments and NGOs to improve their practices, hopefully encouraging quicker progress in the future. Donors can use this information to better serve their target populations.

  25. UDEH AMARACHI M. says:

    NAME: UDEH AMARACHI M.
    REG. NO :2017/249576
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: maryamarachi2010@gmail.com
    BLOG: maryudehblog.com
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are made up of seventeen goals which is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country in the world to achieve a better and more sustainable future. Among all this 17 goals I am going to focus on the first 9 goals. The SDGs include:
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere: This could be achieved by making use of the available resources effectively and efficiently, which will lead to development and full employment that will help in eradicating poverty before 2030.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture: This could be achieved through improving and channeling enough resources to the agricultural sector by encouraging the farmers and providing them enough equipment and fertilizer. If the government do this, I believe that by 2030 there will be no hunger and we will achieve food security and improved nutrition.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages: This will be achieved by building and maintaining health care facilities and by providing qualified health care works and adequate equipment.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all: This could be achieved provided the government reverse its attention and give life to public institutions again, by properly funding them, not owing the academic and non-academic staffs, improve infrastructures and adopts world best practices in terms of standards and technology in schools.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: I believe this has been achieved in the sense that they now go to school and participate politically, socially and otherwise and they are now empowered.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: This could be achieved by 2030, if government invest in water research and development, and promote the inclusion of women, youth, and indigenous communities in water resources governance by generating awareness of these roles and taking action that will lead to win-win results and increased sustainability and integrity for both human and ecological systems. we can also get involved in the World Water Day and World Toilet Day campaigns that aim to provide information and inspiration on hygiene.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: This can be achieved if the government can accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system by investing in renewable energy resources and adopting clean energy technologies and infrastructure.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Like I said in the first goal about ending poverty, we can also achieve this if government make use of the available resources efficiently and effectively.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: this is possible by establishing standards and promoting regulations that ensures company projects and initiatives are managed sustainably. This is also possible if there is good governance because good governance brings about Innovation and infrastructure.

  26. Odu David Oluchukwu says:

    Odu David Oluchukwu
    2017/241432
    Economics
    300level

    THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS FOR 2030: THE POSSIBILITY OF ACHIEVING THEM IN NIGERIA BEFORE 2030.

    1. End Poverty in all its forms everywhere :
    The above goal is not achievable in Nigeria within the stipulated time. The reason being that, it’s not possible to end poverty in totality, it can only be reduced to its bearest minimum.

    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture : This is achievable in Nigeria. But it will require the Nigeria government to start investing heavily in the agricultural sector.

    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages: it is achievable. The Nigeria government will need to start funding the health sector properly. This will enable them to carryout researches on health related issues. The government should also resensitize the populace on the important of environmental sanitation.

    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: This can only be achieved if the government start investing heavily in the educational sector. They should also not be partial when it comes to the method of admitting students into the higher institutions.

    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and goals: It is achievable. The government should start giving both males and females equal opportunities in education and political positions. They should shun any kind of gender discrimination.

    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: It’s achievable. Government should invest in water resources department and also map out a day for all round environmental sanitation.

    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all: It’s achievable.
    The government should source for any source of energy, apart from electricity.
    By utilizing their Natural resources, like coal in Enugu state. And also making use of solar system.

    8. Promote Sustained , inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: It’s achievable. But the easiest way of achieving this is by the government establishing an enabling environment for business to survive. By this, people will be able to create job for themselves.

    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation : It’s achievable.
    But government will need to fight corruption to bearest minimum.
    That’s because most politicians tends to divert funds needed for infrastructural development, and funds needed to build industries.

  27. Eric-nnaji Chiamaka Ngozi says:

    Eric-nnaji Chiamaka Ngozi
    2017/249499
    Economics department

    The Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs) are a collection of 17 interdependent global goals which is intended to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. The SDGs succeeded the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015.
    The 17 SDGs are:
    1. No poverty
    2. Zero Hunger
    3. Good health and well-being
    4. Quality education
    5. Gender equality
    6. Clean water and sanitation
    7. Affordable and clean energy
    8. Decent work and economic growth
    9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure
    10. Reducing inequality
    11. Sustainable cities and communities
    12. Responsible consumption and production
    13. Climate action
    14. Life below water
    15. Life on land
    16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions
    17. Partnerships for the goals.
    Are the first nine goals achievable in Nigeria within the allotted time? The answer is no, we cannot achieve all that within the alloted time frame. Reasons:
    1. The poverty rate in the country is to high to be eradicated completely by 2030, it can only be reduced. There are too many corrupt and inefficient people in power so even the funds to be used in taking care of this issue and so many others are redirected somewhere else or misused. Since poverty cannot be completely eradicated by 2030, so also, the goal of zero hunger, good health and well-being and quality education cannot be completely achieved because a lot of the citizens do not have the means to afford these things (food, health care charges and tuition fees). Although the government has made significant efforts in trying to achieve these goals, there are forces like inflation, corruption and so on that render these efforts vain.
    2. Gender equality cannot be fully achieved but it would be greatly improved by 2030 because more women are becoming increasingly aware of their importance, self worth and so on, girls are being increasingly enrolled in school and there are more organizations which are dedicated in empowering females coming up. Inspite of these, there are still women most especially in the rural setting that still have and are not ready to let go of their very archaic mindset about the roles of women in the society and then go ahead to instill such morals in their female children.
    3. In providing water and energy in the country, the Nigerian government has achieved something quite substantial and can actually achieve this fully by 2030 if the right people are put in place to make sure this two goals, 6 and 7, are achieved. The right people because they would not misuse or divert funds somewhere else and they would ensure efficiency in the job and be accountable.
    4. Goal 8 and 9: This goals are achievable so long as a non-corrupt government that truly cares about the well-being of it’s citizens, encourages innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship comes into power.

  28. Osuiwu Adimchinobi Peace says:

    Osuiwu Adimchinobi Peace
    2017/249570
    Economics Department

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of interconnected goals set up in 2015 to succeed to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the United Nations General Assembly and is to be achieved by the year 2030. The seventeen SDGs include:
    (1) No poverty,
    (2) Zero hunger,
    (3) Good health and well-being,
    (4) Quality education,
    (5) Gender equality,
    (6) Clean water and sanitation ,
    (7) Affordable and clean energy
    (8) Decent work and economic Growth,
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure,
    (10) Reducing Inequality,
    (11) Sustainable cities and communities,
    (12) Responsible consumption and Production,
    (13) Climate action,
    (14) Life below water,
    (15) Life on land,
    (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions,
    (17) Partnerships for the goals.
    Emphasis on the first nine goals, Nigeria cannot achieve them all in the allotted time period. Why?
    First, the poverty rate in the country is too high and majority of our leaders are not interested in alleviating it. Even if the focus shifts to alleviating it, by 2030, a lot of people would still be in poverty because there are too many people living in poverty. If by 2030, poverty cannot be completely alleviated, then the goal of zero hunger, good health and well-being and quality education is far-fetched because a lot of the citizens would not be able to afford it.
    Secondly, on the issue of gender equality, there have been considerable improvement in the engagement of women in every sectors of the country but there are still those women particularly in rural areas who still see themselves as second to men and are very happy and satisfied with that.
    Lastly, Goal 6, 7, 8 and 9 are very achievable if only we have good governance that genuinely cares the citizens and the growth of the economy.

  29. Ngene Michael C. says:

    Ngene Michael C.
    2017/246022
    Economic
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world.
    The SDGs replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which started a global effort in 2000 to tackle the indignity of poverty. The MDGs established measurable, universally-agreed objectives for tackling extreme poverty and hunger, preventing deadly diseases, and expanding primary education to all children, among other development priorities.
    For 15 years, the MDGs drove progress in several important areas: reducing income poverty, providing much needed access to water and sanitation, driving down child mortality and drastically improving maternal health. They also kick-started a global movement for free primary education, inspiring countries to invest in their future generations. Most significantly, the MDGs made huge strides in combatting HIV/AIDS and other treatable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis.
    The first 9 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world, particularly Nigeria
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    I believe that this first 9 goals is achievable within the time frame of 9 years (2021-2030) if the system is purge and totally free from men and women that are self centered. Mr president sir I tell you, 9 years is even big to get this done when the right people are enthroned in the position of government offices. We have the resources and enough human capital to actualize this goals but the channels through which the impact of the implementation these goals reaches the Masses must be well placed and position to supply effectively. We purge the system by willingly and violently eradicate the bed eggs in the government offices. Anyone found embezzling government resources should be removed, imprisoned, and possibly killed. Let the nation set up a strong standard that we keep the system moving well and achieving the SDGs goals.
    When this is in place, and all the different minister in different sectors come together in unit before the 9 years is over at least the first goals 9 will be acualise in it fullness.

  30. OGUMBA CHIDINMA JOY
    2017/242028
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    exclusivejoy1.blogspot.com
    williamsjoy77@gmail.com

    The 9 SDGs already discussed are: (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure.

    These are achievable to some extent if the necessary things needed to be done are being done.

    1. No Poverty
    In Nigeria, the possibility of achieving this is very minute considering the high level of corruption amongst those whom are handed the power to create avenues for generating wealth and distribution. They have lagged in doing that and are still lagging with a great margin.

    2. Zero Hunger
    This can be achieved after number one has been addressed.

    3. Good Health and Wellbeing
    This can be achieved if all health care centres and hospitals are well equipped and the era of favouritism and lackadaisical attitude on the part of the medical staffs are minimized or eradicated.

    4. Quality Education
    This can be achieved considering the UBE programme that is ongoing.

    5. Gender Equality
    With recent developments, women are beginning to have the same opportunities as men.

    6. Clean Water and Sanitation
    Access to clean water in Nigeria is a milestone yet to be achieved as many rural areas lack clean water as a result of pollution from their natural resources (crude oil) which help boost the country’s growth but yet lack maintenance to avoid the pollution that poses a threat to the life of the citizen as they have little or no access to clean water.

    7. Affordable and Clean Energy
    There is a need for the sensitization of the citizen as regards the usage of the energy. If the citizens keep on using bulbs and other gadgets that can be substituted with energy-saving abilities, then the cost of usage will continue to increase.

    8. Decent Work and Economic Growth
    This can be achieved if more industries are built and made open to all leaving out nepotism, godfatherism, favouritism, etc.

    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    These can be achieved as a result of the effort of the government. If there are industries and infrastructure, it will encourage innovation.

    All these can be achieved when the efforts, resources, are put in their right places.

  31. Anachunam Daberechi Maryjane says:

    NAME: ANACHUNAM DABERECHI MARYJANE
    REG. NO: 2017/241448
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    EMAIL: daberechi.anachunam.241448@unn.edu.ng
    The nine first sustainable development goals are:

    No Poverty
    Zero Hunger
    Good Health and Well-being
    Quality Education
    Gender Equality
    Clean Water and Sanitation
    Affordable and Clean Energy
    Decent Work and Economic Growth
    Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    The time frame given to achieve this is till 2030.
    With the time frame given, very few of this goals can be achieved
    Poverty can definitely not be achieved in this time because the majority of Nigerians are poor, we can indeed leave poverty if we make it a priority but not in such short time.
    Zero hunger is a not possible as it’s a consequence of poverty, the government could actually try to invest more in agriculture to make food cheaper but it’s probably not possible in the current Nigerian situation.
    Good health and well being is very possible as the world have greatly improved in this area but it won’t also be possible if the government keep on making our lives less of a priority.
    Quality Education is not just possible but is already attainable in Nigeria as we even have free education until secondary school level and for those that can’t afford to go to university can still study free/ cheap courses online and get as many certificates as possible.
    Gender equality is already to a high extent attainable in modern day Nigeria and as times goes by more women would be achieving greater heights.
    Clean water and sanitation: it could be attainable if more Nigerians be education on the importance of this and how it will help them.
    Affordable and clean energy: this has already been achieved in other countries so it will be attainable before the prescribed time if Nigeria is willing to accept this new innovation.
    Decent work and economic growth: Nigerians are innovative and can create a good life for themselves, but the political instability and unfavourable policies keep on limiting Economic growth and decent work. So improving this should be on the place of the government and not the people.
    Industry, innovation and infrastructure: Nigeria is already big on innovation and industry, but on the part of infrastructure which is a government good we haven’t been doing so well and it may not also be achieved by 2030 if we continue having the same culture about politics and public funds.

  32. Okere success chigoziem
    2017/243145
    Education Economics

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    From my own of view none of the first 9 will be explained thus;
    1. End poverty: This is the move to ameliorate poverty in all its forms everywhere. This wouldn’t be attainable in Nigeria since a very large number of it’s citizens are living below $1 per day.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not attainable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: We can’t ensure healthy lives if we don’t exterminate poverty because most unhealthy persons in the country are poverty-stricken.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since poverty is widespread, education for all is not attainable.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Since gender disparity exists between the males and their female counterparts, then this goal wouldn’t be achieved.
    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Thus is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes water toxic for use. Hence adequate sensitization is required to right this wrong.

    Affordable & Clean Energy
    Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Countries can accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system by investing in renewable energy resources, prioritizing energy efficient practices, and adopting clean energy technologies and infrastructure. Businesses can maintain and protect ecosystems and commit to sourcing 100% of operational electricity needs from renewable sources. Employers can reduce the internal demand for transport by prioritizing telecommunications and incentivize less energy intensive modes such as train travel over auto and air travel. Investors can invest more in sustainable energy services, bringing new technologies to the market quickly from a diverse supplier base. You can save electricity by plugging appliances into a power strip and turning them off completely when not in use, including your computer. You can also bike, walk, or take public transport to reduce carbon emissions.

    Goal 8
    Decent Work & Economic GrowthHunger
    Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all.
    What can you do about it?
    Providing youth with the best opportunity to transition to a decent job calls for investing in education and training of the highest possible quality, providing youth with skills that match labour market demands, giving them access to social protection and basic services regardless of their contract type, as well as levelling the playing field. This way all aspiring youth can attain productive employment regardless of their gender, income level, or socio-economic background. Governments can work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative, and people-centered economies In particular, they may promote youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, as well as decent work for all. Implementing adequate health and safety measures and promoting supportive working environments are fundamental to protecting the safety of workers; especially health workers and those providing essential services.

    Goal 9
    Industry, Innovation, & Infrastructure
    Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
    What can you do about it?
    Establish standards and promote regulations that ensure company projects and initiatives are sustainably managed. Collaborate with NGOs and the public sector to help promote sustainable growth within developing countries. Think about how industry impacts on your life and well-being and use social media to push for policymakers to prioritize the SDGs.
    So through planned and well-managed policies for the millions of people who have left their homes seeking better lives due to war, discrimination, poverty, lack of opportunity, and other drivers of migration

  33. OZUEM DEBORAH OGHENEKEVWE says:

    NAME: OZUEM DEBORAH OGHENEKEVWE
    REG NO: 2017/249572
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: deborah.ozuem.249572@unn.edu.ng

    Given the time frame allotted to achieve these goals, some are achievable while others are not. But firstly, we would be outlining these goals and then explaining how feasible it is to achieve each in the given timeframe.
    1. No poverty: The campaign against poverty did not start today. As far back as the MDGs, eliminating poverty has been on the spotlight but we can see that the percentage of those living in poverty has continued to escalate over the years. This goal can only be achieved when there is transparency, accountability, and honesty among our leaders. Only then can they formulate and implement policies that would better the lives of those at the grassroot. With the level of corruption in our country, it’s sad to say that even in the next 20 years, the rich will still keep getting richer while the poor man is left to hang and dry.
    2. No hunger: This is a function of the first goal. Only poverty subjects one to hunger. Hence, eliminating poverty is a direct solution to the problem of hunger.
    3. Good health and well-being: This goal has experienced appreciable improvement over the years and given the timeframe, a lot can still be done. The focus should be in terms of infrastructures, the medical and surgical equipments and quality of healthcare services rendered. With improvements in these areas both by the government and private entities, this goal can be achieved.
    4. Quality education: The neglect by the government on the educational system is alarming and with this attitude, this goal may not be achievable even with a longer time period. Though, the educational sector has witnessed significant improvement too but it was majorly with respect to the quantity of schools. The number of schools and institutions in the country has increased but the quality of the service is still very poor. The sector needs huge commitment and investment which sadly, the government is not will to put in.
    5. Gender equality: Given the progress we’ve had with this goal, it is achievable in the stated time period. Women have gained considerable recognition in various spheres and sectors of the economy. Even politically, they are making waves and with women in politics, there’s no limit to how far they can gain grounds in other sectors.
    6. Clean water and sanitation: Accessibility to clean water is one index used to determine how poor a person is. Given the poverty level, lots of people in the country still struggle with getting clean drinking water. Also, people with no homes or live in slums would care less about sanitation. So achieving this goal to a large extent depends on eradicating poverty.
    7. Affordable and clean energy: This goal is far from achievable in Nigeria. One major reason is corruption. There is little or no concern on the part of the government and even after handing over to private enterprise, it became worse. The power sector needs huge investment also to revitalize it and until the government decides to provide the necessary fund for the sector, there may be no reasonable progress.
    8. Decent work and economic growth: This goal is not attainable given the unemployment and underemployment level in the country. If there are investment in key sectors in the economy, there would be jobs for a great number of the citizens. Also, fiscal discipline should be embarked upon by the government to channel funds in the right sectors as this will also improve economic growth.
    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Depending on the policies and strategy of government, it will determine if this goal will be achieved. If there are no proactive policies, then this goal is not achievable.

  34. ONAH SOMTOCHUKWU KERIAN 2017/249566 says:

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS ) are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. The answer to whether this goals are to be fully achieved within the stipulated time is NO. The SDGs goal are as follows: (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4) Quality Education , (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation , (7) Affordable and Clean Energy , (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10) Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities ,(12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life OnLand , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions , (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    Why this goal wouldn’t be fully achieved is because of the following reasons:
    GOAL 1: NO POVERTY
    10 percent of the world’s population live in poverty and struggle to meet basic needs such as health, education, and access to water and sanitation . Extreme poverty remains prevalent in low-income countries particularly those affected by conflict and political upheaval. In 2015, more than half of the world’s 736 million people living in extreme poverty lived in Sub-Saharan Africa. Without a significant shift in social policy, extreme poverty will dramatically increase by 2030.
    GOAL 2: ZERO HUNGER
    Globally, 1 in 9 people are undernourished, the vast majority of whom live in developing countries. Under nutrition causes wasting or severe wasting of 52 million children worldwide. It contributes to
    nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under five 3.1 million children per year.
    GOAL 3: GOOD HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
    Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common causes of child and maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2016, the worldwide under-five mortality rate decreased by 47 percent (from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births). Still, the number of children dying under age five is very high: 5.6 million in 2016.
    GOAL 4: QUALITY EDUCATION
    Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls. But the question is how well is the quality? Public schools lack computers and some doesn’t even have quality seat or toilet for students instead , the students go to bushes to do their things.
    GOAL 5: GENDER EQUALITY
    As racism will not totally stop so it is with the issue of gender inequality, taken Nigeria as a case study. Although women now has better access to decision-making ,their ratio to the male counterpart will never be the same.
    GOAL 6: CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION
    The Joint Monitoring Programme ( JMP ) of World Health Organisation WHO And United Nations International Children’s Emergency fund UNICEF reported in 2017 that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. Also in 2017, only 71 per cent of the global population used safely managed drinking water, and 2.2 billion persons were still without safely managed drinkingwater. With regards to water stress . Good drinking water in Nigeria is very expensive. Imagine a sachet of water being sold at #20 and a full load tank being sold at #8000.
    GOAL 7: AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY
    Obviously this hasn’t being achieved over the past decade, I wonder if it is achievable before 2030. The energy distribution of Nigeria from the public sector to the private sector is nothing to write home about in terms of epileptic power supply and also the bills are highly expensive.
    GOAL 8: DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: in the past five years, economic growth in least developed countries has been increasing at an average rate of 4.3 per cent. In 2018, the global growth rate of real GDP per capita was 2 per cent. In addition, the rate for least developed countries was 4.5 per cent in 2018 and 4.8 per cent in 2019, less than the 7 per cent growth rate targeted in SDG 8. In 2019, 22 per cent of the world’s young people were not in employment, education training, a figure that has hardly changed since 2005.
    GOAL 9: INDUSTRY, INNOVATION, AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    The achivement of this goal has being hijacked by the dependence of Nigeria economy on oil. There are little industries located in Nigeria with the major ones being ran on a monopolistic or oligopolistic ladder.

  35. Ani, Gabriel ogbonna says:

    Name: Ani, Gabriel Ogbonna
    Reg. Number: 2017/249483
    Email: anigabriel05@gmail.com
    Department: Economics

    THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs) VS NIGERIA
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.The purpose was to produce a set of universal goals that would help combat the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world. Unlike MDGs which focused on the plight of the developing countries but SDGs is universal, that is focusing on both the developing and developed countries. The goals of SDGs are 17 and they are integrated, that is, they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. In other words, if the problem of unemployment are solved, poverty will be eradicated.
    However, among this goals the first 9 out of the 17 goals will put into consideration to know if Nigeria can achieve them within the allotted time frame that is 2030. This goals includes the following;

    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    The first 9 of this goals may not really be achieved in Nigeria within the allotted time frame because of so many structural issues that has posed to be a threat to the achievement of this goals. Such issues could be insecurities. To achieve this goals, funds are required and those funds will be channelled into combating the issue of insecurities. Presently, the issue of insecurity has posed a serious challenge to Farmers and it has claimed a lot of lives, this made so many Farmers to produce below potential and this bring about the scarcity of consumable goods thereby increasing the price of goods and services. This leads to poverty and hunger ( goal 1 and 2) which is prevalent in Nigeria showing that the hope of achieving this goals is a dream that will never come to reality. Embezzlement of public fund which is a national anthem in Nigeria can as well act as challenge to achievement of this goals. The allocated funds to achieve this goals will definitely be embezzled by this leaders making it a private fund thereby denying the public good healthcare and well being and quality education (goal 2 and 4). Since this problem is internal achieving this goals is a story.
    Furthermore, gender equality (goal 5) has been partially achieved in Nigeria as well as clean water and sanitation and, affordable and clean energy ( goal 6 and 7). It has not been widely achieved in Nigeria. Some culture does not permit woman to play a key role either in political or Economic activities. Electricity has not been widely distributed and achieving this within the range of time may not be possible because it not put into consideration. The goal 8 and 9 will be achieved if power changed hands to those who have the interest of Nigeria at heart, if not there will be repitition of failures.

  36. Okoronkwo Uchechukwu David says:

    NAME; OKORONKWO UCHECHUKWU DAVID
    REG NO; 2017/241455
    DEPARTMENT; ECONOMICS
    EMAIL; uchechukwu.okoronkwo.241455@unn.edu.ng

    Nigeria have not being able to achieve the 9 sustainable goals due it’s lack of structures/infrastructures and corruption rooted in it’s systems, innovation suffers from heavy taxes and bad governance.
    No matter the effort to grow the country through the sustainable goals, there is still need to tackle the afflictions of poverty that handicaps the grass roots of country and until there is victory against poverty and accountability at the highest level of government.

  37. NAME. ACHONWA DAVID CHUKWUDI
    REG NO. 2017/249472
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    The first nine sustainable development goals are listed below;
    1. To end poverty
    2. End hunger and encourage agriculture.
    3. Ensure healthy lives.
    4. Ensure quality education.
    5. Achieve gender equality.
    6. Ensure sustainable water management.
    7. Good access to modern energy.
    8. Ensure economic growth and full employment.
    9. Build infrastructures and promote industrialization..
    According to my perspective sustainable growth development cannot be achieved in Nigeria in 2030 due to the following reasons.
    Economic and financial barriers are the hindrance to sustainable development because it requires many changes in plans and strategy which hinders companies from using sustainable practices. Also sustainability is not properly understood or integrated into most companies strategies.
    Poverty and exclusive unemployment is widespread in Nigeria, about 85% of the population are living in poverty and good access to education or human resource development is a way to curb the high rate of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria.
    The government are experiencing deficit financing. Funds that would have been used to build infrastructures are been used to settle debts that the government have borrowed.
    Agriculture has been neglected and should be encouraged in order to boost food production thereby reducing hunger.
    In conclusion the government should also reduce child mortality by building standard health centers and providing good health services and adequate health facilities.

  38. Okafor Festus Obinna says:

    Name: Okafor Festus Obinna
    Reg No: 2017/249550
    Dept: Economics

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs, also known as the Global Goals) are 17 goals with 169 targets that all UN Member States have agreed to work towards achieving by the year 2030. They set out a vision for a world free from poverty, hunger and disease.
    Health has a central place in SDG 3 “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”, underpinned by 13 targets that cover a wide spectrum of WHO’s work.
    Almost all of the other 16 goals are related to health or their achievement will contribute to health indirectly.
    The SDGs aim to be relevant to all countries – poor, rich and middle-income – to promote prosperity while protecting the environment and tackling climate change. They have a strong focus on improving equity to meet the needs of women, children and disadvantaged populations in particular so that “no one is left behind”.
    This agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which were 8 goals that UN Member States signed in September 2000 to achieve targets to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women in 2030.

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world are as follows;

    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    What are the possibilities of achieving this goals in Nigeria within the time frame?
    Firstly, starting with the first Goal which is aimed at reducing poverty. We now ask ourselves, whats the present standard of living in Nigeria?
    In this particular aspect, its obvious that Nigeria have not improved or done anything about it, instead the situation gets worst everyday. This could be seen by the increase in Numbers of beggers that we have now in our streets. Nigeria have not for ones taken any bold step in eradicating poverty.

    The Next SDGs Goal is zero Hunger. But I wonder how possible it is to end hunger when many are leaving in abject poverty. So if we must achieve this goal, its necessary that poverty is dealt with in its entirety.

    Talking about the third goal which is; To ensure good health and well being. If we must tell ourselves the truth, Nigeria govt have paid little or no attention to this area. The question is, how many actively working public health centres do we have. Most of the ones that we have are not functioning, some are not equipped. Even the health personnel working there will even refer you to their private hospitals. That’s to tell you how bad the system is.

    Quality Education is next goal they planned to achieve. Education sector have been paid little or no attention to. Anyways am not surprise, after all their children are all studying abroad. So why would the leaders pay attention to its decay. The rate of our leaders negligence on education was shown, in the just concluded ASSU Strike. Necessary infrastructure needed in most of our Institution even at primary level are not there. I wonder if this is a sign of achieving a quality education.

    The problem of Gender inequality inequality have been dealt with to an extent but have not been fully achieved. Even if different institutions are not being gender biased, but I think is now the thing of the mind. Our women now need to reorient their mind. Their mindset need to be worked on before this could be fully achieved.

    The next Goal is to Achieve clean water and sanitation. I think this goal was meant for all and not some set of people. So since some people lack access to clean water in their areas, then it have not been achieved. Sanitation should be a thing for all, though the leaders are making necessary effort to achieve this but the Nonchalant attitudes of the people have been the problem.

    Achieving the goal an affordable and clean energy in the country before the time period is very much possible because we have what it takes.if only the necessary institutional framework in charge of this sector could be sincere and up and doing.

    Talking about Decent work and Economic growth, this goal is very much possible to be achieved, though there is high rate of unemployment in the country. If the leaders could encourage innovation, build industries and necessary infrastructure to keep the economy alive and running again. Then this particular goal could be achieved within the time frame.

    In the Name of Encouraging Innovation, building industries and infrastructure have always been a means of looting money in Nigeria and not to achieve it main aim. There are a lot of white Elephant projects. This is as a result of corruption in the country. Innovative ideas have been hampered with due to the effect of brain drain existing in the country.
    From the above explained goals, we could notice that this goals are not independent of the other, that they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. I therefore conclude that since this goals can’t be really achieved each without the other, and considering the remaining time espected for this goals to be aachieved and the present political and Economic Epileptic condition, it is therefore practically impossible to achieve these goals.

  39. Ugwu Sandra Ogechukwu says:

    Name: Ugwu Sandra Ogechukwu
    Reg No: 2017/241433
    Email: sandra.ugwu.241433@unn.edu.ng
    Answer:
    The sustainable development goals or global goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Considering the first nine (9) goals of the SDGs and using Nigeria as a case study I think some of the goals are achievable given a time frame of nine (9) year
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
    Considering the time frame of 9 years, it is practically impossible for poverty to end in Nigeria. This is because there is no programme put in place to ensure that poverty is eradicated for poverty to end, there must be massive creation of employment and equal distribution of income. There must exist poverty alleviating programmes which can come in form of infrastructural development grants and loans and also skill Acquisition Avenue. Therefore, looking at the 9 years’ time span, it is impossible for Nigeria to achieve this because there is no plan in motion currently and these programmes are not achievable in just 9 years.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    The second goal can be a partial success in the aspect of achieving a sustainable agriculture. There have been programme and organization set up by the government (eg FADMA) to encourage farmers especially the poor. All that needs to be done in this aspect is to ensure through monitoring that such projects get to its target area (which is farmers in rural area). However; hunger, food, security and improved nutrition cannot be achieved. This is because a poor person cannot afford 3 meals in a day nether does he care how secure his meal is due to hunger.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at alleges.
    This goal is achievable, considering the fact that so many provisions have been made for infant health and also does with deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. However, little effort needs to made by equipping the hospitals to be more functional and reducing the cost of health care especially for the old.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    This is also achievable in Nigeria but requires more effort by the post of the government. These efforts should be channelled to making readily available Labs and tools for practical when necessary and ensuring that the cost of education in subsidized such that even the poor can access it.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is achievable if the government make provision on sensitizing girls and women on knowing their rights and measure to take when abused. The government and other NGOs can help achieve these goals by providing means of skill acquisition for women and girls and also scholarships to encourage women to attain higher in education.
    6. Ensure access to affordable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This could be achieved through a collective effort by both the government and the public.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    This is achievable but needs a great effort from the government. Even though energy supply has been privatized in Nigeria, the government can still give grant to private energy supplies to ensure that energy is reliable, sustainable and also affordable for the people.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    This is not achievable as proper infrastructure has been put in place to ensure full employment.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable, industrialized and foster innovation.
    This is not achievable, considering the fact that most industries are being sited in cities neglecting the rural areas which is not inclusive.

  40. Ugwu Sandra Ogechukwu says:

    Name: Ugwu Sandra Ogechukwu
    Reg no: 2017/241433
    Email: sandra.ugwu.241433@unn.edu.ng
    Answer:
    The sustainable development goals or global goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Considering the first nine (9) goals of the SDGs and using Nigeria as a case study I think some of the goals are achievable given a time frame of nine (9) year
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
    Considering the time frame of 9 years, it is practically impossible for poverty to end in Nigeria. This is because there is no programme put in place to ensure that poverty is eradicated for poverty to end, there must be massive creation of employment and equal distribution of income. There must exist poverty alleviating programmes which can come in form of infrastructural development grants and loans and also skill Acquisition Avenue. Therefore, looking at the 9 years’ time span, it is impossible for Nigeria to achieve this because there is no plan in motion currently and these programmes are not achievable in just 9 years.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    The second goal can be a partial success in the aspect of achieving a sustainable agriculture. There have been programme and organization set up by the government (eg FADMA) to encourage farmers especially the poor. All that needs to be done in this aspect is to ensure through monitoring that such projects get to its target area (which is farmers in rural area). However; hunger, food, security and improved nutrition cannot be achieved. This is because a poor person cannot afford 3 meals in a day nether does he care how secure his meal is due to hunger.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at alleges.
    This goal is achievable, considering the fact that so many provisions have been made for infant health and also does with deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. However, little effort needs to made by equipping the hospitals to be more functional and reducing the cost of health care especially for the old.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    This is also achievable in Nigeria but requires more effort by the post of the government. These efforts should be channelled to making readily available Labs and tools for practical when necessary and ensuring that the cost of education in subsidized such that even the poor can access it.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is achievable if the government make provision on sensitizing girls and women on knowing their rights and measure to take when abused. The government and other NGOs can help achieve these goals by providing means of skill acquisition for women and girls and also scholarships to encourage women to attain higher in education.
    6. Ensure access to affordable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This could be achieved through a collective effort by both the government and the public.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    This is achievable but needs a great effort from the government. Even though energy supply has been privatized in Nigeria, the government can still give grant to private energy supplies to ensure that energy is reliable, sustainable and also affordable for the people.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    This is not achievable as proper infrastructure has been put in place to ensure full employment.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable, industrialized and foster innovation.
    This is not achievable, considering the fact that most industries are being sited in cities neglecting the rural areas which is not inclusive.

  41. Ogba ifeanyi favour says:

    Ogba ifeanyi favour
    2017/243369
    Economics

    The seventeen global goals project Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Firstly, in the issue of Goal one(end poverty , Nigeria has not achieved that goal and will not even achieve it in 2030. The economic structure of Nigeria is postion In a way that permit only the one on top benefit why the mass suffer world bank has project Nigeria as the headquarters of poverty in the world and this figure tend to increase as the rate of unemployment and political unrest in the country is increasing on a fast rate
    For the second goal, Nigeria will achieve it by 2030 because government is giving grant to encourage agricultural production in the country .and their policies is towards promotion agricultural .
    The third Goal can’t be achieve by 2030 because there is no infrastructure facilities in Nigeria which promote healthy living in Nigeria
    For the fourth goal, Nigeria cannot achieve it because there is no way because the system doesn’t not favour equal distribution of resources
    The fifth goal can be achieved in the sense that Nigeria has been giving women the opportunity to participate in politics and contest for any
    For the sixth and seventh goals, it is impossible to achieve such goals because up til now there are places that haven’t experience the joy of having light since they were born and they are not even making effort to see that it happens. Same goes with erosion that always chases some people out of their homes because Nigeria cannot manage water flows
    The eight goals cant be achieved by 2030, because the political unrest and political policy has made many firm to fold up which had lead to increase in the unemployment Rate in the country .

  42. AFUBE BLOSSOM CHIBUZOR says:

    AFUBE BLOSSOM CHIBUZOR
    2017/249473
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    blossomafube16@gmail.com

    The sustainable development goals are the present goals made by the UN member states to be achieved by the year 2030. The possibility of the first nine goals being achieved in Nigeria within the time limit , taking in to consideration that the goals are integrated , this is my opinion:
    GOAL ONE: END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORM EVERYWHERE
    The everywhere here is Nigeria and truthfully this is not possible. There cannot be and never will be total eradication of poverty in Nigeria and the world as a whole. To end poverty you have to achieve a lot of things that 15 years can’t possibly cover. Corruption and moral decadence of people in power should be totally obliviated, economic growth and development must be sustained, terrorism and criminal acts that displaces people must no longer be in existence; the list could go on. Doing all these in 15 years is not feasible.
    GOAL TWO: END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION, AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
    At the risk of sounding like a naysayer, the present Nigeria cannot achieve this unless there is a miraculous turn around. At this stage of economic downturn, even the middle class are hungry and good nutrition is a myth to all except the aristocrats. Ending hunger will take more than agricultural sustainability.
    GOAL THREE:ENSURE HEALTH LIVES AND PROMOTE WELLBEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES
    This can actually be achieved if the government owned and managed health care services can up their games and actually perform the job for which they were made. Health insurance card be made available for all citizens at a subsidised price and the health budget should be well appropriated to take care of this.
    GOAL FOUR: ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFE LONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL
    Inclusive education, not really achievable, and if achievable it would not be equitable seeing as society is divided into sections with different levels of opportunities available to each section. Life long learning opportunities is achievable due to the presence of the internet and online learning.
    GOAL FIVE: ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS
    Programs can be set up to do this and they can be funded by the government. However, we say funded by the government but with the level of corruption, any money appropriated to this will most certainly be embezzled. If NGOs are factored in, this just might be achievable.
    GOAL SIX: ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALL
    Nigeria is not gotten to the point where sustainable water management is a priority and it’s relevance has not been fully disseminated which would be a stumbling block for this goal. Sanitation is possible if there is Nation wide sensitisation and government actually make REAL efforts towards it.
    GOAL SEVEN: ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY FOR ALL
    Just like in the case of the goal before this , the fact that the importance of this is not known to the public is going to be a problem. Also the technology needed for production of modern energy is not domestically produced, hence it cannot be affordable.
    GOAL EIGHT: PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK FOR ALL
    Economic growth with all the above features is a nice concept but that is all it is, a concept. Theories are nice but practicals are what matters. Nigeria has a rooted problem with her Political sector which poisons the Economic sector, 15 years cannot correct Nigeria’s political defect as well as bring about full employment. Things can get a bit better but total achievement is doubtful.
    GOAL NINE: BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALISATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION
    This can be done as long as the government are willing to reward hard work and show it’s support for innovation by sponsoring and rewarding innovators. This will reduce brain drain which would ensure there are capable hands to industrialize the country before 2030.

  43. Ndem Nneka Grace
    2017/249529
    Economics
    Nnekagrace74@gmail.com
    Nnekagrace.blogspot.com

    The SDGs is believed to call for building peaceful, inclusive and well governed societies with responsive institutions as the basis for shared prosperity. It’s target are global in nature taking into account it’s national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities.
    1. End poverty in all its form everywhere: ending poverty in all its form is not achievable reason being that many people are poor today because there are no jobs which is because of the corruption in our country. People get jobs today because they have someone there not because they qualify for it. Even those who are working are underemployed I.e they are working below their status or qualification or they are working poor I.e working just to end a living. The money they earn is not enough for any other thing but for feeding alone some times they earn below $1 a day.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This SDG is achievable in nine years time if Nigeria could do the following; Should focus and invest more on agriculture by supporting it’s activities, providing equipment and machines for it’s work, releasing loans to farmers to support them, give out incentives like free fertilizer to farmers and providing them with enough and sufficient land for production which will lead to decrease in hunger, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture because many people will tend to also venture into agriculture which will also reduce unemployment in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages: This can be acceptable in the stipulated year in Nigeria by providing the people with the all the necessary amenities which makes life better like safe drinking water, healthy environment; by teaching them how to keep their environment clean and proving incenerators for dumping of refuse, proving good health facilities for them, and giving them sound and affordable education.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: This is achievable in Nigeria if the government can provide a good facilities for education, employ qualify teachers and make it affordable for both the rich and the poor. They can also help achieve this by giving scholarships or opportunities to those who can not afford education expenses.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: This SDG is achievable if women and girls can volunteer themselves to participate in all the social, political and other activities in the country. The government can also help to achieve this by availing the girls and women the opportunity to participate and giving them scholarships opportunities which will also encourage them to participate. Giving them orientation on how to participate or join in some things in the society can also help to achieve this and equal opportunities given toen should also be given to women which will help to bridge gender inequality in Nigeria.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: It is achievable if government can provide safe drinking water for people by opening a pipe-bore water for them, make sure that the water is well drilled; it’s been purified all the time and they should also organize some board of directors who will fore-see and over look the affairs of the water.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: This is not achievable in Nigeria because they are lacking so many things now like; good facilities for energy supply and even if it’s possible the corruption in this country will not allow it to be achieved, how? The money for the energy improvement can be provided but you will still see our leaders sharing the money among themselves thereby abandoning the project it was meant for that’s why it’s not achievable. Secondly those unemployed, underemployed and working poor may not be able to afford the cost of energy supply, so they might end up being exempted from using the energy.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: This not achievable because of the following;
    The high rate of corruption in the country, lack of factories, industries and firms for employment, the high rate of fatherism in the country. The few things above are some of the reasons why this SDG cannot be achieved.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: This is achievable in nine years time if and only if the government will be able to invest more on capital goods, reduce importation which will help to burst and build up our local industries and as well encourage innovative people by supporting them financially and otherwise so as to reduce knowledge flight.
    In conclusion the sustainable Development Goals are all achievable in Nigeria if we have good, reputable, accountable and fair leaders and followers who are free from corruption. Truth be told it’s not only the government that can achieve these goals, individuals, you and I are including but the government have a higher work to do. Just be reminded that change begins with you and I.

  44. Name:Meteke Joy Orimusue
    Reg.no:2017/242430
    Department:Economics
    Website: metekejoy01.blogspot.com
    Email:joymetex2000@gmai.com

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs)
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030.The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.Each goal typically has 8–12 targets, and each target has between 1 and 4 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. The targets are either “outcome” targets (circumstances to be attained) or “means of implementation” targets.The latter targets were introduced late in the process of negotiating the SDGs to address the concern of some Member States about how the SDGs were to be achieved. Goal 17 is wholly about how the SDGs will be achieved.

    Goal 1: No poverty
    SDG 1 is to: “End poverty in all its forms everywhere”.Achieving SDG 1 would end extreme poverty globally by 2030.The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.Despite the ongoing progress, 10 percent of the world’s population live in poverty and struggle to meet basic needs such as health, education, and access to water and sanitation.Extreme poverty remains prevalent in low-income countries particularly those affected by conflict and political upheavalIn 2015, more than half of the world’s 736 million people living in extreme poverty lived in Sub-Saharan Africa. Without a significant shift in social policy, extreme poverty will dramatically increase by 2030The rural poverty rate stands at 17.2 percent and 5.3 percent in urban areas (in 2016). Nearly half are children.A study published in September 2020 found that poverty increased by 7 per cent in just a few months due to the COVID-19 pandemic, even though it had been steadily decreasing for the last 20 years.[18]:9

    Goal 2: Zero hunger
    SDG 2 is to: “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”.The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivative.Globally, 1 in 9 people are undernourished, the vast majority of whom live in developing countries. Under nutrition causes wasting or severe wasting of 52 million children worldwide.It contributes to nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children per year.
    Goal 3: Good health and well-being
    SDG 3 is to: “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risk.Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common causes of child and maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2016, the worldwide under-five mortality rate decreased by 47 percent (from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births). Still, the number of children dying under age five is very high: 5.6 million in 2016.

    Goal 4: Quality education
    SDG 4 is to: “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”.The three “means of achieving targets” are: build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools; expand higher education scholarships for developing countries; and increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries.Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls. The number of out-of-school children has almost halved from 112 million in 1997 to 60 million in 2014.In terms of the progress made, global participation in tertiary education reached 224 million in 2018, equivalent[disambiguation needed] to a gross enrollment ratio of 38%.
    Goal 5: Gender equality
    SDG 5 is to: “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”. Sustainable Development Goal 5]Through the pledge to “Leave No One Behind”, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind, first. SDG 5 aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence. This is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.In 2020, representation by women in single or lower houses of national parliament reached 25 per cent, up slightly from 22 per cent in 2015.[6] Women now have better access to decision-making positions at the local level, holding 36 per cent of elected seats in local deliberative bodies, based on data from 133 countries and areas. Whilst female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C) is becoming less common.
    Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
    SDG 6 is to: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”.The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of World Health Organisation WHO And United Nations International Children’s Emergency fund UNICEF reported in 2017 that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation.
    Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
    SDG 7 is to: “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”.The remaining two targets are “means of achieving targets”: to promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy; and expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries. This would involve improving energy efficiency and enhancing international cooperation to facilitate more open access to clean energy technology and more investment in clean energy infrastructure. Renewable energy accounted for 17.5% of global total energy consumption in 2016.Of the three end uses of renewables (electricity, heat, and transport) the use of renewables grew fastest with respect to electricity.
    Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
    SDG 8 is to: “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”.there are also two targets for “means of achieving”: Increase aid for trade support; develop a global youth employment strategy.Over the past five years, economic growth in least developed countries has been increasing at an average rate of 4.3 per cent. In 2018, the global growth rate of real GDP per capita was 2 per cent. In addition, the rate for least developed countries was 4.5 per cent in 2018 and 4.8 per cent in 2019, less than the 7 per cent growth rate targeted in SDG 8.In 2019, 22 per cent of the world’s young people were not in employment, education or training, a figure that has hardly changed since 200.
    Goal 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
    SDG 9 is to: “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation”.The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.In 2019, 14% of the world’s workers were employed in manufacturing activities. This percentage has not changed much since 2000. The share of manufacturing employment was the largest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (18 percent) and the smallest in sub-Saharan Africa (6 percent). The intensity of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined by nearly one quarter since 2000, showing a general decoupling of carbon dioxide emissions from GDP growth. As at 2020, nearly the entire world population lives in an area covered by a mobile network.

    Following the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, Nigeria began to implement the SDGs almost immediately. First, it established institutional frameworks at the national and sub-national levels to support effective implementation. With this early headstart, several strategic initiatives were implemented between 2016 and now, while others are still ongoing. Nevertheless, just as Nigeria commenced the ‘Decade of Action’ for the SDGs in January 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 took place, thus challenging the prospects of achieving the SDGs in Nigeria. This Report examines the impact of COVID-19 on specific SDGs. It would be recalled that Nigeria recorded its first index case on 27 February 2020. Despite measures taken by the federal and state governments to curtail the spread of the pandemic across the country, its adverse impact on socio-economic development and other consequencesMeanwhile, the socio-economic uncertainties and disruptions come at a substantial cost to an economy that is mainly dependent on oil and gas revenues, which have plummeted. Some of the most effective ‘social vaccines’ against COVID-19 are restrictive suppression response interventions, such as lockdowns, which however disproportionately impact on the poor and their livelihoods. The provision of timely and adequate palliatives to the poor and vulnerable members of the society will ease tension and prevent social unrest while the country is locked down to overcome the virus.

  45. OKOLI MARYANN AMAUCHE
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    2017/243272
    maryannokoli14@gmail.com

    THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030.The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty
    (2) Zero Hunger
    (3) Good Health and Well-being
    (4) Quality Education
    (5) Gender Equality
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation
    (7) Affordable and Clean Energy
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    (10) Reducing Inequality
    (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities
    (12) Responsible Consumption and Production
    (13) Climate Action
    (14) Life Below Water
    (15) Life On Land
    (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
    (17) Partnerships for the Goals.

    Based on the question which is, if the first 9 goals are achivable in Nigeria within the time frame?
    From my own point of view,the goals are not achievable within the time frame given with these following points of mine.

    Goal1: From the angel of No poverty the goal is not achivable the reason because looking at what happened during the period of covid-19 was a clear reason that I said is not achivable because Nigeria, as a whole is corrupted, everyone is interested in his or her personal pocket without considering others in the society.

    Goal2: Zero hunger, the goal is not achivable because we depend on other countries to feed, i.e we import food. Majority of Nigerians are subsistence farmers, while they produce a little of what they consume. Governors are not interested in agriculture,over the years I learnt that Nigeria is the major dealer in agriculture but now what is really happening? Nigeria is endowned with natural resources like land but our government don’t care about all these things. Local farmers should be enquiped with farm implements especially areas in the north that have high fertilized Land for more agricultural revolution.

    Goal3: The area of healthy lives and well-being, this goal is not achivable in Nigeria reason because a country that whenever the president is not in a good state of health he will travel out of the country for treatment how can there be healthy lives where some of our hospitals are not equipped with necessary facilities.

    Goal4: The quality education in Nigeria it is assumed that people struggling for education is just there for a waste of time because how can we asure a quality education in a country where the president does not have ordinary o’ level certificate, it is assumed that the head does not know what education is all about. Taking University of nigeria nsukka as case study where the books in the library is of the ancient days, while the lecturers are not well paid so they will be happy to give students the best. How can it be achivable where the president will give pubic speech and say don’t depend on your degrees and you think this goal can be achieved. To me the goal is not achivabe.

    Goal5: Achieve gender equality it is still obvious that some sectors in the economy still don’t recognize this goal, where the president will dissolve the office of first lady and publicly said that she only belongs to the kitchen. Some religious organization this goal is still not recognized the aims and objectives of this goal is shattered already so it not achivable in all angles.

    Goal6: Clean water and sanitation: Accessibility to clean water is one index used to determine how poor a person is. Given the poverty level, lots of people in the country still struggle with getting clean drinking water. Also, people with no homes or live in slums would care less about sanitation. So achieving this goal to a large extent depends on eradicating poverty.

    Goal7: Affordable and clean energy: This goal is far from achievable in Nigeria. One major reason is corruption. There is little or no concern on the part of the government and even after handing over to private enterprise, it became worse. The power sector needs huge investment also to revitalize it and until the government decides to provide the necessary fund for the sector, there may be no reasonable progress.

    Goal8: Decent work and economic growth: This goal is not attainable given the unemployment and underemployment level in the country. If there are investment in key sectors in the economy, there would be jobs for a great number of the citizens. Also, fiscal discipline should be embarked upon by the government to channel funds in the right sectors as this will also improve economic growth.

    Goal9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Depending on the policies and strategy of government, it will determine if this goal will be achieved. If there are no proactive policies, then this goal is not achievable.

    With these points I can say that Nigeria is far from achieving these goals in or before 2030.

  46. Okpor Martha Ashinedu says:

    Name: Okpor Martha Ashinedu
    Reg. No: 2017/241430
    Department: Economics
    Level: 300l
    Answer:
    I will begin by critically analyzing the probability of the success of these Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) in Nigeria. The SDGs include;
    Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
    I don’t think this goal will be achieve able by 2030. This is because poverty cannot be truly eradicated in all its forms everywhere if corrupt people in power keep embezzling public funds meant for the betterment of the lives of the masses. So, until this problem is addressed, even at 2050, poverty would still not be eradicated in all its forms everywhere.
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    This can be achieved to a reasonable extent by 2030 in the case of promoting sustainable agriculture. This promotion can be done by the government giving incentives to farmers to enable them increase production of their crops and this in turn boosts economic growth. But in the cases of ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition, these cannot be done if poverty is not completely eliminated. People who are poor cannot be well fed, talk more of having improved nutrition.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all ages.
    This goal cannot be achieved by 2030 for same reason as in goal 2. You cannot talk about ensuring healthy lives if the majority of the masses still live in abject poverty.
    Goal 4: Ensure exclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all.
    This goal is already in progress at this present age. So yes, I think by 2030 this goal would totally be achieved for all. This can be achieved by stipulating a particular year from childhood that every child is expected to start going to school so as to ensure that every child is given the opportunity to quality education right from childhood.
    Goal 5: Achieve greater equality and empower all women and girls. Yes, I believe by 2030 this goal would be achieved. Programs are already being set up to man women aware of their rights. Being a woman does not mean weakness as perceived by much of the male counterparts. This goal can be achieved by making women aware of their rights through enlightenment programs.
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    Yes, this can be achieved in Nigeria by 2030. This can be done by private individuals or the government. Private individuals could provide bore hole water available to communities who do not have access to clean water. Sanitation for all can be ensured by declaring a time in the week for people to come out and clean their environment. This will yield better sanitation for all.
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    This cannot be done by 2030. It all bores down to embezzlement of public funds by corrupt leaders. In my village, I can count with my fingers how many times I have seen light. In many of these communities with no adequate power supply, you would be suprised that funds have actually been given to the community heads to provide power supply to their community but they end up using the funds for their own selfish interest or doing a bit of the work meant to be done.
    Goal 8: promote sustained inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    This cannot be achieved by 2030. Sustainable economic growth means an increase in production and this cannot be achieved without full productive employment. A decent work for all cannot also be achieved because in Nigeria, people will keep living in poverty and unemployed because resources are being mismanaged. Funds which government could spend on infrastructural facilities like building roads, schools, etc which would boost employment and decent work for at least majority of the masses are being mismanaged.
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    This cannot be achieved by 2030. We are already in 2021, and Nigeria still runs a deficit that is, our imports exceed our exports. One cannot talk of sustainable industrialization if we ( Nigeria) do not patronize our own primary products. Innovations can be fostered by providing incentives to these innovators for a job well done and to encourage them in more findings.

  47. Angel Nwosu says:

    NAME:Nwosu Angel Chiamaka
    REG NO:2017/249536
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: angelapaul230@gmail.com

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    From my own of view none of the first 9 goals have been achieved and cannot be achieved before 2030.
    Goal 1: No poverty
    Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty dropped by more than half between 1990 and 2015, too many are still struggling for the most basic human needs.
    As of 2015, about 736 million people still lived on less than US$1.90 a day; many lack food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid growth in countries such as China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are more likely to be poor than men because they have less paid work, education, and own less property.
    Progress has also been limited in other regions, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which account for 80 percent of those living in extreme poverty. New threats brought on by climate change, conflict and food insecurity, mean even more work is needed to bring people out of poverty.
    The SDGs are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. This involves targeting the most vulnerable, increasing basic resources and services, and supporting communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters. There’s still poverty due to high rate of unemployment and also the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.

    Goal 2: Zero hunger
    The number of undernourished people has dropped by almost half in the past two decades because of rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity. Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet their nutritional needs. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.
    Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. There are 821 million people estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2017, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and biodiversity loss. Over 90 million children under five are dangerously underweight. Undernourishment and severe food insecurity appear to be increasing in almost all regions of Africa, as well as in South America.
    The SDGs aim to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030, making sure all people–especially children–have sufficient and nutritious food all year. This involves promoting sustainable agricultural, supporting small-scale farmers and equal access to land, technology and markets. It also requires international cooperation to ensure investment in infrastructure and technology to improve agricultural productivity.

    Goal 3: Good health and well-being
    We have made great progress against several leading causes of death and disease. Life expectancy has increased dramatically; infant and maternal mortality rates have declined, we’ve turned the tide on HIV and malaria deaths have halved.
    Good health is essential to sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda reflects the complexity and interconnectedness of the two. It takes into account widening economic and social inequalities, rapid urbanization, threats to the climate and the environment, the continuing burden of HIV and other infectious diseases, and emerging challenges such as noncommunicable diseases. Universal health coverage will be integral to achieving SDG 3, ending poverty and reducing inequalities. Emerging global health priorities not explicitly included in the SDGs, including antimicrobial resistance, also demand action.
    But the world is off-track to achieve the health-related SDGs. Progress has been uneven, both between and within countries. There’s a 31-year gap between the countries with the shortest and longest life expectancies. And while some countries have made impressive gains, national averages hide that many are being left behind. Multisectoral, rights-based and gender-sensitive approaches are essential to address inequalities and to build good health for all.

    Goal 4: Quality education
    Since 2000, there has been enormous progress in achieving the target of universal primary education. The total enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015, and the worldwide number of children out of school has dropped by almost half. There has also been a dramatic increase in literacy rates, and many more girls are in school than ever before. These are all remarkable successes.
    Progress has also been tough in some developing regions due to high levels of poverty, armed conflicts and other emergencies. In Western Asia and North Africa, ongoing armed conflict has seen an increase in the number of children out of school. This is a worrying trend. While Sub-Saharan Africa made the greatest progress in primary school enrolment among all developing regions – from 52 percent in 1990, up to 78 percent in 2012 – large disparities still remain. Children from the poorest households are up to four times more likely to be out of school than those of the richest households. Disparities between rural and urban areas also remain high.
    Achieving inclusive and quality education for all reaffirms the belief that education is one of the most powerful and proven vehicles for sustainable development. This goal ensures that all girls and boys complete free primary and secondary schooling by 2030. It also aims to provide equal access to affordable vocational training, to eliminate gender and wealth disparities, and achieve universal access to a quality higher education.

    Goal 5: Gender equality
     
    Ending all discrimination against women and girls is not only a basic human right, it’s crucial for sustainable future; it’s proven that empowering women and girls helps economic growth and development.
    UNDP has made gender equality central to its work and we’ve seen remarkable progress in the past 20 years. There are more girls in school now compared to 15 years ago, and most regions have reached gender parity in primary education.
     
    But although there are more women than ever in the labour market, there are still large inequalities in some regions, with women systematically denied the same work rights as men. Sexual violence and exploitation, the unequal division of unpaid care and domestic work, and discrimination in public office all remain huge barriers. Climate change and disasters continue to have a disproportionate effect on women and children, as do conflict and migration.
    It is vital to give women equal rights land and property, sexual and reproductive health, and to technology and the internet. Today there are more women in public office than ever before, but encouraging more women leaders will help achieve greater gender equality.

    Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
     
    Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people, an alarming figure that is projected to rise as temperatures do. Although 2.1 billion people have improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling drinking water supplies are affecting every continent.
    More and more countries are experiencing water stress, and increasing drought and desertification is already worsening these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people will suffer recurring water shortages.
    Safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030 requires we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities, and encourage hygiene. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems is essential.
    Ensuring universal safe and affordable drinking water involves reaching over 800 million people who lack basic services and improving accessibility and safety of services for over two billion.
    In 2015, 4.5 billion people lacked safely managed sanitation services (with adequately disposed or treated excreta) and 2.3 billion lacked even basic sanitation.

    Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
    Between 2000 and 2016, the number of people with electricity increased from 78 to 87 percent, and the numbers without electricity dipped to just below one billion.
    Yet as the population continues to grow, so will the demand for cheap energy, and an economy reliant on fossil fuels is creating drastic changes to our climate.
    Investing in solar, wind and thermal power, improving energy productivity, and ensuring energy for all is vital if we are to achieve SDG 7 by 2030.
    Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean and more efficient energy in all countries will encourage growth and help the environment.  

    Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
    Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the lasting impact of the 2008 economic crisis and global recession. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015.
    However, as the global economy continues to recover we are seeing slower growth, widening inequalities, and not enough jobs to keep up with a growing labour force. According to the International Labour Organization, more than 204 million people were unemployed in 2015.
    The SDGs promote sustained economic growth, higher levels of productivity and technological innovation. Encouraging entrepreneurship and job creation are key to this, as are effective measures to eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. With these targets in mind, the goal is to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030.

    Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure
    Investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development. With over half the world population now living in cities, mass transport and renewable energy are becoming ever more important, as are the growth of new industries and information and communication technologies.
    Technological progress is also key to finding lasting solutions to both economic and environmental challenges, such as providing new jobs and promoting energy efficiency. Promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation, are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.
    More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90 percent are from the developing world. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, as well as foster innovation and entrepreneurship.   

  48. Agholor Sozorchukwu Jason says:

    NAME: Agholor Sozorchukwu Jason
    REG NO: 2017/243874
    DEPT: Economics
    EMAIL: jasonagholor7@gmail.com

    From what i have learnt about the first 9 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), i do not think they are achievable in Nigeria before 2030. I will briefly discuss each of the first 9 goals in relation to Nigeria.
    Goal 1 is about ending poverty. The government has done very little to achieve this goal over the years. Recently Nigeria was named as the poverty capital of the world in a period when the government pledged to end poverty. Millions of youth are also unemployed and are becoming hopeless.
    Goal 2 talks about ending hunger. But how do you end hunger when you are poor? Even an average Nigerian cannot boast of getting 3 square meal a day. Corruption is a factor here. Just recently during the lockdown due to covid-19, palliatives which were supposed to be given to citizens to help cushion the effect of the pandemic were hoarded in warehouses in different locations across the country. This angered the masses and it led to looting. What actions did the government take to distribute the palliatives? This example sadly reminds us that hunger cannot be eradicated before 2030 as long as corruption exists.
    Goal 3 is about good health and well-being. In Nigeria, hospitals are not equipped and doctors are given little incentives by the government. The money allocated to help boost the health sector is not significant. This has led to brain drain in the medical sector as many qualified doctors are travelling out to look for greener pastures.
    Top government officials travel overseas for medical checkup. What hope does the average Nigerian have? This shows that this goal cannot be achieved before 2030.
    Goal 4 talks about quality education. This cannot be achieved before 2030 because the quality of education in Nigeria is far behind in comparison to other developing countries. Education is not taken serious. This is reflected in the allocation given to education in the yearly budget. The allocation is so small compared to what is obtainable in other developing countries.
    Goal 5 is about gender equality. There has been some positive signs of it being achievable in Nigeria but more needs to be done. More women need to be taken serious as regards the area of governance. Capable women can step up to take leadership roles in the country.
    Goal 6 is about clean water and sanitation. The government has made very little efforts to achieve this goal. In the Niger-delta this is a key issue that needs to be addressed and if the government keeps a blind eye to it, then it cannot be achieved before 2030.
    Goal 7 speaks about affordable and clean energy. This cannot be achieved before 2030 because over the past decade, Nigeria continues to rely on energy from coal while other advanced countries are making huge strides to adopt renewable energy. Energy is becoming less affordable very year in the country.
    Goal 8 proposes decent work and economic growth. Prevalent among youths these days is fraud. It is seen as the only way forward.
    This is sadly due to the lack of economic opportunities available in the country. A country heavily producing would need a large amount of labour to sustain production which leads to employment but that has not been the case in Nigeria. This goal does not look achievable before 2030.
    Goal 9 stems from Goal 8, Nigeria has a long way to go as regards industry, innovation and infrastructure. This cannot be achieved before 2030. Corruption by leaders is a big factor here. The country does not encourage innovation, and most industries are faced with a harsh economic climate. The level of infrastructure is very poor. The few good roads are not well maintained to start with, and most federal roads were built by the colonial masters.

  49. Ugwu Amaechi Jude says:

    Ugwu Amaechi Jude
    2017/242434
    Economics

    Analysis of Sustainable Development Goals
    The Sustainable Development Goals or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030.
    In this work, we will limit our analysis to the first nine goals of the SDGs, and the possibility of them being met in Nigeria before 2030.
    The first nine goals are
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    Following the current economic and demographic trend in Nigeria ; the first goal which is no poverty is not feasible in 2030. This is because, there is no clear cut plan by the government on how to end poverty before 2030. On the second goal which is zero hunger, it is not possible to achieve before 2030. The is also the fault of the government. The government have blocked food flow from foreign countries not minding that we are not producing enough. Unless they reverse this policy, we will achieve zero hunger before 2030. The possibility of achieving the third goal depends greatly on the first two goals. We cannot guarantee Good health and well-being in the midst of poverty and hunger, so the government has to do the needful. On Quality education, it is not possible before 2030. This is because the government has refused to pay allowances accruing to the ASUU. The effect is that they will lack the incentive to work and therefore they will not put their best efforts. The government has also underfunded research. On gender equality, it could not be achieved by 2030. This is because the two genders (male and female) are different and any attempt to make them equal further creates inequality. Clean water and sanitation is feasible if everyone, both the people and the government should put in the necessary work. On affordable and clean energy, it is not possible by 2030. This is because one of the clause of the recent loan the government sourced from the IMF is hike in energy tariff which we are experiencing now. We are still using gas and hydro electricity. There is no clear cut plan for migrating to cleaner energy. Decent work and economic growth is not feasible by 2030. #18,000 is not an enough incentive to work in the present day Nigeria. Industry, innovation and infrastructure is not feasible by 2030. By mere looking at the attitudes of the government towards the aforementioned, you will notice that it is retrogressing without any hope of improvement.
    In conclusion, achieving the sustainable development goals rests mostly on the shoulders of the government. Unless the government makes it its priority, it will not be achieved.

  50. Yes I think the goals are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame allotted

    We reaffirm our strong commitment to the full implementation of this new Agenda. We recognize that we will not be able to achieve our ambitious Goals and targets without a revitalized and enhanced Global Partnership and comparably ambitious means of implementation. The revitalized Global Partnership will facilitate an intensive global engagement in support of implementation of all the goals and targets, bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available resources.

    The Agenda’s Goals and targets deal with the means required to realise our collective ambitions. The means of implementation targets under each SDG and Goal 9, which are referred to above, are key to realising our Agenda and are of equal importance with the other Goals and targets. We shall accord them equal priority in our implementation efforts and in the global indicator framework for monitoring our progress.

    This Agenda, including the SDGs, can be met within the framework of a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, supported by the concrete policies and actions outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda , which is an integral part of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda supports, complements and helps contextualize the 2030 Agenda’s means of implementation targets. These relate to domestic public resources, domestic and international private business and finance, international development cooperation, international trade as an engine for development, debt and debt sustainability, addressing systemic issues and science, technology, innovation and capacity-building, and data, monitoring and follow-up.

    Cohesive nationally owned sustainable development strategies, supported by integrated national financing frameworks, will be at the heart of our efforts. We reiterate that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and that the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. We will respect each country’s policy space and leadership to implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments. At the same time, national development efforts need to be supported by an enabling international economic environment, including coherent and mutually supporting world trade, monetary and financial systems, and strengthened and enhanced global economic governance. Processes to develop and facilitate the availability of appropriate knowledge and technologies globally, as well as capacity-building, are also critical. We commit to pursuing policy coherence and an enabling environment for sustainable development at all levels and by all actors, and to reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable development.

    Sustainable Development Goals;
    Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere: By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions. Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

    Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round. By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

    Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-
    being for all at all ages: By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.

    Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.
    By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

    Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.
    Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

    Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all:
    By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
    . By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

    Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all:
    By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services.
    By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
    .
    By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
    .

    Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all:
    Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services.
    By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.

    Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
    .
    Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets.

    We recognize that middle-income countries still face significant challenges to achieve sustainable development. In order to ensure that achievements made to date are sustained, efforts to address ongoing challenges should be strengthened through the exchange of experiences, improved coordination, and better and focused support of the United Nations Development System, the international financial institutions, regional organizations and other stakeholders.

    We underscore that, for all countries, public policies and the mobilization and effective use of domestic resources, underscored by the principle of national ownership, are central to our common pursuit of sustainable development, including achieving the sustainable development goals. We recognize that domestic resources are first and foremost generated by economic growth, supported by an enabling environment at all levels.

    Private business activity, investment and innovation are major drivers of productivity, inclusive economic growth and job creation. We acknowledge the diversity of the private sector, ranging from micro-enterprises to cooperatives to multinationals. We call on all businesses to apply their creativity and innovation to solving sustainable development challenges. We will foster a dynamic and well-functioning business sector, while protecting labour rights and environmental and health standards in accordance with relevant international standards and agreements and other on-going initiatives in this regard, such as the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the labour standards of ILO, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and key multilateral environmental agreements, for parties to those agreements.

    International trade is an engine for inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction, and contributes to the promotion of sustainable development. We will continue to promote a universal, rules-based, open, transparent, predictable, inclusive, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as meaningful trade liberalization. We call on all WTO members to redouble their efforts to promptly conclude the negotiations on the Doha Development Agenda. We attach great importance to providing trade-related capacity-building for developing countries, including African countries, least-developed countries, landlocked developing countries, small island developing states and middle-income countries, including for the promotion of regional economic integration and interconnectivity.

  51. Isaac Blessing chiyantirimam
    2017/242942
    Economics
    isaacblessing49@gmail.com

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future.
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere. This is not possible in Nigeria given the specified time, because according to UN every citizen of a country is expected to have up to $1 per day which is not achievable by almost average Nigeria.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This is not achievable since poverty have not been taken care of . With no employment opportunities how will the citizens fend for themselves. This is one of the major issue affecting the nation.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages. Since the first and the second agenda cannot be made possible, it is not achievable.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all. I think this can be achievable in Nigeria if and only if the mindset of self interest of our political leaders are being arrested. And again disabled and LCDs interest are being included in the budget.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. This is also achievable in Nigeria because the motion is in progress. Whereby women are being included in political and some offices now.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. It’s also achievable if individuals and government join efforts in keeping the environment clean and also provide good public water system ( borehole) for less priveleged communities and maintaining the affairs of the water in every communities.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. It’s achievable too because when the NEPA management was in the hands of government an average Nigeria can afford for electricity because it was likely like public goods. And if adequate supervision should be done on public workers an even distribution of light will be achievable. And the use of solar system can be used as a substitute when needed.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. If Nigeria should look into her Agricultural, health sector and infant industries, and also deal with corruption and self interest group, thereby providing enough raw material, good health and a sustainable manufacturing industry. And hence increasing her GDP and attracting more investors. If all this should be put in place it can be achievable.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive, and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. To me it can be achieved in Nigeria if only our leaders should put the interest of the public first in their decisions . The aims to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation in the country.

  52. Elendu Esther Ogechi 2017/243875 Education economics says:

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030. The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.

    The 17 SDGs are:
    (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.

    1.Sustainable Development Goal 1 (SDG 1 or Global Goal 1), one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015, calls for “no poverty”. The official wording is: “to end poverty in all its forms, everywhere”. Member countries have pledged to “Leave No One Behind”: underlying the goal is a “powerful commitment to leave no one behind and to reach those farthest behind first”.SDG 1 aims to eradicate every form of extreme poverty including the lack of food, clean drinking water, and sanitation. Achieving this goal includes finding solutions to new threats caused by climate change and conflict. SDG 1 focuses not just on people living in poverty, but also on the services people rely on and social policy that either promotes or prevents poverty. The goal has seven targets and 13 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: eradication of extreme poverty; reduction of all poverty by half; implementation of social protection systems; ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources; and the building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters. The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.
    Despite the ongoing progress, 10 percent of the world’s population live in poverty and struggle to meet basic needs such as health, education, and access to water and sanitation.Extreme poverty remains prevalent in low-income countries particularly those affected by conflict and political upheaval. In 2015, more than half of the world’s 736 million people living in extreme poverty lived in Sub-Saharan Africa. Without a significant shift in social policy, extreme poverty will dramatically increase by 2030.The rural poverty rate stands at 17.2 percent and 5.3 percent in urban areas (in 2016).Nearly half are children.One of the key indicators that measure poverty is the proportion of population living below the international and national poverty line. Measuring the proportion of the population covered by social protection systems and living in households with access to basic services is also an indication of the level of poverty. Eradicating poverty has been made more difficult by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Local and national lockdowns led to a collapse in economic activity that reduced or eliminated sources of income and accelerated poverty.A study published in September 2020 found that poverty increased by 7 percent in just a few months, even though it had been steadily decreasing for the last 20 years.

    2.Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2 or Global Goal 2) aims to achieve “zero hunger”. It is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. The official wording is: “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture”.SDG 2 highlights the complex inter-linkages between food security, nutrition, rural transformation and sustainable agriculture.According to the United Nations, there are around 690 million people who are hungry, which accounts for 10 percent of the world population.One in every nine people goes to bed hungry each night, including 20 million people currently at risk of famine in South Sudan, Somalia, Yemen and Nigeria. SDG 2 has eight targets and 14 indicators to measure progress.The five “outcome targets” are: ending hunger and improving access to food; ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity; sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices; and genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals; investments, research and technology. The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivatives.Under-nutrition has been on the rise since 2015, after falling for decades.This majorly results from the various stresses in food systems that include; climate shocks, the locust crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. Those threats indirectly reduce the purchasing power and the capacity to produce and distribute food, which affects the most vulnerable populations and furthermore has reduced their accessibility to food.Up to 142 million people in 2020, have suffered from undernourishment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.[8] Stunting and wasting children statistics are likely to worsen with the pandemic.[9] In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic “may add between 83 and 132 million people to the total number of undernourished in the world by the end of 2020 depending on the economic growth scenario”.

    3. Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG 3 or Global Goal 3), regarding “Good Health and Well-being”, is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. The official wording is: “To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.”The targets of SDG 3 cover and focus on various aspects of healthy life and healthy lifestyle. Progress towards the targets is measured using twenty-one indicators.SDG 3 has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under 5 years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks.SDG 3 aims to achieve universal health coverage, that seeks equitable access of healthcare services to all men and women. It proposes to end the preventable death of newborns, infants and children under 5 (child mortality) and end epidemics.Good health is essential to sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda. It focuses on broader economic and social inequalities, urbanization, climate crisis, continuing burden of HIV and other infectious diseases, not forgetting emerging challenges such as non-communicable diseases.Considering the global pandemic of COVID-19, there is a need to give significant attention towards the realization of good health and well being on a global scale.

    4. Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4 or Global Goal 4) is about quality education and is among the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in September 2015.The full title of SDG 4 is “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”SDG 4 has ten targets which are measured by 11 indicators. The seven “outcome-oriented targets” are: free primary and secondary education; equal access to quality pre-primary education; affordable technical, vocational and higher education; increased number of people with relevant skills for financial success; elimination of all discrimination in education; universal literacy and numeracy; and education for sustainable development and global citizenship. The three “means of achieving targets” are: build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools; expand higher education scholarships for developing countries; and increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries.
    SDG 4 aims to provide children and young people with quality and easily accessible education plus other learning opportunities. One of its targets is to achieve universal literacy and numeracy. A major component in acquiring knowledge and valuable skills is the learning environment. Hence, the urgent need to build more educational facilities and also upgrade the present ones to provide safe, inclusive and effective learning environments for all.
    Prevalence of extreme poverty, insurgency, communal conflicts, and other factors has significantly reduced the progress in many developing countries. Children from poor households have a higher probability of dropping out of school than their counterparts from rich backgrounds. Disparities between rural and urban areas still remain high. In Western Asia and North Africa, ongoing armed conflict has seen an increase in the number of children who are not attending school. Sub-Saharan Africa made the greatest progress in primary school enrolment among all developing regions – from 52 percent in 1990, up to 78 percent in 2012, but large disparities still remain.

    5. Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG 5 or Global Goal 5) concerns gender equality and is fifth of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. The official wording of SDG 5 is “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”. Progress towards targets is measured by indicators. The 17 SDGs recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. A system thinking approach is the base for global sustainability. SDG 5 has nine targets and 14 indicators. Six of the targets are “outcome-oriented”: ending all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere; ending violence and exploitation of women and girls; eliminating harmful practices such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation; increasing value of unpaid care and promoting shared domestic responsibilities; ensuring full participation of women in leadership and decision-making; and ensuring access to universal reproductive rights and health. The three “means of achieving” targets are: fostering equal rights to economic resources, property ownership and financial services for women; promoting empowerment of women through technology; and adopting, strengthening policies and enforcing legislation for gender equality.
    Through the pledge to “Leave No One Behind”, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind, first.54 SDG 5 aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence. This is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.The COVID-19 pandemic has affected women as they are more vulnerable and have reduced access to treatment.[5] Evidence shows there has been increase in violence against women during the epidemic.

    6. Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6 or Global Goal 6) is about “clean water and sanitation for all”. It is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015, the official wording is: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.” The goal has eight targets to be achieved by at least 2030. Progress toward the targets will be measured by using eleven indicators. The six “outcome-oriented targets” include: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.
    In 2017, 2.2 billion people lacked safely managed drinking water and 4.2 billion people lacked safely managed sanitation.[4] Three billion people worldwide lack basic hand-washing facilities at home.Two in five healthcare facilities world-wide have no soap and water, or alcohol-based hand rub (2016).The COVID-19 pandemic has made this goal increasingly important.However this pandemic could affect the ability of water utilities to meet this goal by increasing losses on revenues that would otherwise be used to make investments.

    6. SDG 6 is closely linked with other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For example, progress in SDG 6 will improve health (SDG 3) and improve school attendance, both of which contribute to alleviating poverty. In April 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres said: “Today, Sustainable Development Goal 6 is badly off track” and it “is hindering progress on the 2030 Agenda, the realization of human rights and the achievement of peace and security around the world”.

    7. Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7 or Global Goal 7) is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. It aims to “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.”Access to energy is a very important pillar for the wellbeing of the people as well as economic development and poverty alleviation.
    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030.Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators.Three out of the five targets are “outcome targets”: Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving targets”: to promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy; and expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries. In other words, these targets include access to affordable and reliable energy while increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This would involve improving energy efficiency and enhancing international cooperation to facilitate more open access to clean energy technology and more investment in clean energy infrastructure. Plans call for particular attention to infrastructure support for the least developed countries, small islands and land-locked developing countries.According to a report in 2019, the world is making progress towards achieving SDG 7, but will fall short of meeting the targets by 2030 at the current rate of progress.SDG 7 and Climate change mitigation (SDG 13) are closely related and complementary.[4]:101 In order to achieve long term climate goals, the world needs to put more effort into renewable energy.

    8. Sustainable Development Goal 8 (SDG 8 or Global Goal 8) is about “decent work and economic growth” and is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals which were established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. The full title is to: “Foster sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.” Progress towards targets will be measured, monitored and evaluated by 17 indicators.
    SDG 8 has twelve targets in total to be achieved by 2030. Some targets are for 2030; others are for 2020. The first ten are “outcome targets”. These are: sustainable economic growth; diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity; promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises; improve resource efficiency in consumption and production; full employment and decent work with equal pay; promote youth employment, education and training; end modern slavery, trafficking, and child labour; protect labour rights and promote safe working environments; promote beneficial and sustainable tourism; universal access to banking, insurance and financial services. In addition there are also two targets for “means of achieving”: Increase aid for trade support; develop a global youth employment strategy.

    This goal aims at ensuring the economic sector of every country provides the necessary need for its citizen to have a good life irrespective of their background, race or culture.Roughly half the world’s population still lives on the equivalent of about US$2 a day. Besides, in too many places, having a job does not guarantee the ability to escape from poverty. This slow and uneven progress requires everyone to rethink and retool the economic and social policies aimed at eradicating poverty.

    For the least developed countries, the economic target is to attain at least a 7 percent annual growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 2018, the global growth rate of real GDP per capita was 2 per cent. In addition, the rate for least developed countries was 4.5 per cent in 2018 and 4.8 per cent in 2019, less than the 7 per cent growth rate targeted in SDG 8.[5] The COVID-19 pandemic is pushing the world into the worst global economic crisis since the Great Depression

    9. Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Goal 9 or SDG 9) is about “industry, innovation and infrastructure” and is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015.SDG 9 aims to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    SDG 9 has eight targets, and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures; promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization; increase access to financial services and markets; upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability; enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies. The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.

    The goal has interlinkages with other SDGs. While industrialization is connected to SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth) and SDG 11 (sustainable cities and communities), innovation and new skills development will help realise SDG 2 (zero hunger), SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation), SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy) and SDG 11 (sustainable cities and communities).
    In 2019, 14% of the world’s workers were employed in manufacturing activities. This percentage has not changed much since 2000. The share of manufacturing employment was the largest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (18 percent) and the smallest in sub-Saharan Africa (6 percent). Millions of people are still unable to access the internet due to cost, coverage, and other reasons. It is estimated that just 53.4% of the world’s population are currently internet users. Estimates suggest that by the end of 2020, the world will have reached just 57% global internet use and 23% in least developed countries, missing target 9.c by a wide margin

  53. Ezeh Martha Kelechi, reg no:2017/244943, Education Economics says:

    Nigeria as a country per say is far beyond achieving the analysis of sustainable development goals.
    Based on the question which is, if the first 9 goals are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame?
    With these reasons of mine,the goals are not achievable within the time frame given with these following points below.
    Goal 1.End poverty in all its forms everywhere. This is not possible in Nigeria given the specified time, because according to UN every citizen of a country is expected to have up to $1 per day which is not achievable by almost average Nigeria.
    Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round. By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
    Goal3: The area of healthy lives and well-being, this goal is not achivable in Nigeria reason because a country that whenever the president is not in a good state of health he will travel out of the country for treatment how can there be healthy lives where some of our hospitals are not equipped with necessary facilities.

    Goal4: The quality education in Nigeria it is assumed that people struggling for education is just there for a waste of time because how can we asure a quality education in a country where the president does not have ordinary o’ level certificate, it is assumed that the head does not know what education is all about. Taking University of nigeria nsukka as case study where the books in the library is of the ancient days, while the lecturers are not well paid so they will be happy to give students the best. How can it be achivable where the president will give pubic speech and say don’t depend on your degrees and you think this goal can be achieved. To me the goal is not achivabe.

    Goal5: Achieve gender equality it is still obvious that some sectors in the economy still don’t recognize this goal, where the president will dissolve the office of first lady and publicly said that she only belongs to the kitchen. Some religious organization this goal is still not recognized the aims and objectives of this goal is shattered already so it not achivable in all angles.

    Goal6: Clean water and sanitation: Accessibility to clean water is one index used to determine how poor a person is. Given the poverty level, lots of people in the country still struggle with getting clean drinking water. Also, people with no homes or live in slums would care less about sanitation. So achieving this goal to a large extent depends on eradicating poverty.
    Goal7: Affordable and clean energy: This goal is far from achievable in Nigeria. One major reason is corruption. There is little or no concern on the part of the government and even after handing over to private enterprise, it became worse. The power sector needs huge investment also to revitalize it and until the government decides to provide the necessary fund for the sector, there may be no reasonable progress.

    Goal8: Decent work and economic growth: This goal is not attainable given the unemployment and underemployment level in the country. If there are investment in key sectors in the economy, there would be jobs for a great number of the citizens. Also, fiscal discipline should be embarked upon by the government to channel funds in the right sectors as this will also improve economic growth.

    Goal9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Depending on the policies and strategy of government, it will determine if this goal will be achieved. If there are no proactive policies, then this goal is not achievable.

    With these points I can say that Nigeria is far from achieving these goals in or before 2030.

  54. OBODO CHISOM JESSICA says:

    NAME: OBODO CHISOM JESSICA
    REG NO: 2017/249538
    EMAIL: chisom.obodo.249538@unn.edu.ng

    Well Nigeria is showing progress in achieving few of the sustainable development goals and is no where near achieving the others. Some of these goals are;
    GOAL 1: END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS EVERYWHERE.
    Nigeria is now the largest economy in Africa, with a GDP of US$ 397 billion and accounting for 17 per cent of the continent’s GDP. However, 40.1 per cent of Nigerians (about 83 million people) live in poverty and growth per capita has been negative. Poverty has been rising in rural areas and the northern zones, while the situation in the southern zones has generally been improving. The poor health and education services for those who cannot afford to pay is also a driver of poverty. The National Social Investment Programme has been a cornerstone programme, targeting the poor and vulnerable members of the Nigerian population to address this, and safety nets cover around 22.5 million households. The federal government’s significant efforts to extend social welfare to the growing numbers of poor households is not reaching far enough, deep enough and fast enough.

    GOAL 2: END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE.
    As the threat of hunger and food insecurity looms in most part of Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria already embarked on a review as far back as 2006. The aim was to achieve a ‘zero hunger’ target and provide nutritious food to its teeming population. The prevalence of undernourishment reflected the fact that some 25.5% of the population was lacking adequate and improved nutrition. At the same time, severe food
    insecurity within the population based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale stood at 26.4% based on data from the National Bureau of Statistics. In addition, there was a stunting or delayed growth prevalence of 37.45% among children of kindergarten; 37.4% for school age and 15% severe cases of malnutrition for under 5 children. The Government’s response was to embark on an aggressive growth enhancement scheme to improve the yield of agricultural commodities. Huge investments were made on the setting up of irrigation sites for farmers in order to provide the platform for cultivation of agricultural products all year round.

    GOAL 3: ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELL-BEING FOR ALL, AT ALL AGES.
    Good health and wellbeing Evidence suggests that the general health of Nigerian
    citizens, particularly the poor, is deteriorating. Among the most debilitating is the very high maternal mortality
    rate (512 per 100 000 in 2018), as it contributes to household poverty by reducing household income or creating child-headed households. There has also been a slight increase in the under-five mortality rates with deaths per 1000 rising from 128 in 2017 to 132 in 2018 (NBS, 2020). The country’s performance against
    these indicators provides a lens into the weakness of the healthcare system. The percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel illustrates the income inequality levels in the country. The public healthcare system is failing the poor primarily because of inadequate workforce and issues associated with the
    National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) coverage. The inadequate percentage of women of reproductive age whose need for family planning is satisfied with modern methods perpetuates the poverty trap in which many
    women in Nigeria find themselves because of additional financial responsibilities brought on by children.

    GOAL 4: ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFE-LONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL.
    While primary school attendance is essential (about 60 per cent), there is a need for the government to do more to increase the low levels of secondary school attendance (49 per cent). The reduced attendance rate partially explains the low literacy (50 per cent) and numeracy rate amongst youths. There has been a very positive increase in participation in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) by girls in both private and public schools. The figure has more than doubled in private schools since 2015 and tripled in public schools. If this trend continues, the country will achieve its 2030 targets. With a population of approximately 206-million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78 per cent of south-western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17 per cent of north-eastern children can. There has been a slight improvement in formal education.

    GOAL 5: ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS.
    There has been an improvement on two indicators, gender-based violence and child and early forced marriage before age 15, while one has somewhat worsened that is child and early forced marriage before 18. For the remaining two indicators, women in elective/appointive as well as managerial positions, there is insufficient data to assess progress. However, it appears that political participation has regressed. All in all, it seems little progress has been made on gender inclusiveness. The possibility of achieving the SDG targets by 2030 remains very low as long as deeply rooted values and social norms are not met by strong political will and serious commitment. One of the most significant challenges in the achievement of SDG 5 has been the lack of up-to-date gender-disaggregated data – one example being women in managerial positions.

    GOAL 6: ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALL.
    A new report has revealed that Nigeria is making some progress in improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) to its population, with 70 percent of Nigerians having access to basic drinking water services. However, the amount and quality of water for individual use is lower than the required standard. The average amount of water each person receives in Nigeria is 9 litres per day. The minimum acceptable range is between 12 and 16 litres per day, according to national standards. The report, released by Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Water Resources and UNICEF, said that one-third of the population drinks contaminated water at home and 46 million people are still practicing open defecation.At least 167 million homes do not have access to handwashing facilities –especially worrying in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, with handwashing being a critical infection prevention practice.
    “The data shows us that there is still more work to be done to ensure that all Nigerians have access to adequate and quality water and hygiene services,” said the Minister of Water Resources, Suleiman Adamu.

    GOAL 7: ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE,SUSTAINABLE, AND MODERN ENERGY FOR ALL.
    Between 2000 and 2016, the number of people with electricity increased from 78 to 87 percent, and the numbers without electricity dipped to just below one billion. Yet as the population continues to grow, so will the demand for cheap energy, and an economy reliant on fossil fuels is creating drastic changes to our climate. Investing in solar, wind and thermal power, improving energy productivity, and ensuring energy for all is vital if we are to achieve SDG 7 by 2030. Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean and more efficient energy in all countries( Nigeria as a case study) will encourage growth and help the environment.  
    GOAL 8: PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY FOR ALL.
    Decent work and economic growth Real GDP growth has been positive since the country came out of recession in 2017 but remained lower than the rate of population growth, so people are
    becoming poorer. Besides, while most Nigerians work in the informal sector, there is very little job and income security in this sector and the likelihood of transitioning out of poverty is low. Four years ago, the unemployment rate was significantly lower than the 2018 figure of 23.1
    per cent, and it is likely to worsen due to COVID-19. Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53 per cent of the labour force and accounting for 65 per cent of GDP. It is estimated that 75 per cent of all new jobs are informal and only 10 per cent of the working-age population is employed in formal wage labour, with more than half of those jobs in the public sector. Youths have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4 percent. With 38 per cent of the 15 to 24-year-olds not in education, employment or training, it means that these young people are not gaining the skills to enter the labour market or to become self-employed. Ensuring that youths are well educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can reduce poverty (SDG-1) significantly.

    GOAL 9: BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION.
    Nigeria government has prioritized infrastructure development in its development agenda and this has started yielding significant results. In the period under review, the infrastructure sector’s contribution to the GDP has been put at 35% while Nigeria’s Electric Power Sector which was privatized in 2005 had about 12.5GW installed capacity as at November 2016 with about 15 per cent of installed capacity distributed to end users. In terms of industrialization, Nigeria has so far established 34 free zones aimed at promoting the industrial and economic growth of the nation. Federal Government Policy and Programme Drivers Towards Achieving Goal 9 Targets;As part of advancement on bridging the infrastructural deficit in development, Nigeria enacted a law in 2005, to establish an Infrastructure Concession and Regulatory Commission (ICRC). The Commission which
    was inaugurated in 2008, has as its primary mandate, the regulation of the operational interface between the Government and the Private sector, through a PPP arrangement. The PPP is ultimately aimed at creating an enabling environment for private sector participation and investment in infrastructure development of
    the nation. To ensure enforcement of policy commitments, the Federal Government has prioritized infrastructure development in her 2016 and 2017 Appropriation law. For instance, infrastructure development constituted
    41% of the total capital allocation in the 2016 budget. The Honourable Minister for Budget and National Planning, declared the 2017 budget to be the budget of infrastructure development, during his public presentation of the 2017 budget. Thus, the implementation of the capital budget that relates to Power, Agriculture, Health, Education, Skills Acquisition Centres and Water Infrastructure will directly contribute to the achievement of SDGs-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9.

  55. Umelo Chidera Nicole says:

    NAME: UMELO CHIDERA NICOLE
    REGISTRATION NUMBER:2017/249589
    EMAIL: nicoleumelo@gmail.com
    The 17 SDG’s, which are expected to be achieved by the year 2020, have been the fodder for debate and global
    discussions for sometime. the question has now been “if” such goals will be achieved in developing economies including Nigeria, but “when” and “how”. Given the socio-political and economic landscape of countries including Nigeria, it is not surprising where these doubts are rising from. The popular adage- “once bitten twice shy” has translated into another form of “once failed, forever scarred” in Nigeria. to answer the question of whether the first nine goals will be achieved in Nigeria, will be a speculative task. However, I must state before further analysis that all these goals can be achieved if the socio-political framework of the country is improved- greatly improved. From this stance, we can very well say that the first nine goals can be achieved in Nigeria given the allotted time (i.e. nine years). However, with the social and political climate being what it is, can these goals be achieved? let us find out.
    Goal 1: End Poverty
    Poverty, the curse of the common man. Even the Bible warns against it. In the world, there are 9.2% of people living in extreme poverty, and in Nigeria?, well we can only imagine. Poverty has become a global scourge that has become too stubborn to flush out. It is the global epidemic that has always existed from time immemorial. What can Nigeria, with its failing social, economic and political economy do to stop this scourge? Truly, this problem of poverty can only be conquered in Nigeria when sustainable, achievable and productive programs and policies are implemented. however, for these kinds of programs to be in place, there must be a rejuvenation of the economy.
    Goal 2: End hunger
    Indeed, the goals are interdependent. Dear reader, will it be a far stretch to conclude that once goal 1 has been implemented, then goal 2 will definitely follow suit? The problem therein lies on whether goal one can be implemented. But that is not all. What steps is the economy taking to further the achievement of he goal? How is the country going to achieve that in times of war, where borders are closed, the country still has a sustainable supply f food? What does the economy as a whole think about the growth of the agricultural sector? These questions determine whether or not children will continue to die of Kwashiorkor, it will determine whether or not the masses will remain hungry in the coming months
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives
    Again, interdependent goals. What constitutes healthy living? Healthy living does not just mean easy access to food, it does not just mean a high income, healthy living encompasses the availability of good food, healthy environment, access to healthcare facilities, access to standard education, access to top notch living conditions, freedom from oppression, danger and toxic situations and so much more. However, when we see the point our country has sunken to in terms of security, freedom and standards, we can only accept that unless something is done and soon, healthy living in Nigeria will be a folktale and a parody of wishes.
    Goal 4:Quality education
    You know what? Nigeria is really going far in achieving this goal. Wait, scratch that, private institutions are trying to achieve this goal themselves. The only problem is, Private institutions charge a fortune for providing the quality services that they do. This leaves individuals that have no such funds to fall back on the dismal realities of public academic institutions. However, the fight is not between the standard of private and public institutions. The question is; can Nigeria achieve standard education in the space of Nine years? YES! absolutely, but before that, something has to be done about these institutions.
    Goal 5: Gender Equality
    Honestly, this is one goal I really doubt could be achieved even in the next twenty years. This is because for this goal to be achieved, different orientation and perceptions of men and women, boys and girls, old and young, need to be corrected first. No government policy can achieve this goal, no social program will do the trick. People and their mentality need to be corrected first before this goal can be achieved.
    Goal6: Water management and sanitation: I believe that Nigeria has come a really long way in the achievement of this goal and can definitely achieve this goal in the given time period.
    Goal 7:Reliable and affordable energy:
    I do not doubt Nigeria’s ability to achieve this goal, what I do doubt Is whether this the country will be wise enough to rely on its vast resources in the achievement of the goal.
    Goal 8: Economic growth, productive employment and decent work for all
    Personally, I see this goal as the Lazy man’s approach to development. Is it logical for the government to provide employment for each citizen? I should hope not. What I believe the government should do is to provide a fertile environment that allows for implementation of innovative ideas within the economy. This will boost employment and increase general economic and personal well being.
    Goal 9: Infrastructure, Inclusive Industrialization and innovation
    Just as I stated in Goal 8, it is the role of government to implement or put in place “supportive structures” that will help encourage innovation and inclusive industrialization.

    OVERALL VERDICT: Nigeria can only achieve all the goals at the same time if the socio-economic foundation as well as mentality of the country and its citizens are restructured, without this, we can try, we might even achieve development for a while, but the shaky foundation will show itself, and everything- everything will come crashing down.
    Thank you.

  56. OGBODO PEACE CHINENYENWA says:

    NAME: OGBODO PEACE CHINENYENWA
    REG. NO: 2017/249543
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: nenyepeace2010@gmail.com
    The Sustainable Development Goal are made up of 17 global goals which was set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly that is intended to be achieved by the year 2030. The 17 sustainable development goal include:
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    10. Reducing inequality.
    11. Sustainable cities and communities.
    12. Responsible consumption and production.
    13. Climate action.
    14. Life below water.
    15. Life on land.
    16. peace, justice, and strong institution.
    17. Partnerships for the goals
    Having listed the 17 global goals, my focus will be on the first nine goals.
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere: This cannot be achieved in Nigeria because the rate of corruption is high in the sense that only the people in power and the people with connection that out of poverty while those that are not in power and don’t have people in power, remains in abject poverty that is the rich keep on getting rich while the poor remains poor.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture: this can only be addressed if number one is achieved.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages: These can be achieved by building hospitals and maintaining them and by providing well educated doctors and nurses. This also requires equipping the hospitals.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all: This has been achieved to an extent because some states in this country now offers free education from primary school level to secondary school level, the only thing remaining is to extend it to other states which have not adopt it and also to extend this free education to tertiary institution which I believe will be possible before 2030.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: This has been achieved to a great extent because in Nigeria women now participate in social and political affairs of the country.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: This is not attainable in Nigeria because the prefer littering diets inside rivers and on the road than putting it in the waste bin. Nigerians also finds it difficult to participate on sanitation and cleaning day.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: it could be attainable before 2030 if Nigeria invest in renewable energy resources and adopt clean energy technologies which can be reliable and sustainable to all.
    8. Remote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: This is not attainable giving the rate of unemployment, underemployment and working poor in this country.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: this is attainable if the government invest in people who are creative and people who are gifted.

  57. Izuogu Chiamaka Goodluck says:

    Name: Izuogu Chiamaka Goodluck
    Department: Economics Education
    Reg. No: 2017/242101
    chiamaka.izuogu.242101@unn.edu.ng
    Unncareerinfo
    Sustainable development goals (SDGs), are sets of seventeen (17) well-articulated global goals put together by the United Nations in conjunction with various governments and agencies of member countries to ensure global sustainable development in the year 2030. The 17 broad goals which were designed to cover a wide range of social and economic development issues
    include: goals: 1- End poverty in all its forms everywhere 2- End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture 3- Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages 4- Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 5- Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 6- Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 7- Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all 8- Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all 9- Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation 10- Reduce inequality within and among countries 11- Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 12- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 13- Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts 14- Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 15- Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 16- Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 17- Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.
    All this goals can be achieved within the timeframe (2021-2030) using what is called a SMARTCITY STRATEGY
    OVERVIEW OF SMART CITY STRATEGY “A city can be defined as ‟smart„ when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) Communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory action and engagement.” (Caragliu and Nijkamp – 2009). A smart city not only possesses ICT technology in particular areas, but has also implemented this technology in a manner that impacts the local community and environment positively. Regional competitiveness, transport and Information and Communication Technologies economics, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and participation of citizens in the governance of cities (Giffinger et al. – 2007). When this is in place at least the first 9 goals will be achieved in nigeria

  58. Omeke Anslem Francisco says:

    Omeke Anslem Francisco
    2017/249564
    assurance081@gmail.com

    The sustainable development goals or global goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Considering the first nine (9) goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and using Nigeria as a case study given its time frame, the following are my points;

    1. END POVERTY IN ALL IT’S FORM EVERYWHERE
    Considering the time frame of 9 years, it is practically impossible for poverty to end in Nigeria. This is because there is no programme put in place to ensure that poverty is eradicated for poverty to end, there must be massive creation of employment and equal distribution of income. There must exist poverty alleviating programmes which can come in form of infrastructural development grants and loans and also skill Acquisition Avenue. Therefore, looking at the 9 years’ time span, it is impossible for Nigeria to achieve this because there is no plan in motion currently and these programmes are not achievable in just 9 years.

    2. END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE.
    The second goal can be a partial success in the aspect of achieving a sustainable agriculture. There have been programme and organization set up by the government (eg FADMA) to encourage farmers especially the poor. All that needs to be done in this aspect is to ensure through monitoring that such projects get to its target area (which is farmers in rural area). However; hunger, food, security and improved nutrition cannot be achieved. This is because a poor person cannot afford 3 meals in a day nether does he care how secure his meal is due to hunger.

    3. ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELL-BEING FOR ALL AT ALLEGES.
    This goal is achievable, considering the fact that so many provisions have been made for infant health and also does with deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. However, little effort needs to made by equipping the hospitals to be more functional and reducing the cost of health care especially for the old.

    4. ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFE LONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES.
    Inclusive education, not really achievable, and if achievable it would not be equitable seeing as society is divided into sections with different levels of opportunities available to each section. Life long learning opportunities is achievable due to the presence of the internet and online learning.

    5. ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS.

    Programs can be set up to do this and they can be funded by the government. However, we say funded by the government but with the level of corruption, any money appropriated to this will most certainly be embezzled. If NGOs are factored in, this just might be achievable.

    6. ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION.
    Nigeria is not gotten to the point where sustainable water management is a priority and it’s relevance has not been fully disseminated which would be a stumbling block for this goal. Sanitation is possible if there is Nation wide sensitisation and government actually make REAL efforts towards it.

    7. ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY.
    Just like in the case of the goal before this , the fact that the importance of this is not known to the public is going to be a problem. Also the technology needed for production of modern energy is not domestically produced, hence it cannot be affordable.

    8. PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK.
    Economic growth with all the above features is a nice concept but that is all it is, a concept. Theories are nice but practicals are what matters. Nigeria has a rooted problem with her Political sector which poisons the Economic sector, 15 years cannot correct Nigeria’s political defect as well as bring about full employment. Things can get a bit better but total achievement is doubtful.

    9. BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALISATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION.
    This can be done as long as the government are willing to reward hard work and show it’s support for innovation by sponsoring and rewarding innovators. This will reduce brain drain which would ensure there are capable hands to industrialize the country before 2030.

  59. Uwaezuoke Stephen Chinonso (2017/242432) says:

    Uwaezuoke Stephen chinonso
    2017/242432
    300L
    Economic department.
    Answer;
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are made up of seventeen goals which is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country in the world to achieve a better and more sustainable future. Among all this 17 goals I am going to focus on the first 9 goals. The SDGs include:
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere: This could be achieved by making use of the available resources effectively and efficiently, which will lead to development and full employment that will help in eradicating poverty before 2030.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture: This could be achieved through improving and channeling enough resources to the agricultural sector by encouraging the farmers and providing them enough equipment and fertilizer. If the government do this, I believe that by 2030 there will be no hunger and we will achieve food security and improved nutrition.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages: This will be achieved by building and maintaining health care facilities and by providing qualified health care works and adequate equipment.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all: This could be achieved provided the government reverse its attention and give life to public institutions again, by properly funding them, not owing the academic and non-academic staffs, improve infrastructures and adopts world best practices in terms of standards and technology in schools.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: I believe this has been achieved in the sense that they now go to school and participate politically, socially and otherwise and they are now empowered.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: This could be achieved by 2030, if government invest in water research and development, and promote the inclusion of women, youth, and indigenous communities in water resources governance by generating awareness of these roles and taking action that will lead to win-win results and increased sustainability and integrity for both human and ecological systems. we can also get involved in the World Water Day and World Toilet Day campaigns that aim to provide information and inspiration on hygiene.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: This can be achieved if the government can accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system by investing in renewable energy resources and adopting clean energy technologies and infrastructure.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Like I said in the first goal about ending poverty, we can also achieve this if government make use of the available resources efficiently and effectively.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: this is possible by establishing standards and promoting regulations that ensures company projects and initiatives are managed sustainably. This is also possible if there is good governance because good governance brings about Innovation and infrastructure.

  60. IROEGBU BLESSING ONYINYECHI says:

    IROEGBU BLESSING O.
    2017/249518
    ECONOMICS

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS( SDGs)
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s form and everywhere… It’s possible through effective and efficient use of nations available resources. This resources magament will bring about increase in the nations productivity, national output ( GDP) and development of all form. Through development poverty will be eradicated.

    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture. this can only be addressed if number one is achieved.

    Goal 3: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: This is not attainable in Nigeria because the prefer littering diets inside rivers and on the road than putting it in the waste bin. Nigerians also finds it difficult to participate on sanitation and cleaning day.

    Goal 4: Gender Equality: This is one goal I really doubt could be achieved even in the next twenty years. This is because for this goal to be achieved, different orientation and perceptions of men and women, boys and girls, old and young, need to be corrected first. No government policy can achieve this goal, no social program will do the trick. People and their mentality need to be corrected first before this goal can be achieved.

    Goal 5: Decent work and economic growth: This goal is not attainable given the unemployment and underemployment level in the country. If there are investment in key sectors in the economy, there would be jobs for a great number of the citizens. Also, fiscal discipline should be embarked upon by the government to channel funds in the right sectors as this will also improve economic growth.

    Goal 6: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: It’s achievable too because when the NEPA management was in the hands of government an average Nigeria can afford for electricity because it was likely like public goods. And if adequate supervision should be done on public workers an even distribution of light will be achievable. And the use of solar system can be used as a substitute when needed.

    Goal 7: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: This is not achievable because of the following; The high rate of corruption in the country, lack of factories, industries and firms for employment, the high rate of fatherism in the country. The few things above are some of the reasons why this SDG cannot be achieved.

    Goal 8: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure; The achievement of this goal has being hijacked by the dependence of Nigeria economy on oil. There are little industries located in Nigeria with the major ones being ran on a monopolistic or oligopolistic ladder.

    Goal 9: Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages: These can be achieved by building hospitals and maintaining them and by providing well educated doctors and nurses. This also requires equipping the hospitals.

  61. NAME: IKE GODSWILL CHINEDU
    REG NO: 2017/249515
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    The Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) are of an integrative manner, which was an agreement among 193member States or countries, receiving support from different independent organisations world wide. The SDGs was meant to meet the needs of people both those in developing and developed countries and also planet sensitive. There are 17 SDGs and it’s aim are global in nature. Now based on the present status of Nigeria in the contemporary, in my own view these goals which includes;
    -End poverty in all it’s forms.
    -End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    -Ensure healthy lived and promote well-being for all at all ages.
    -Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all.
    -Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    -Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    -Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    -Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive and decent work for all.
    -Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovations etc. are to an extent unachievable. Since the country is only left with a few years more to achieve these goals which are supposed to be achieved by 2030.. These goals are interwoven meaning that they’re collective. Based on the first goal, which is to end poverty. Thus is one of the major problems of Nigeria. And due to this the country has been regarded as the poverty capital of the world. Eradicating this problem of poverty in Nigeria is nearly impossible and unachievable before 3030 due to the high rates of unemployed youths, greedy attitudes of political leaders who seek to satisfy their selfish desires and leaves the needs of the citizens uncared for and also corrupt system of government. The second goal on the other hand is also unachievable because without putting and end to poverty, it is impossible to end hunger as those who are poor are unable to provide their basic needs. Since this is unachievable, the llves of individuals cannot be secured, leading to low standard of living as regards to the third goal. Also those who are poor cannot pay the required fees for education likewise their children’s.
    In regards to gender equality, thus can be achieved as women are now being educated on their rights and are taking effective actions prior to that. Now most are now participating in elections as regards political offices, women also come out to vote and are also obtaining proper educations in schools. In achieving proper sanitation and with management, this can be attained through proper orientation of citizens on the importance of keeping or environment clean an taking measures that’ll prevent people from dumping wastes into water bodies. Also boreholes and pipe borne water could be provided for risk dwellers to ensure water availability. The country has also been faced with power supply failures as money apprioprated to the sector is usually being looted by greedy politicians. Economic growth on the other hand cannot be achieved as productive activities are not being encouraged in the country as imported good are preferred to locally made goods due to poor quality of goods produced. Also funds allocated for infrastructures and social amenities are looted for selfish gains by political leaders. These are the basic reasons why it is difficult for the Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved in Nigeria.

    • Nwankpa Lilian Ugomma says:

      Name: Nwankpa Lilian Ugomma
      Reg no: 2017/244743
      Dept: Social science Education (Economics Education)
      The 17 sustainable development goals are:
      1. No poverty
      2. Zero hunger
      3. Good health and well-being
      4. Quality education
      5. Gender equality
      6. Clean water and Sanitation
      7. Affordable and clean Energy
      8. Decent work and Economic growth
      9. Industry, Innovation and infrastructure
      10. Reduced inequalities
      11. Sustainable cities and communities
      12. Responsible consumption and production
      13. Climate Action
      14. Life below water
      15. Life on land
      16. Peace, justice and strong institutions
      17. Partnership for the goals
      Let us try to analyze some of these SDGs set out by the United Nations. It is a fact that while citizens of some African and Asian countries are starving, the rich countries are beset with obesity. Discrepancies of these types are morally disturbing. The United Nations is ideally suited to ending these shocking inequalities because it hosts all the nations of the world and endows each with identical voting power in the General Assembly. The poorest and the weakest are equal to the richest and the strongest.
      The most urgent approach to promoting a global partnership for sustainable development is the ending of warfare. War, whether intramural or international, wreaks havoc on the elements necessary for health, housing, education, employment, the rule of law, the environment, and happiness generally.
      War is enormously expensive. It diverts resources from schools, hospitals, roads and telecommunications to AK-47s, Kalashnikovs, missiles, bombs and artillery shells. Moreover, wars regularly entail the use of child soldiers, for example, in Sierra Leone, Angola and Sudan. The children are deprived of educational opportunities. Many are maimed and become permanently disabled from productive employment. Others become emotionally and psychologically disturbed, an ailment that routinely finds expression in criminal or anti-social behavior. By killing or deracinating the flower of youth, war keeps a country immersed in misery and underdevelopment. War also arrests economic development. Foreign investment withers. Infrastructure is destroyed. The consequence is widespread poverty. War also creates a culture antithetical to democracy and the rule of law. It teaches that disputes should be resolved by the bullet in lieu of the ballot box.
      I admit that denunciation of warfare is easier than prevention. But if mankind can assemble knowledge to send men to the moon and Land Rovers to Mars, the knowledge necessary to end wars cannot be far behind. As is said in the Song of Solomon, “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” Prophet Muhammad appealed to the conscience of human beings by saying, “The pen is mightier than the sword.”
      The second urgent global sustainable development objective should be universal literacy and education. As Socrates explained, the unexamined life is not worth living. Or as philosopher Sam Johnson amplified, there is the same difference between the learned and unlearned as between the living and the dead. And as the Quran says, “Are those who know equal with those who know not?” These observations are made not to deride or degrade the uneducated but to underscore the criticality of education to making life morally meaningful and fulfilling between ashes to ashes and dust to dust. Education is also human capital that fuels economic growth. A worker’s productivity and compensation generally rise commensurate with educational achievement. In addition, education correlates with a worker’s ability to shift jobs and master new skills in an ever-changing global economy.
      The United Nations should thus develop educational yardsticks that a nation must satisfy to receive economic or military aid from third parties, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The yardsticks should be incorporated in a treaty to be ratified by all United Nations members. A civilization lives by symbols, and what could be more inspiring than privileged persons sacrificing on behalf of underprivileged ones.
      Third on the global sustainable development agenda should be the elimination of poverty and the securing for every man, woman and child a right to flourishing health, a clean environment, comfortable housing and nutritious food. The goal is not a choice but a moral obligation. Thus, rich countries should transfer much of their riches to poor countries. Next on the list of global sustainable development priorities should be the ending of all racial, ethnic, or class hatreds or enmities. Think of the horrifying quantity of violence in the world whose fundamental cause can be traced back to such social divisions. It infects every country on the planet. And if even one person suffers from invidious discrimination, then all are threatened and civilization has been tarnished.
      The attainment of equality for women is another pressing yardstick of global sustainable development. Experience and intuition both demonstrate that women are as intelligent as men. They are as entrepreneurial and disciplined. They contribute every bit as much to economic growth and social cohesion as men. It is thus imperative that women receive the same legal rights and social dignity as men if global sustainable development is to advance.
      The halting of trafficking in women or children to provide sexually decadent pleasures for the rich and squalid also should rank high on the agenda of global sustainable development. Degradation as commercial sex objects is morally repulsive. The United Nations must do everything in its power to end the vile practice. It scars women and children both physically and emotionally. It enriches the wretched and rewards the worst lusts. Similarly repugnant is trafficking in children for slave labor. The parental sellers, the buyers, and the users of child slave labor should be held accountable as criminals. Children are the future of mankind. They cannot be permitted to groan, suffer and wither to satisfy the greed and lust for the pleasure of the wicked.
      Global sustainable development also requires universal access to the Internet, a technological marvel that brings the excitement of knowledge and the joys of instant communication to every user. The United Nations should play a key role in the universal access quest. A clean environment is also essential to global sustainable development. Pollution is more than twice cursed. It damages crops. It kills lakes and rivers. It occasions disease and illness through water and air, for example, lead poisoning or cholera. And it may even cause the submersion of entire island nations through global warming, a variation on the biblical flood. A clean environment, therefore, is a key element of community fairness and justice.
      Let me with great humility offer a few closing observations about the entire global sustainable development enterprise. It is characteristic that national or international organizations employ quantitative benchmarks to measure success in meeting enumerated objectives. For instance, a longstanding objective has been for each nation to contribute a specified percentage of its gross domestic product for humanitarian or foreign aid. Companion quantitative benchmarks have been set for literacy, vaccinations, annual income, longevity, smoking, etc.
      There is nothing inherently mischievous about these development yardsticks. But they should never distract from our recognition that the highest in sustainable development consists of non-quantifiable characteristics. These would include acts of charity, humility, courage, benevolence, magnanimity, self-restraint, and non-vindictiveness. It would seem to me to turn logic and morality on their heads to award higher sustainable development acclaim to a nation whose citizens were universally economically prosperous, literate, healthy, long-lived, non-polluting, but also mean-spirited, selfish, and egotistical than to a nation whose citizens were impoverished, plagued by disease, but were generous in time, effusive in hospitality, austere in habits, and selfless for the community.
      These goals seem to be ambitious, but as President Erdogan amplified on Nov. 1, 2020, “We must fulfill our responsibility, not only for ourselves and our countries but also for the future of our children.”

  62. MADUKO MAUREEN ADAEZE says:

    NAME: MADUKO MAUREEN ADAEZE
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/249049

    Given the time frame allotted to achieve these Sustainable development goals, Nigeria can achieve very few of these goals but I would like to state these goals and explain how feasible Nigeria can achieve them within the timeframe (2030):
    1)No Poverty : “Operation Donate what you don’t use” ,more than 700 million people still live in extreme poverty . It is impossible for poverty to end in Nigeria within the next 9 years . Also there are no poverty alleviation schemes ( i.e grants or loans)put in place to eradicate poverty,selfish governance , unequal distribution of wealth and income,high rate of unemployment ,all these are also hinderances to eradicating poverty within 9 years.

    2) Zero Hunger: Waste less food and support local farmers, a third of the world’s food is wasted yet 821 million people undernourished. To eliminate hunger and starvation,poverty has to be eradicated and dealt with first of all.

    3) Good health and well being: Vaccinate your family. Vaccinations resulted in an 80% drop in measles deaths between 2000 and 2017. This goal has improved over the years but a lot can still be achieved within 9 years. The government should focus more on building and equipping hospitals,clinics with subsidised fees and quality healthcare services should be rendered. By doing these the people would be healthy and there would be improvement in well being.

    4) Quality Education: Help educate the children in your community. 617 million children and adolescents lack minimum proficiency in reading and mathematics. The government has neglected the educational system and this is quite alarming ,though the educational sector has witnessed significant improvement but it was majorly with respect to the quantity of schools in circulation. The number of institutions and schools in Nigeria has increased rapidly but the quality of education is still very poor. The educational sector still needs huge commitment, investment and dedication to achieve within 9 years which sadly the government is not ready to show their interest.

    5) Gender Equality: achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls . 1 in 3 women has experienced physical/sexual violence. Women have gained considerable recognition in various spheres and sectors of the economy. Even politically,they are making waves and with women in politics, there are little or no limits to how far women can stand out in other sectors . With the progress we have experienced in this goal, it is achievable in 9 years.

    6) Clean water and Sanitation: Avoid wasting water,water scarcity affects more than 40% of the world’s population. Accessibility to good / clean water is a criteria in determining how poor a person is. Due to the level of poverty in Nigeria, a lot of people are still struggling to have or drink clean water especially rural areas . People with no houses or those living in slums care less about their sanitation,and to achieve this goal Poverty has to be eradicated.

    7) Affordable and clean Energy: Use only energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs. Three billion people still lack clean cooking fuels and technologies. This goal is far from being achieved in Nigeria due to high corruption. There’s little concern by the government because the power sector needs huge investment also to improve it until the government decides to provide the necessary funds for the power sector,there would be little or no progress.

    8)Decent work and Economic growth: Create job opportunities for youth. One-fifth of young people are not in education, employment or training. For this to be implemented there has to be an end to poverty and also by making efficient use of available resources and also supervise the activities of the different sectors of the economy ( Health, Agricultural ) because by doing this and also sustainable manufacturing industries this would increase the country’s GDP thereby leading to employment opportunities, increase in economic growth and increase in foreign investors.

    9)Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Fund projects that provide basic infrastructure. Roads,water, sanitation and electricity remain scarce in many developing countries.This can be achieved by setting standards and promote regulations that ensures companies and industries project are being managed. These are the duties and responsibilities of the government. It is not achievable in 9 years due to the fact that most industries are centered in the cities neglecting the rural areas which would make the rural areas less innovative. Infrastructures can only be created if the government can stop being selfish and greedy.

    N.B•• Therefore,We can observe from the above mentioned points that these goals cannot be achieved without doing them one after the other and looking at the stipulated time frame (2030), these goals cannot be achieved because Nigeria is still lacking both politically and economically due to bad governance,the old politicians still wants to remain in power with their poor mentality only fending for themselves and their generation thereby looting our resources which would have been used to implement these goals.

  63. NNANYELUGO CHIDERA MICHAEl says:

    Name: NNANYELUGO CHIDERA MICHAEL
    Reg no: 2017/245023
    Dept: ECONOMICS

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030 Agenda
    In 2015, 195 nations agreed with the United Nation that they can change the world for the better.
    This will be accomplished by bringing together their respective governments, businesses, media, institutions of higher education, and local NGOs to improve the lives of the people in their country by the year 2030.
    Here’s the 2030 Agenda:
    1. Eliminate Poverty
    2. Erase Hunger
    3. Establish Good Health and Well-Being
    4. Provide Quality Education
    5. Gender Equality
    6. Improve Clean Water and Sanitation
    7. Grow Affordable and Clean Energy
    8. Create Decent Work and Economic Growth
    9. Increase Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
    10. Reduce Inequality
    11. Mobilize Sustainable Cities and Communities
    12. Influence Responsible Consumption and Production
    13. Organize Climate Action
    14. Develop Life Below Water
    15. Life On Land
    16. Guarantee Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
    17. Build Partnerships for the Goals
    Our Organization Joined the United Nation and their Sustainable Development Goals to Help
    Our organization, NJ MED, along with our partners, are committed to seeing all of the 195 nations achieve Five Education Goals for 2030, as well as, monitor the progress, each nation is making towards providing new support services for children and their families.
    The‘plan of implementation of the world summit on sustainable Development’
    listed about170, with the major issues
    listed as follows:

    Commitment at all levels to the United Nation Millennium Declaration held in
    Riodejaneiro in1992.
    The effort will promote the integration of the three components of sustainable
    development–economic development,social development and environmental
    protection-as interdependent,and mutually reinforcing pillars.Poverty eradication,
    changing unsustainable pattern of production and consumption and protecting and
    managing the natural resource base of economic and social development are over arching
    objectives and essential requirement for sustainable development.

    Good governance within each country at all levels sound policies on social
    environmental and economic issues;democratic institutions responsive to the needs of
    the people the rule of law; anti-corruption measures; genderequality and an enabling
    environment for investment as basis for sustainable development; external assistance to
    individual especially between developed logytocofferdiet and trade and full
    participation of developing countries in global decision making.

    Peace,security and respect for human might and fundamental freedoms,
    including the right to development and ensuring that the benefits of development
    includes all, especially, the valuable groups women, children.Youths In abid to
    eradicate poverty,the function point

    Access to quality healthcare services by rural and urban for all person; good
    education for all children especially primary schooling and all levels of schooling; combat
    desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,floods;land and natural resource
    management;increase access to clean driving water and adequate sanitation to improve
    and protect human health and environment;transfer basic sustainable agricultural
    techniques and knowledge including natural resource management to small and medium
    scale for mores,fishes and the rural poor in Developing countries.

    Other measures include;improve access to reliable and affordable energy
    services;strengthen the contribution of industrial development to poverty eradication;improve the people living in slums by 2020;eliminates of the worst forms of child
    labour.

    Specificactions on consumption and production patterns to achieve sustainable
    development include from using governments and institutions to the way promote a
    frame work in support of social and economic development policies addressing basic
    issues such as pollutions,waste,enhancing corporate environmental and social
    responsibility and accountability,

    In addition,promotion of a good transport system at all levels;prevent and
    minimize waste and maximize reuse recycling and use of environmentally friendly
    alternative materials

    Specificactions to protecting natural resource base of economic and social
    development include;Development of strategies to protect the ecosystem;financial and
    technical assistance to achieve the MDGs on safe drinking water;promote the
    conservation and management of the oceans;enhance maritime safety candle security
    land based activities;risk assessment and disaster management promote sustainable
    tourism including non-consumptive and eco-tourism;preservation of Biological
    definition introduction of forest management and improvement.

    To achieve sustainable development in a globalizing world,the course of action
    suggested include ensuring full participation and equity among all especially developing
    nations;strengthen the capacities of developing countries to encourage public/private
    initiatives that enhance the ease of access timeliness and coverage of information on
    countries;strengthen the regional trade and cooperation agreement

    To achieve good Health and sustainable Development the specific objective
    include poverty eradication as to avoid high prevalence of debilating diseases;strengthen
    thecapacityofhealthcareservicestoallinefficient,accessibleandaffordablemanner;
    reduction of HIV Prevalence among young men and women aged 15 to-25 in most
    affected countries by 2005 and globally by 2010 as well as combat malaria,tuberculosis
    and other diseases;phase out lead in lead-based paints and in other sources of human
    exposure

    With particular reference to sustainable Development to different regions,the
    African perspective include welcoming of New partnership for Africa’s Development
    [NEPAD] and other existing development framework that are owned and driven
    nationally by African countries and that embodies poverty reduction strategies;provide
    financial aid Technical support of Africa’s effort to implement land and natural resources
    management practices;mobilize financial and other support to develop and streng then
    health systems;promote integrate water resource development and options the
    upstream and downstream benefits through effective management policies
    In addition to enhancing ensuring sustainable development in Africa other measures to
    be employed include Achieve sound management of chemicals,with particular focus
    on hazardous chemicals and waste’Bridge the digital divide and create opportunity in
    terms of access infrastructure and technology transfer and application through
    integrated activities for Africa;create an existing environment to attract investment;
    accelerate new and existing programmes and projects;support African countries in their
    efforts to implement the habitat agenda though initiatives to strengthen national,local and institutional capacities insustainable urbanization and local and institutional
    capacities.
    Plan implementation is said to include;the assessment of plans contribution to
    development process;the extent of consultation among government offices as well as
    between states and private interest during the formulation stage of a plan. Inaddition,it
    involves acooperation and participation of the various groups/stakeholders namely
    planners,policymakers and the society at large.
    The world summit on planning for sustainable development adopted the following
    strategies for the implementation of its objectives;adequate funding of the MDGs
    through significant increased flow of financial resource to less developed countries in
    particular capacity-building and information for decision making and scientific
    capabilities;facilitate greater flow of foreign direct investment so as to support
    sustainable development activities;including the development of infrastructures of
    developing countries and enhance the benefits that foreign direct investments provide,
    recognition that a substantial increase in official development assistance and other
    resource will be required in LEDCs;making full and effective use of assisting financial
    mechanism and institutions; reduction as debt burden,debt cancellation and other
    effective mechanism geared to solving debt problems; promotion of public–private
    partnership to mobilize resources;Build the capacity of commodity dependent countries
    to diversify export through financial,technical and international assistance for economic
    diversification and sustainable resource management.
    Other strategies include–promote mutual support evens between multilateral trading
    system and the multilateral environmental agreements;take concertedaction against
    international terrorism;support publicly funded research and development in strategic
    alliance for the purpose of enhancing research and development to achieve cleaner
    production and production technologies;provide a wide range of formal and informal
    continuing education opportunities;integrate sustainable developmentin to education
    system at all levels of education in order to promote education as key agent for change;
    Enhance and Accelerate human,instructional and infrastructure capacity inresponse to
    specific reeds in LEDCs;Elimination of gender disparity;Encourage further workon
    indicators for development and strengthen information and statistical and analytical
    services relevant for sustainable development policies and programmes at all levels.

  64. IWUALA CHIOMA FAVOUR says:

    IWUALA CHIOMA FAVOUR
    iwualafavour573@gmail.com
    2017/249520
    ECONOMICS

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
    The 17 SDGs are integrated—that is, they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.
    Through the pledge to Leave No One Behind, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind first. That is why the SDGs are designed to bring the world to several life-changing ‘zeros’, including zero poverty, hunger, AIDS and discrimination against women and girls.
    Everyone is needed to reach these ambitious targets. The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context.The 17 SDGs are:
    17 Sustainable Development Goals
    Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries
    Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
    Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
    Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
    Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
    Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
    Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
    Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.
    Despite the beautiful design of the MDGs, many countries across the world were not able to meet the goals. Only about 72 out of a total of 129 countries of the world achieved the MDG targets.
    The 2015 report of MDGs indicates that Nigeria
    could not achieve the MDG target of reducing
    extreme poverty and hunger by 24.1%. The
    outcome of the current SDG program will not be
    different if there is no calculated effort to
    improve prioritised entrepreneurship as China did for the MDGS. Effort should be made by both
    national, state and the local governments to
    provide an enabling environment as well as startup training and financial support to the teeming unemployed youths in Nigeria to ensure the achievement of SDG’s 2030 agenda. Since the SDG’s are interlinked meaning if you can achieve one you can achieve all. I think it’s possible for Nigeria to achieve these goals if corruption can be eliminated.

  65. Ogbonnaya Victor Nnanna says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA VICTOR NNANNA
    REG NO: 2017/249544
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. The SDGs include:
    (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10)
    Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production , (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life On Land , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17)
    Partnerships for the Goals.
    Now we are going to consider if the first nine goals can be obtainable with the situation of Nigeria today.

    Firstly, in the area of no poverty, Nigeria has an inbuilt system that favours the rich and disfavors the poor. The prices of goods keep spiking uncontrollably as a result of hoarding by some businessmen. With all these Nigeria will continue been poor and the goal to eradicate poverty will be near to impossible.

    In the area of industrialization, Nigeria has few or little industries and they prefer importing rather than producing. This discourages infant industries as they won’t receive a lot of patronage and this makes the economy to keep depreciating instead of developing.

    In the area of decent work and economic growth Nigeria is riddled with corrupt politicians that just prefer fattening their pockets without regards to the poor masses. You have to be connected to the politicians before you can get a decent job.

    In the area of affordable and clean energy, Nigeria has no prospects as even though we are rich in mineral resources, the extent of corruption in Nigeria forces us to send the resources abroad to be refined and then buy it again..

    In the area of clean water and sanitation, I think it is realizable as borehole water is now accessible even in remote areas.

    In the area of gender equality, Nigeria is now given female gender opportunities to participate in politics, and also encourages female empowerment.

    In the area of quality education, in a country where the government provide almost a zero budgeted expenditure to the educational sector, how do we expect quality education. The sum is the government is not trying stall in the area of improving education in Nigeria. The state of schools in Nigeria is very apaling.

    In the area of good health care and well-being, the Nigerian government provides some hospitals and the staffs there are not qualified and the staffs are short-handed. Though there the hospitals are not well equipped.

    Concerning the eradication of hunger. Nigeria is very populated and the government are not really helping in this matter. Hunger can only reduce drastically when the government understand the place and feelings of the citizens and intervene.

    For the goals to be achieved the limitations explained above must be eliminated for us to move forward.

  66. Onah Ifeanyi Samson 2018/251515 Eco 362 Development Economics II Discussion on appraisal of the sustainable development goals says:

    NAME-ONAH IFEANYI SAMSON
    DEPT-ECONOMICS
    REG NO-2018/251515
    COURSE CODE-ECO 362(DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS)
    LEVEL- 300L
    What Are the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?
    The United Nations created a set of 17 distinct but interrelated goals to guide global development between 2015 and 2030. Each goal has a set of targets – 169 altogether – with subsets of indicators – 232 in total. These targets and indicators help funders, investors, organizations, and the UN assess progress and completion of the SDGs.
    While each goal has separate targets and indicators, they’re all interconnected and stakeholders across many sectors must work together to drive solutions.
    The 17 SDGs are:
    (1) No Poverty
    (2) Zero Hunger
    (3) Good Health and Well-being
    (4) Quality Education
    (5) Gender Equality
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation
    (7) Affordable and Clean Energy
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    (10) Reducing Inequality
    (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities
    (12) Responsible Consumption and Production
    (13) Climate Action
    (14) Life Below Water
    (15) Life On Land
    (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
    (17) Partnerships for the Goals.

  67. Ufomadu Oscar Onyekachi 2017/249579 Eco 362 Development Economics II Discussion on appraisal of the sustainable development goals says:

    UFOMADU OSCAR ONYEKACHI
    2017/249579
    ECO 362-DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    300 LEVEL
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS.
    DISCUSSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    Envision2030: 17 goals to transform the world for persons with disabilities
    Image of the Envision Disability in 2030 visual identity
    Imagine the world in 2030, fully inclusive of persons with disabilities
    In September 2015, the General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Building on the principle of “leaving no one behind”, the new Agenda emphasizes a holistic approach to achieving sustainable development for all.
    Visual identity of the SDGs that shows each individual goal in colour boxes
    The SDGs also explicitly include disability and persons with disabilities 11 times. Disability is referenced in multiple parts of the SDGs, specifically in the parts related to education, growth and employment, inequality, accessibility of human settlements, as well as data collection and the monitoring of the SDGs.
    Although, the word “disability” is not cited directly in all goals, the goals are indeed relevant to ensure the inclusion and development of persons with disabilities.
    Inforgraphic that shows where disability is explicitly included in the 17 SDGs
    The newly implemented 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development holds a deep promise for persons with disabilities everywhere.
    The year 2016 marks the first year of the implementation of the SDGs. At this critical point, #Envision2030 will work to promote the mainstreaming of disability and the implementation of the SDGs throughout its 15-year lifespan with objectives to:
    Raise awareness of the 2030 Agenda and the achievement of the SDGs for persons with disabilities;
    Promote an active dialogue among stakeholders on the SDGs with a view to create a better world for persons with disabilities; and
    Establish an ongoing live web resource on each SDG and disability.
    The campaign invites all interested parties in sharing their vision of the world in 2030 to be inclusive of persons with disabilities.
    Please forward your comments, suggestions, references and/or new information on the SDGs and persons with disabilities to enable@un.org or follow us @UNEnable on Facebook and Twitter and use hashtag #Envision2030 to join the global conversation and help create a world in 2030 that is fully inclusive of persons with disabilities.
    SDGs Bar
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

  68. Igwilo Ebuka Vincent
    2017/241434
    Economics Department
    ebuka.igwilo.241433@unn.edu.ng
    Vingist.blogspot.com

    1.No poverty
    Not possible. A country that still focuses on Agriculture as one of their major source of revenue is an undeveloped country and erasing poverty from a country like that would be so difficult. So it is not possible to eliminate poverty from Nigeria. Since we focus more on the exportation of a single product(oil)
    2. Zero Hunger
    It could be possible only if good investment and proper management is done on agriculture. The Agriculture that is our main focus lacks proper budget as a result less food are made for the country and no proper management and investment
    3. GoodHealth and wellbeing.
    This could be achieved if private institutions are supported by the government and if the general hospitals are properly managed and maintained. But as we can see the private hospitals are self sufficient as a result the prices of services are very high which will affect well being of individuals who cannot afford to pay for the services in the country
    4. Quality Education
    It could be achieved just like other countries unless the government can increase the budget allocated to education and proper supervision is done in government schools to enable the teachers and lecturers do thier Job efficiently
    5. Gender Equality.
    It is very possible and it is even happening already. Most positions are now occupied by females, some activities are carried out by woman and woman have occupations that mostly men get involved with. Such as Engineering.
    6. Clean water and sanitation.
    Clean water can be achieved, people are capable of getting portable boreholes at affordable prices as a result of thier regions. While those regions that are difficult, they could be assigned as community projects so as to enable the expenses for each person get affordable.
    7. Affordable and clean energy.
    This is very difficult and might not be possible because even with the government being in charge before the transfer of power and ownership to private institutions. Power supply was still very poor and bills were still very expensive even with the power poorly supplied. Until a new means is formed, it will be impossible. Even with the solar energy which is very expensive and not affordable by so many persons
    8. Decent work and economic growth.
    Not possible at the moment. Decent work mostly include services and that is a feature of a developed country and these services result to high economic growth. But here in Nigeria we are still doing hard labour(agriculture) even the mechanized farming is not properly managed
    9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure.
    This could be very possible if assistance is given to people with ideas and upcoming key Industries and infant industries. Take a look at Innoson motors. This assembly company is not even patronized by the government for reasons I don’t know. They keep on importing cars when there is s car assembly plant here in the country.

  69. Ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine 2017/250816 Economic development II Analysis of sustainable development goals says:

    NAME-OZOEMENA CHUKWUEBUKA SABASTINE
    DEPT-ECONOMICS
    REG NO-2017/250816
    COURSE CODE-ECO 362(DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    LEVEL-300L
    ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability goals, such as the current UN-level Sustainable Development Goals, address the global challenges, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice.
    While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth-century environmental concerns. As the concept of sustainable development developed, it has shifted its focus more towards the economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that “the term ‘sustainability’ should be viewed as humanity’s target goal of human–ecosystem equilibrium (homeostasis[contradictory]), while ‘sustainable development’ refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability”.[1] Modern economies are endeavouring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving natural resources and ecosystems, as the two are usually seen as of conflicting nature. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a remedy to economic development, turning and leveraging[clarification needed] them into market opportunities will do greater good.[unbalanced opinion?] The economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development (MSD).[attribution needed]
    The concept of sustainable development has been, and still is, subject to criticism, including the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development. It has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth’s finite stock;[2]:13 this perspective renders the Industrial Revolution as a whole unsustainable.[3]:20f[4]:61–67[5]:22f It has also been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from ‘conservation management’ to ‘economic development’, and that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.(see
    Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability goals, such as the current UN-level Sustainable Development Goals, address the global challenges, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice.
    While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth-century environmental concerns. As the concept of sustainable development developed, it has shifted its focus more towards the economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that “the term ‘sustainability’ should be viewed as humanity’s target goal of human–ecosystem equilibrium (homeostasis[contradictory]), while ‘sustainable development’ refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability”.Modern economies are endeavouring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving natural resources and ecosystems, as the two are usually seen as of conflicting nature. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a remedy to economic development, turning and leveraging[clarification needed] them into market opportunities will do greater good.[unbalanced opinion?] The economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development (MSD).
    The concept of sustainable development has been, and still is, subject to criticism, including the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development. It has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth’s finite stock; this perspective renders the Industrial Revolution as a whole unsustainable.It has also been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from ‘conservation management’ to ‘economic development’, and that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.
    The 17 SDGs are:
    (1) No Poverty
    (2) Zero Hunger
    (3) Good Health and Well-being
    (4) Quality Education
    (5) Gender Equality
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation
    (7) Affordable and Clean Energy
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    (10) Reducing Inequality
    (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities
    (12) Responsible Consumption and Production
    (13) Climate Action
    (14) Life Below Water
    (15) Life On Land
    (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
    (17) Partnerships for the Goals.

  70. Igweh sixtus ozioma says:

    NAME : Igweh Sixtus Ozioma
    Reg no : 2017/247588
    Department : Economics
    There are 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) policy in the world . This are the sustainable development goal. Which are
    (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    Never the less the sustainable goal can not be achieved I’m Nigeria within the specific period Nigeria due to the fact that Nigeria system is weak . An Nigeria corruption is in an other level and other social vice which will affect the. Sustainable goal to be achieved.

  71. Oforka Blessing Oluchi (2017/243365) says:

    Name: Oforka Blessing Oluchi
    Reg, No: 2017/243365
    Department: Economics
    Email: blesscolls@gmail.com
    Answer:
    The Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria
    Nations of the world met in September 2015 at the UN in New York and adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which came to an end in 2015.

    The SDGs are made up of 17 goals and 169 targets and each goals are expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country. The SDGs is a call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The goals are integrated such that the action in one area will affect another and development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.

    In 2020, Nigeria was ranked 160 on the 2020 World’s SDG Index. While looking at the current state of the country, the possibility of her being able to achieve fully all the 17 goals is zero to none. The damages done by the past and present government would make it very difficult for Nigeria to correct it all and achieve a sustainable economy.

    Looking at the MDGs, Nigeria found it to be a struggle to achieve fully 8 goals under 15 years (2000-2015) – it was recorded that Nigeria was able to achieve fully one goal (Goal 8). At the country’s current pace, it would be impossible to achieve the SDGs which has 17 goals and is expected to be achieved by 2030.

    Through proper planning and the effective implementation of policies, Nigeria can be able to achieve some of the goals and targets by 2030. The availability of resources and their mobilization is a critical factor that has to be considered for the realization of the SDGs in Nigeria, given the fact that the implementation of the required programs and projects will be capital intensive. The efficient management of resources should be take into account both the present and future generation.

  72. Ugwoke Paul Chukwuebuka says:

    Name: Ugwoke Paul Chukwuebuka
    Reg no. 2017/241059
    Dept: Edu / Eco

    Sustainable Development Goals Achievement in Nigeria.

    Nigeria’s 2017 VNR outlined the institutional dimensions for creating an enabling policy environment for the implementation of the SDGs through its Economic and Recovery Growth Plan (ERGP) (2017-2020). The ERGP’s focus on economic, social and environmental dimensions of development makes it consistent with the aspirations of the SDGs.
    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality, there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to 132). COVID-19 has challenged our public health 2 | Page system. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential services.
    SDG4-Education: A key challenge confronting the country has to do with Out-of- School-Children, a demographic challenge that relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). With a population of approximately 200 million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78% of South Western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17% of North Eastern children can. With only 1.6% of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    SDG8-Inclusive Economy: In terms of inclusive economy (SDG-8), Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53% of the Labour force and accounting for 65% of GDP. It is estimated that 75% of all new jobs are informal. Youth have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4% or 24.5 million1. This is the youth bulge that needs to be building the required skills to move into secure and less precarious forms of employment. Ensuring youth are well-educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can help reduce poverty (SDG-1) and help diversify growth beyond dependence on oil and gas. The Generation Unlimited intervention, which targets employment for 20 million youth is another good example. The banking sector can play an important role in supporting the country’s efforts to leverage greater private sector-led growth by providing access to finance, particularly for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, the Nigerian government can dramatically shift to digitization and strengthening its transition to e-government to facilitate its social protection to the poor and vulnerable population.
    Alignment of national planning to SDGs: Good strides have been made in the domestication process of the SDGs in Nigeria. First, there is an ongoing realignment of the National Statistical System (NSS) with the requirements and Indicators of the SDGs. Second, Nigeria has developed its home-grown ‘Integrated Sustainable Development Goals (iSDG Model) – an analytical framework for assessing how policy making can better address the indivisible nature of the SDGs. Third, the Nigeria’s 2020 VNR report has drawn on past evaluations across the Seven priority SDGs and has an ongoing evaluation of the country’s performance in SDG 3&4. This attempt to systematically use evaluations is an innovation in the VNR context. Nigeria should strengthen the evidencebased planning and accountability mechanisms at State level for accelerating the SDG decade of action. The post-ERGP National Development Plan (2021-2030) will be pivotal in advancing the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria.

  73. OKONKWO FAITH MUNACHI says:

    NAME: OKONKWO FAITH MUNACHI
    REG NO: 2017/242422
    E-MAIL: faith.okonkwo.242422@unn.edu.ng

    ANSWER:
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: No Poverty
    Goal 2: Zero Hunger
    Goal 3: Good health and Well-being
    Goal 4: Quality Education
    Goal 5: Gender Equality
    Goal 6: Clean water and Sanitation
    Goal 7: Affordable and Clean energy
    Goal 8: Decent work and Economic growth
    Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities
    Goal 11: Sustainable cities and Communities
    Goal 12: Responsible consumption and Production
    Goal 13: Climate Action
    Goal 14: Life below water
    Goal 15: Life on Land
    Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong institutions
    Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals.

    The First Nine(9) Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria: It is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
    1. End poverty in all its form everywhere;
    Nigeria has not achieved that goal and will not even achieve it in 2030. The reason is that Nigeria’s leaders are so corrupt, instead of developing our country, they loot our money and put it in a bank overseas. They don’t create Jobs for the youth, rather increasing unemployment which in turn creates poverty. The unavailability of jobs that could guarantee the said minimum earning of 1 dollar pay day, with which survival and sustenance is heavily relied on in terms of healthy nutrition that will cure hunger poverty.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture;
    Nigeria will not achieve it by 2030 because we do not storage facilities to preserve our seasonal/perishable goods. The farmers are peasant and not technologically inclined, our leaders are not even doing anything about this. The case of unknown gun men, Fulani herdsmen and other vices are not helping matters.

    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    This goal is fair and could be attained within the time frame if proper attentions is paid to the sector that guarantees it. The improvement in health services both at the national and at the local/primary level is commendable and have led to reduced mortality cases accessible drugs for cures to various ailments etc.

    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all.
    It is also attainable provided the Nigerian government reverse its attention and give life to public institutions again, by properly funding them, not owing the academic and non academic staffs. Improve infrastructures and adopts world best practices in terms of standards and technology in schools.

    5. Achieve Gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    Goal 5 seems not attainable, as in Africa and Nigeria in particular have tribal and cultural inclinations that defines the role of women as against the men. The gender equality may appreciate to some level but will not be possible as is stated or wanted. Women are given positions and not takers of position in the political and social environments of ours and this limits the possibility of this goals.

    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This goal is possible if the government takes the local/rural area as a priority, because in the various ancient localities, the colonial/ earliest governments that followed had a system of functional water management and well managed waste practices and disposals. The government in partnership with the SDGs program can continue from what have been put in place and advance it. The problem is that with the level of water scarcity, refuse dumps all around, industrial spillages etc. one should have a doubt of the attaining this before 2030.

    7. Ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable and modern energy for all.
    This is far from been achievable in the present Nigeria, because the level of politics been played in the areas of power and energy is unimaginably very bad. There are water bodies in every parts of this country that could be converted to dams. Well managed that could generate electricity but that is not the point of focus of the leaders, that of solar energy as alternative that could be harnessed; enough is not done in local research that could help remedy the short fall in energy supply witnessed in the country.

    8. Promote sustained , inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

    Goal 8 is also possible, but on condition that the present leadership addresses the worsening insecurity, how could the SDGs point of decent work for all be possible when herders make some categories of workers to face hostility, where those who are luckily employed are owed and there is little or no power supply that could encourage entrepreneurs and foster innovations. Economic growth is possible within the time frame, if the key critical sectors like; Education, Security, Energy, Agriculture, Industries in partnership with the SDGs program are given proper attention. This simply means that goal 8 can be achieved as long as the other goals aforementioned are achieved.

    9. Build resilient Infrastructure, Promote Inclusive and sustainable Industrialization and Foster Innovations.
    Goal 9 may be attained half way with the reasons that outcomes may be seen partly in few selected locations and not in the entire cities. This is accompanied by the politics which drives every growth witnessed in infrastructure in this part of the world. High level of corruption and embezzlement in the system is another blockade that will deprive the attainment of effective SDGs programs at the stated time frame.

  74. Ferdinand Daniel Nweke says:

    Name : Ferdinand Daniel Nweke
    Reg no : 2017/245020
    Department : Economics
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world: But this are the first 9 in my opinion they can be achieved with in the period. This are the first 9 of them.
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    In my opinion the sustainable development goal can be full achieve completely . If they is the establishment of strong, active and productive institution which will be operated in full capacity in other to bring the sustainable goal to reality.

  75. Ferdinand Daniel Nweke says:

    Name : Ferdinand Daniel Nweke
    Reg no : 2017/245020
    Department : Economics
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world: But this are the first 9 in my opinion they can be achieved with in the period. This are the first 9 of them.
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    In my opinion the sustainable development goal can be full achieve completely . If they is the establishment of strong, active and productive institution which will be operated in full capacity in other to bring the sustainable goal to reality.

  76. MMADU JOY UKAMAKA says:

    MMADU JOY UKAMAKA

    REG NO : 2017/249528

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    EMAIL : joymmadu5@gmail.com

    The first nine goals among the seventeen outlined goals of sustainable development as marshaled out by the SDGs to be achieved within the time frame of nine years using Nigeria senerior as a case study to ascertain if these goals are achievable or not given the time frame.

    Goal 1 : End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere: Nigeria as a country is suffering from a serious virus known as Corruption which has eaten deep into the system and has practically rendered every effort made to improve the standard of living of the citizens of this great nation useless and to prove abortive. It is an illsight seeing a country naturally endowed like Nigeria having more than half of her citizens wallowing in abject poverty. Even though poverty according to Malthus is inherent and difficult to eradicate in a society but at least it can be kept at minimal but not in the case of Nigeria where our leaders are self oriented and care less about the welfare of the masses. This Goal 1 is cannot be achieved in Nigeria given the condition of things in Nigeria.
    Goal 2 : End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable Agriculture : These goals are interrelated and integrated such that the achievement of one paves way for achieving the other, food security and sustainable Agriculture cannot be achieved while most of the citizens live below $1 per day according to the world bank’s statistics.
    Goal 3 : Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality,
    there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to
    132). COVID -19 has challenged our public health. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential services. Because a healthy nation is a wealthy nation.
    Goal 4 : Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all : This goal can only be attained when our leaders make provisions for an enabling learning environment through the provision of basic education for all the citizens incorporating the handicapped and the poor masses
    Goal 5 : Gender equality and empower all women and girls :This can only be achieved if Policies to invest in human capital that
    target women will reduce gender gap in education and boost Nigerian economy.Promoting gender equality can be an economic game changer. The IMF’s latest economic review of Nigeria’s economy says closing the gender gap would mean higher growth and productivity, and greater economic stability.
    Goal 6 : Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all : This goal can be only achieved through the corporation of both the government and the masses in the sense that the government will make provision for a clean water while the masses will change their perspective of managing public goods as no man’s property so as to be able to sustain the water and also ensure environmental sanitation.
    Goal 7 : Ensure access for affordable reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all : Government should take over the ownership of power supply company from the private individuals so as to make it a public good which will be more welfare oriented rather than profit oriented because of privatization. I feel by doing this, we can think of moving towards the attainment of this goal.
    Goal 8 : Promote Sustained, inclusive and Sustainable Economic growth, full and producitive employment and descent jobs for all : This goal is only achievable if the problem of favoritism and tribalism can be abolished and appointment and job opportunities restored to Merit basis so as to have those qualified take the positions they ought to occupy. And also government should invest more on human capital development such as education and health sectors as this will boost the productivity of labour and in turn promote economic growth and development.
    Goal 9 : Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation : Government should build resilent infrastructures like schools, roads, hospitals etc and also establish industries which will provide employment opportunities for all the citizens. And should also provide and enabling environment for innovation through the provision of support and grant to the innovators to enble them thrive.

  77. NAME: OBUTE CHISOM HELLEN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/249539
    EMAIL ADDRESS: hellytec4@gmail.com
    BLOGGERS ADDRESS; obutechisomhellen.blogspot.com

    NIGERIA SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    I would say that these SDG is achievable in Nigeria if necessary measures are taken. Although Nigeria might not be able to achieve the whole SDG. But before diving into the discussion I would like to say little thing about SDG
    The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice. Learn more and take action. These Sustainable development Goals are 17 in Number.
    Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses on the key issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5), and the enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16), and partnerships (SDG-17). This focus is based on Nigeria’s current development priorities and the development objectives of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration.
    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality, there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to 132). COVID-19 has challenged our public health 2 | Page system. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential service
    ,SDG4-Education: A key challenge confronting the country has to do with Out-of- School-Children, a demographic challenge that relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). With a population of approximately 200 million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78% of South Western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17% of North Eastern children can. With only 1.6% of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    SDG8-Inclusive Economy: In terms of inclusive economy (SDG-8), Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53% of the Labour force and accounting for 65% of GDP. It is estimated that 75% of all new jobs are informal. Youth have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4% or 24.5 million1. This is the youth bulge that needs to be building the required skills to move into secure and less precarious forms of employment. Ensuring youth are well-educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can help reduce poverty (SDG-1) and help diversify growth beyond dependence on oil and gas.

    Alignment of national planning to SDGs: Good strides have been made in the domestication process of the SDGs in Nigeria. First, there is an ongoing realignment of the National Statistical System (NSS) with the requirements and Indicators of the SDGs. Second, Nigeria has developed its home-grown ‘Integrated Sustainable Development Goals (iSDG Model) – an analytical framework for assessing how policy making can better address the indivisible nature of the SDGs. Third, the Nigeria’s 2020 VNR report has drawn on past evaluations across the Seven priority SDGs and has an ongoing evaluation of the country’s performance in SDG 3&4. This attempt to systematically use evaluations is an innovation in the VNR context. Nigeria should strengthen the evidencebased planning and accountability mechanisms at State level for accelerating the SDG decade of action. The post-ERGP National Development Plan (2021-2030) will be pivotal in advancing the

  78. Onah peace says:

    ONAH PEACE
    2017/243367
    ECONOMICS
    ANALYSIS ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    No poverty: About 90 million people – roughly half Nigeria’s population – live in extreme poverty, according to estimates from the World Data Lab’s Poverty Clock. Around June 2018, Nigeria overtook India, a country with seven times its population, at the bottom of the table. Put in another context, if poor Nigerians were a country it would be more populous than Germany. Almost six people in Nigeria fall into this trap every minute. I don’t think we can end no poverty in Nigeria, we are bedeviled with corruption and bad leadership.
    Zero hunger: The rate of hunger in the economy is so high,about 70% of Nigerians live in poverty and hunger,I believe we can end hunger in Nigeria if everyone become part of the no hunger goal.
    Good health and well being: The mortality rate in Nigeria looking at it from the health sector have reduced, Nigeria was able to combat Ebola and fake drugs during the time of President Jonathan. Looking at it from the expect of wellbeing, the situation in Nigeria doesn’t assure us of well-being,so the the well being of the citizens are not the main priority of our leaders.
    Quality education : I believe that the education system in Nigeria will be met, as many of us are doing so well outside the country,and the many citizens now have access to education in different levels.
    Gender equality: I think gender equality can’t be reached,as it has to do more with believe and culture,and we Nigerians we are very religious and are influence by our cultures.
    Clean water and sanitation : Clean water can be reached but sanitation can only be reached if a strong institution is put in place to punish those who go against it laws, though we have a population,and sanitation might seem unachievable because of that.
    Affordable and clean energy: if Nigeria will make use of other sources of energy like the bioenergy,it can be reached.
    Decent work and economic growth: The minimum wage in Nigeria is 30,000,which can’t help to elevate anyone from poverty,if the condition of work in Nigeria is improved,it will increase productivity and economic growth.
    Industry, innovation and infrastructure: Nigeria spend more on recurrent expenditure more than capital expenditure, If Nigeria will stop being a monoeconomy depending on crude oil,and invest more on capital expenditure,we can reach this goal.

  79. Ewa Princess
    2017/249501
    Economics
    ewaprincess79@gmail.com
    Blogwithprincess.wordpress.com

    SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere:-
    1.1. Eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than US$1.25 a day.
    Nigeria is now the largest economy in Africa, with a GDP of US$ 397 billion and accounting for 17 per cent of the continent’s GDP. However, 40.1 per cent of Nigerians (about 83 million people) live in poverty and growth per capita has been negative. Poverty has been rising in rural areas and the northern zones, while the situation in the southern zones has generally been improving. The poor health and education services for those who cannot afford to pay is also a driver of poverty. The National Social Investment Programme has been a cornerstone programme, targeting the poor and vulnerable members of the Nigerian population to address this, and safety nets cover around 22.5 million households. The federal government’s significant efforts to extend social welfare to the growing numbers of poor households is not reaching far enough, deep enough and fast enough.
    As it stands, it is well impossible for Nigeria to achieve it’s sdg1 at the 2030 target.
    This is because, corruption has eaten deep into the Nigerian system. Funds for the betterment of the people are embezzled, leaving the people in abject poverty.

    SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture:-
    In Nigeria, it is observed that the goal to end hunger and achieve food security is not obtainable. As at Jan 2021 to May 2021, the inflatrion rate for agricultural products and food has skyrocketed to about 17.8%. These has made it practically impossible for the majority of the population to get food. The masses are hungrier by the day, with no hope of getting food, not even the most malnourished products.

    SDG 3:- Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages:-
    A National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was established in 2005 to provide access to quality health care services and financial risk protection, reduce the rising costs of healthcare services and maintain efficiency in healthcare. Subsidized healthcare services and exemption mechanisms are initiatives expected to provide financial risk protection for the most vulnerable populations. Government has implemented many healthcare reforms to address public healthcare challenges. These reforms include the National Health Insurance Scheme, National Immunization Coverage Scheme (NICS), Midwives Service Scheme (MSS), and Nigerian Pay for Performance Scheme (P4P) among others. Nevertheless, the country has not adequately dealt with its numerous public healthcare challenges (Aregbeshola, 2019).
    The most vulnerable people in Nigeria include children, pregnant women, people living with disabilities, the elderly, displaced, unemployed, retirees and the sick.
    Despite sometimes benefitting from free healthcare services and exemption mechanisms, this group mostly has to pay for healthcare services out of pocket. This is because politicians often use free healthcare services as campaign promises to attract votes without any intention to fulfil the promises. And when they try to redeem their electoral pledges, they implement the projects poorly, ensure they do not become fully operationalized, and they sometimes only last a few years (Aregbeshola, 2019).
    A National Health Act (NHA) was signed into law in 2014, stating that all Nigerians are entitled to a basic minimum package of health care services. However, the NHA is yet to be implemented six years after it was signed into law and it is not clear if the provisions made in the NHA are capable of achieving UHC in Nigeria (Aregbeshola, 2019). Concerning human resources for health, as of 2018, there were 36 registered medical doctors to 100,000 members of the population (i.e., a doctor-population ratio of 1: 2753). The ratio of nurses and midwives in 2018 came to 88 nurses to a population of 100,000 (a nurse-population ratio of 1: 1,135) and 58.9 midwives to a population of 100,000 (a midwife- population ratio of 1: 1,697).

    SDG4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all:-
    While primary school attendance is essential (about 60 per cent), there is a need for the government to do more to increase the low levels of secondary school attendance (49 per cent). The reduced attendance rate partially explains the low literacy (50 per cent) and numeracy rate amongst youths. There has been a very positive increase in participation in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) by girls in both private and public schools. The figure has more than doubled in private schools since 2015 and tripled in public schools. If this trend continues, the country will achieve its 2030 targets. With a population of approximately 206-million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78 per cent of south-western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17 per cent of north-eastern children can. The proportion of under-five children who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being is lower than that reported in 2015. Progress has made towards the psychosocial development of children under five, leading to an increase of more than 6 per cent in 2016 and 2017 from the baseline. A key challenge confronting the country has to do with over 10 million out-of-school children in primary education. This portends higher risk arising from schools’ lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, a demographic challenge which relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). The participation rate of youths and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months is meagre both for formal and non-formal education. There has been a slight improvement in formal education, whereas non-formal education has seen a decline in participation. With the high youth unemployment rate in Nigeria, much needs to be done to improve participation in these institutions substantially. With only 1.6 per cent of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    Despite almost 20 years of the UBE programme and 15 years of implementing the UBE Act (2004), myriad challenges continue to plague the education system in Nigeria, including 13.2 million out-of-school￾children (UNICEF, 2018) and gender disparities which continue in the basic education system. Furthermore, there remain challenges on the quality of education demonstrated in very unsatisfactory pupil learning outcomes, such as average scores in literacy, numeracy and life skills, ranging from 30 per cent to 52 per cent (Abul, Uyilowhoma & Aboli 2017; Federal Ministry of Education 2018).

    SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls:-
    Of the six selected indicators, key legal frameworks exist. There has been an improvement on two indicators, gender-based violence (GBV) and child and early forced marriage (CEFM) before age 15, while one has somewhat worsened (CEFM before age 18). For the remaining two indicators, women in elective/appointive as well as managerial positions, there is insufficient data to assess progress. However, it appears that political participation has regressed. All in all, it seems little progress has been made on gender inclusiveness. The possibility of achieving the SDG targets by 2030 remains very low as long as deeply rooted values and social norms are not met by strong political will and serious commitment. One of the most significant challenges in the achievement of SDG 5 has been the lack of up-to￾date gender-disaggregated data – one example being women in managerial positions. As explained in the National Beijing + 25 Review of the Federal Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), ‘the consistent, institutionalized tracking of gender data in a holistic manner and the coalescing of sector-specific gender results into one national database has remained a major challenge.’

    SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all:-
    In Nigeria, majority of the population, especially in the Rural areas, there are little or no access to clean water. Water management systems are dilapidated, sanitation is zero as many gutters are filled up with refuse. It is practically impossible for Nigeria to achieve this by 2030 because of bad and irresponsible government.

    SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all:-
    While capitalist has taken over the energy sector, it has had quite a terrible name at functioning. Majority of the population in the rural areas has not seen electricity. Most times, even in the urban areas, there have always been consistent power interruption. It is impossible for Nigeria to achieve this goal by 2030.

    SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productivite employment and decent work for all:-
    Real GDP growth has been positive since the country came out of recession in 2017 but remained lower than the rate of population growth, so people are becoming poorer. Besides, while most Nigerians work in the informal sector, there is very little job and income security in this sector and the likelihood of transitioning out of poverty is low. Four years ago, the unemployment rate was significantly lower than the 2018 figure of 23.1 per cent, and it is likely to worsen due to COVID-19. Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53 per cent of the labour force and accounting for 65 per cent of GDP. It is estimated that 75 per cent of all new jobs are informal and only 10 per cent of the working-age population is employed in formal wage labour, with more than half of those jobs in the public sector. Youths have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4 percent. With 38 per cent of the 15 to 24-year-olds not in education, employment or training, it means that these young people are not gaining the skills to enter the labour market or to become self-employed. Ensuring that youths are well educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can reduce poverty (SDG-1) significantly.

    SDG 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation:-
    Finally, the business environment is not conducive enough to create jobs that can sustain livelihoods or address the myriad of challenges facing the country. These challenges have to do with (1) highly concentrated markets with a small number of dominant firms with significant market share; (2) high barriers to entry, some of which are created by the conduct of dominant firms or imposed inadvertently through government regulations; and (3) limited exposure to foreign competition because of trade barriers. Furthermore, intermittent electric power is a massive deterrent to the competitiveness of Nigerian firms (ibid, 18). These growth rates are far below the projections of the ERGP which had aimed at 2.2 per cent in 2017, 4.8 percent in 2018, 4.5 per cent in 2019 and 7.0 per cent in 2020. This drop in the growth rate is attributed to the economy’s dependence on oil as well as the oil shock experienced by the country in 2014-2015 (World Bank 2019; UNDP 2020. Despite coming out of recession and maintaining a slow pace of recovery since 2017, the country’s growth rate has remained modest, falling below those of leading countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and with the standards of living not improving (Augosto, et., al, 2019; World Bank 2019; UNDP 2020).
    reviews indicate that several factors are contributing to this slow economic growth. First, Nigeria is heavily dependent on agriculture. This is the sector that constitutes a quarter of the country’s GDP and employs more than 50 per cent of its labour force. Nevertheless, the sector grew by only 2.1 per cent, rising to 2.5 per cent in 2019, making its actual GDP contribution quite low. Besides this, despite having an unusually large labour force, the productivity level of its labour force is substantially lower than that of other sub-Saharan countries with smaller labour forces. This is a reflection of the country’s low stocks of physical and human capital and the inefficiency with which inputs such as capital and labour are transformed into outputs.

  80. Ewa Princess
    2017/249501
    Economics
    ewaprincess79@gmail.com
    Blogwithprincess.wordpress.com

    SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere:-
    1.1. Eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than US$1.25 a day.
    Nigeria is now the largest economy in Africa, with a GDP of US$ 397 billion and accounting for 17 per cent of the continent’s GDP. However, 40.1 per cent of Nigerians (about 83 million people) live in poverty and growth per capita has been negative. Poverty has been rising in rural areas and the northern zones, while the situation in the southern zones has generally been improving. The poor health and education services for those who cannot afford to pay is also a driver of poverty. The National Social Investment Programme has been a cornerstone programme, targeting the poor and vulnerable members of the Nigerian population to address this, and safety nets cover around 22.5 million households. The federal government’s significant efforts to extend social welfare to the growing numbers of poor households is not reaching far enough, deep enough and fast enough.
    As it stands, it is well impossible for Nigeria to achieve it’s sdg1 at the 2030 target.
    This is because, corruption has eaten deep into the Nigerian system. Funds for the betterment of the people are embezzled, leaving the people in abject poverty.

    SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture:-
    In Nigeria, it is observed that the goal to end hunger and achieve food security is not obtainable. As at Jan 2021 to May 2021, the inflatrion rate for agricultural products and food has skyrocketed to about 17.8%. These has made it practically impossible for the majority of the population to get food. The masses are hungrier by the day, with no hope of getting food, not even the most malnourished products.

    SDG 3:- Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages:-
    A National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was established in 2005 to provide access to quality health care services and financial risk protection, reduce the rising costs of healthcare services and maintain efficiency in healthcare. Subsidized healthcare services and exemption mechanisms are initiatives expected to provide financial risk protection for the most vulnerable populations. Government has implemented many healthcare reforms to address public healthcare challenges. These reforms include the National Health Insurance Scheme, National Immunization Coverage Scheme (NICS), Midwives Service Scheme (MSS), and Nigerian Pay for Performance Scheme (P4P) among others. Nevertheless, the country has not adequately dealt with its numerous public healthcare challenges (Aregbeshola, 2019).
    The most vulnerable people in Nigeria include children, pregnant women, people living with disabilities, the elderly, displaced, unemployed, retirees and the sick.
    Despite sometimes benefitting from free healthcare services and exemption mechanisms, this group mostly has to pay for healthcare services out of pocket. This is because politicians often use free healthcare services as campaign promises to attract votes without any intention to fulfil the promises. And when they try to redeem their electoral pledges, they implement the projects poorly, ensure they do not become fully operationalized, and they sometimes only last a few years (Aregbeshola, 2019).
    A National Health Act (NHA) was signed into law in 2014, stating that all Nigerians are entitled to a basic minimum package of health care services. However, the NHA is yet to be implemented six years after it was signed into law and it is not clear if the provisions made in the NHA are capable of achieving UHC in Nigeria (Aregbeshola, 2019). Concerning human resources for health, as of 2018, there were 36 registered medical doctors to 100,000 members of the population (i.e., a doctor-population ratio of 1: 2753). The ratio of nurses and midwives in 2018 came to 88 nurses to a population of 100,000 (a nurse-population ratio of 1: 1,135) and 58.9 midwives to a population of 100,000 (a midwife- population ratio of 1: 1,697).

    SDG4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all:-
    While primary school attendance is essential (about 60 per cent), there is a need for the government to do more to increase the low levels of secondary school attendance (49 per cent). The reduced attendance rate partially explains the low literacy (50 per cent) and numeracy rate amongst youths. There has been a very positive increase in participation in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) by girls in both private and public schools. The figure has more than doubled in private schools since 2015 and tripled in public schools. If this trend continues, the country will achieve its 2030 targets. With a population of approximately 206-million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78 per cent of south-western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17 per cent of north-eastern children can. The proportion of under-five children who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being is lower than that reported in 2015. Progress has made towards the psychosocial development of children under five, leading to an increase of more than 6 per cent in 2016 and 2017 from the baseline. A key challenge confronting the country has to do with over 10 million out-of-school children in primary education. This portends higher risk arising from schools’ lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, a demographic challenge which relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). The participation rate of youths and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months is meagre both for formal and non-formal education. There has been a slight improvement in formal education, whereas non-formal education has seen a decline in participation. With the high youth unemployment rate in Nigeria, much needs to be done to improve participation in these institutions substantially. With only 1.6 per cent of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    Despite almost 20 years of the UBE programme and 15 years of implementing the UBE Act (2004), myriad challenges continue to plague the education system in Nigeria, including 13.2 million out-of-school￾children (UNICEF, 2018) and gender disparities which continue in the basic education system. Furthermore, there remain challenges on the quality of education demonstrated in very unsatisfactory pupil learning outcomes, such as average scores in literacy, numeracy and life skills, ranging from 30 per cent to 52 per cent (Abul, Uyilowhoma & Aboli 2017; Federal Ministry of Education 2018).

    SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls:-
    Of the six selected indicators, key legal frameworks exist. There has been an improvement on two indicators, gender-based violence (GBV) and child and early forced marriage (CEFM) before age 15, while one has somewhat worsened (CEFM before age 18). For the remaining two indicators, women in elective/appointive as well as managerial positions, there is insufficient data to assess progress. However, it appears that political participation has regressed. All in all, it seems little progress has been made on gender inclusiveness. The possibility of achieving the SDG targets by 2030 remains very low as long as deeply rooted values and social norms are not met by strong political will and serious commitment. One of the most significant challenges in the achievement of SDG 5 has been the lack of up-to￾date gender-disaggregated data – one example being women in managerial positions. As explained in the National Beijing + 25 Review of the Federal Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), ‘the consistent, institutionalized tracking of gender data in a holistic manner and the coalescing of sector-specific gender results into one national database has remained a major challenge.’

    SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all:-
    In Nigeria, majority of the population, especially in the Rural areas, there are little or no access to clean water. Water management systems are dilapidated, sanitation is zero as many gutters are filled up with refuse. It is practically impossible for Nigeria to achieve this by 2030 because of bad and irresponsible government.

    SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all:-
    While capitalist has taken over the energy sector, it has had quite a terrible name at functioning. Majority of the population in the rural areas has not seen electricity. Most times, even in the urban areas, there have always been consistent power interruption. It is impossible for Nigeria to achieve this goal by 2030.

    SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productivite employment and decent work for all:-
    Real GDP growth has been positive since the country came out of recession in 2017 but remained lower than the rate of population growth, so people are becoming poorer. Besides, while most Nigerians work in the informal sector, there is very little job and income security in this sector and the likelihood of transitioning out of poverty is low. Four years ago, the unemployment rate was significantly lower than the 2018 figure of 23.1 per cent, and it is likely to worsen due to COVID-19. Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53 per cent of the labour force and accounting for 65 per cent of GDP. It is estimated that 75 per cent of all new jobs are informal and only 10 per cent of the working-age population is employed in formal wage labour, with more than half of those jobs in the public sector. Youths have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4 percent. With 38 per cent of the 15 to 24-year-olds not in education, employment or training, it means that these young people are not gaining the skills to enter the labour market or to become self-employed. Ensuring that youths are well educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can reduce poverty (SDG-1) significantly.

    SDG 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation:-
    Finally, the business environment is not conducive enough to create jobs that can sustain livelihoods or address the myriad of challenges facing the country. These challenges have to do with (1) highly concentrated markets with a small number of dominant firms with significant market share; (2) high barriers to entry, some of which are created by the conduct of dominant firms or imposed inadvertently through government regulations; and (3) limited exposure to foreign competition because of trade barriers. Furthermore, intermittent electric power is a massive deterrent to the competitiveness of Nigerian firms (ibid, 18). These growth rates are far below the projections of the ERGP which had aimed at 2.2 per cent in 2017, 4.8 percent in 2018, 4.5 per cent in 2019 and 7.0 per cent in 2020. This drop in the growth rate is attributed to the economy’s dependence on oil as well as the oil shock experienced by the country in 2014-2015 (World Bank 2019; UNDP 2020. Despite coming out of recession and maintaining a slow pace of recovery since 2017, the country’s growth rate has remained modest, falling below those of leading countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and with the standards of living not improving (Augosto, et., al, 2019; World Bank 2019; UNDP 2020).
    reviews indicate that several factors are contributing to this slow economic growth. First, Nigeria is heavily dependent on agriculture. This is the sector that constitutes a quarter of the country’s GDP and employs more than 50 per cent of its labour force. Nevertheless, the sector grew by only 2.1 per cent, rising to 2.5 per cent in 2019, making its actual GDP contribution quite low. Besides this, despite having an unusually large labour force, the productivity level of its labour force is substantially lower than that of other sub-Saharan countries with smaller labour forces. This is a reflection of the country’s low stocks of physical and human capital and the inefficiency with which inputs such as capital and labour are transformed into outputs..

  81. OBODIKE LOVETH OGADIMMA says:

    NAME: OBODIKE LOVETH OGADIMMA
    REG NO: 2017/ 249537
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ON THE FIRST NINE GOALS, SOME CAN ACTUALLY BE ACHIEVED IN NIGERIA WITHIN THE TIME FRAME ALLOTED, THOUGH WITH SOME CHALLENGES
    The SDGs or the Project 2030 is a global call to put an end to poverty, secure the planet and ensure that everyone enjoys peace and prosperity by 2030. It was adopted by 193 countries with Nigeria as one of its country members. The SDGs are set of seventeen interconnected goals which have targets with at least one or two indicators for each targets. The implementation of “Global Goals” for all kicked off in January, 2015. Its objectives are to ensure social inclusion, protect the environment and foster economic growth. Governments, private sector, research, academia and CSOs receive support from the UN as the SDGs encourage partnerships. It ensures the right choices are adopted now to improve life for future generations in a sustainable way. The SDGs are blueprints for the world to experience peace and prosperity at the fullest by 2030. sustainable Development Goals is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world. In 2017, Nigeria was among 44 member countries of the United Nations that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) on the implementation of the SDGs at High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. In 2020, Nigeria was ranked 160 on the 2020 world’s SDG Index. The government affirmed that Nigeria’s current development priorities and objectives are focused on achieving the SDGs. Nigeria is a member of the United Nations. Since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Nigeria has continued to demonstrate its commitment to the SDGs promise through leadership and ownership of the implementation process. At UNDP, we are building on our support through provision of technical support to the Office of the Senior Special Advisor to the President on SDGs (OSSAP) and line ministries in an effort to ensure that planning and budgeting for development activities in the country are done within the framework of the SDGs. Using lessons learnt from the MDGs era, we are working closely with the Government of Nigeria and other partners in ensuring that the SDGs are efficient and effective implemented and that resources are allocated to sectors of the economy that will yield highest dividend for the poor and vulnerable millions across the country.
    We have supported the Government of Nigeria in conducting the SDGs Data Mapping Exercise and conducting a Baseline Surveys whose results have been useful in developing baseline indicators for SDGs implementation, monitoring and reporting in the country. The baseline survey continue to be updated by-annually to reflect current situation and changing trends in the country. In addition to conducting various advocacy and awareness activities with several government ministries, departments and agencies, we supported initiatives aimed at promoting strategic engagements around the SDGs. For example, with our support, the government developed the Private Sector Engagement Strategy which provides for and recommended the establishment of the first-ever Private Sector Advisory Group on SDGs. We have also supported the establishment of SDGs Development Partners Forum which we also achor.
    We provide both technical and financial support toward ongoing efforts aimed at integrating the SDGs into national and State-level policies, plans and budgets. In support of Governments efforts aimed at sharing its experiences so far, we are providing technical support towards the development of Voluntary National Reviews (VNR). The VNRs facilitate the sharing of experiences, including successes, challenges and lessons learned, with a view to accelerating the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The NRVs will serves as a basis for anticipated regular reviews by the high-level political forum (HLPF) meetings held every year. The VNRs also seek to strengthen policies and institutions of governments and to mobilize partnerships.
    As the UNs agency mandated to eradicate poverty, UNDP will continue supporting the Governments and people of Nigeria in tackling the new agenda and taking it forward over the next couple of years. We will continue to provide support to the as we all continue on this long path towards the SDGs promise- a promise of a just, equitable and sustainable planet – our common heritage; a promise of peace and prosperity for all.

    According to the agreement of Nigerian with the United Nations, aims to align its development priorities in partnership with CSOs and the private sector to achieve the SDGs together. The Agenda 2030, is designed to build sustainable world around the five P’s, namely; People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace, and Partnerships, which span across the 17 SDGs. In 2017, Nigeria was among 44 member countries of the United Nations that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) on the implementation of the 2030 agenda and the SDGs at HLPF. Since the year 2017, Nigeria has volunteered to be among the countries to review the progress of the 2030 Agenda. Voluntary National Review (VNR) presentations are annual reviews presented to the UN High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF). Nigeria was among 44 member countries of the United Nations that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) on the implementation of the 2030 agenda and the SDGs at HLPF.
    In July 2020, President Muhammadu Buhari presented the report at the HLPF’s second panel session, online for the first time due to the COVID-19 pandemic. He gave the progress of seven of the SDGs which are referred to as core to the country at large. On July 1, 2020 Nigeria officially commenced the process of designing and implementing an Integrated National Financing Framework (INFF) for financing national development priorities and achieving the SDGs. The integrated National Financing Framework (INFF) is a United Nations initiative to support countries in operationalizing the agreements of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda (AAAA) for financing the SDGs. UNDP has been supporting the government and its people by addressing development challenges, strengthening and building institutions that promote inclusive sustainable development and democratic governance. For example, during the COVID-19 crisis, UNDP partnered with Japan to support Nigeria’s health and socio-economic response.
    The year 2020, which is referred to as “Decade of Action” is said to have slow progress regards the progress of SDGs as reported by President Muhammadu Buhari during Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR).” The focus of the report was on issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5), and the enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16), and partnerships (SDG-17).
    Though having discussed how some of this goals some can be solved above, below are more elaborations of the remaining goals and how they can and cannot be achieved in Nigeria within the time frame.

    Goal 1: No poverty
    Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty dropped by more than half between 1990 and 2015, too many are still struggling for the most basic human needs.

    As of 2015, about 736 million people still lived on less than US$1.90 a day; many lack food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid growth in countries such as China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are more likely to be poor than men because they have less paid work, education, and own less property.
    The SDGs are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. This involves targeting the most vulnerable, increasing basic resources and services, and supporting communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.
    Goal 2: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate .Globally, the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age fell from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013. The first 28 days of life the neonatal period represent the most vulnerable time for a childs survival. In 2013, around 44% of under-five deaths occurred during this period, up from 37% in 1990. Reaching the MDG on reducing child mortality will require more rapid scale up of key effective, affordable interventions: care for newborns and their mothers; infant and young child feeding; vaccines; prevention and case management of pneumonia, diarrhoea and sepsis; malaria control; and prevention and care of HIV/AIDS.
    WHO promotes four main strategies: appropriate home care and timely treatment of complications for new-borns, integrated management of childhood illness for all children under five years old; expanded programme on immunization; infant and young child feeding. These child health strategies are complemented by interventions for maternal health, in particular, skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth.
    Goal 3: improve maternal health, this chapter addresses the feasibility of Nigeria achieving Target 3.1 of Sustainable Development Goal 3, which aims at reducing maternal deaths to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. Maternal deaths occur due to lack of access to maternal healthcare, which encompasses the healthcare dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care for women. Nigeria is presently the second largest contributor to maternal deaths globally, having a maternal mortality ratio of 814 per 100,000 live births. Will Nigeria achieve this goal by 2030? This chapter assesses the maternal health landscape of Nigeria and the measures taken by the government to address maternal health from the perspective of the feasibility of achieving SDG 3, Target 3.1 by 2030.
    Goal 4:: combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases. The SDGs sharply elevate global health and development aspirations, contemplating a world that is far more prosperous, secure, healthy, and equitable, where human rights and dignity are universally respected, and where human development unfolds in a manner that preserves the natural environment. Yet, the 3 years that have passed since the SDGs were agreed have dimmed prospects for achieving many of these visionary aims. Among the reasons why the world opted for such an ambitious agenda for the SDGs was the success of the HIV response. As a result of a worldwide mobilisation, the incidence of HIV infections peaked and began to decrease in all parts of the world, and AIDS-related mortality decreased from 1·9 million in 2005 to 1·0 million in 2016.
    : Goal 5: Quality education
    Since 2000, there has been enormous progress in achieving the target of universal primary education. The total enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015, and the worldwide number of children out of school has dropped by almost half. There has also been a dramatic increase in literacy rates, and many more girls are in school than ever before. These are all remarkable successes. Progress has also been tough in some developing regions due to high levels of poverty, armed conflicts and other emergencies. In Western Asia and North Africa, ongoing armed conflict has seen an increase in the number of children out of school. This is a worrying trend. While Sub-Saharan Africa made the greatest progress in primary school enrolment among all developing regions from 52 percent in 1990, up to 78 percent in 2012 large disparities still remain. Children from the poorest households are up to four times more likely to be out of school than those of the richest households. Disparities between rural and urban areas also remain high. Achieving inclusive and quality education for all reaffirms the belief that education is one of the most powerful and proven vehicles for sustainable development. This goal ensures that all girls and boys complete free primary and secondary schooling by 2030. It also aims to provide equal access to affordable vocational training, to eliminate gender and wealth disparities, and achieve universal access to a quality higher education.
    Goal 6: developing a global partnership for development
    The SDGs can only be realized with strong global partnerships and cooperation. Official Development Assistance remained steady but below target, at US$147 billion in 2017. While humanitarian crises brought on by conflict or natural disasters continue to demand more financial resources and aid. Many countries also require Official Development Assistance to encourage growth and trade. The world is more interconnected than ever. Improving access to technology and knowledge is an important way to share ideas and foster innovation. Coordinating policies to help developing countries manage their debt, as well as promoting investment for the least developed, is vital for sustainable growth and development. The goals aim to enhance North-South and South-South cooperation by supporting national plans to achieve all the targets. Promoting international trade, and helping developing countries increase their exports is all part of achieving a universal rules_based and equitable trading system that is fair and open and benefits all.

  82. Favour Chidiebube christopher says:

    Favour Chidiebube Christopher
    2017/242945
    Christopherfaye60@gmail.com
    Economics Department.

    1. End Poverty: Ending poverty in Nigeria is impossible because the economy is so ineffective. Corrupt, gready and ineffective leaders. When the leaders are ineffective, the economy would be ineffective thereby causing no jobs and making people live in poverty.
    2. Zero hunger: it is possible only if our land and labour are fully utilized. We have fertile and arable lands
    3. Good health and wellbeing: it is possible Until proper allocation of funds and management is done on general hospitals. If not Private hospital will dominates and as a result price of thier service will be expensive for some persons
    4.Quality Education- it is possible if Government tend to act more on the education sector rather than giving thier flimsy excuses.
    5 Gender equality: it could be quite difficult but it could be achieved if the little kids are thought the right thing and old culture teachings about Genders are erased or avoided from the kids
    6.Clean water. It is possible if each community stand in unity to create portable borehole water
    7. Affordable and clean energy.
    It is possible in a country like Nigeria but corruption won’t allow it to happen. This things could be achieved since some countries achieve such. Eg. Ghana

    8.Decent work and Economic growth: Economic growth can be achieved when proper work and occupation are made so that the per income of an individual can increase there by leading to economic growth.
    10. Innovation, industry and infrastructure.
    If only tribalism and corruption is set aside. This could be very well achieved. Innovative minds are surplus here in this country but there is no help by the government and they are non- chalant about it.

  83. Izuogu Chioma Sylverline says:

    IZUOGU CHIOMA SYLVERLINE
    2017/244598
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. It also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. We recognise that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, will implement this plan. We are resolved to free the human race from the tyranny of poverty and want and to heal and secure our planet. We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path. As we embark on this collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets which we are announcing today demonstrate the scale and ambition of this new universal Agenda. They seek to build on the Millennium Development Goals and complete what these did not achieve. They seek to realize the human rights of all and to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental.
    The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet:

    PEOPLE
    We are determined to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.

    PLANET
    We are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations.

    PROSPERITY
    We are determined to ensure that all human beings can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that economic, social and technological progress occurs in harmony with nature.

    PEACE
    We are determined to foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies which are free from fear and violence. There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development.

    PARTNERSHIP
    We are determined to mobilize the means required to implement this Agenda through a revitalised Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focussed in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people.
    The interlinkages and integrated nature of the Sustainable Development Goals are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised. If we realize our ambitions across the full extent of the Agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our world will be transformed for the better.

    In these Goals and targets, we are setting out a supremely ambitious and transformational vision. We envisage a world free of poverty, hunger, disease and want, where all life can thrive. We envisage a world free of fear and violence. A world with universal literacy. A world with equitable and universal access to quality education at all levels, to health care and social protection, where physical, mental and social well-being are assured. A world where we reaffirm our commitments regarding the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and where there is improved hygiene; and where food is sufficient, safe, affordable and nutritious. A world where human habitats are safe, resilient and sustainable and where there is universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.
    We envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity. A world which invests in its children and in which every child grows up free from violence and exploitation. A world in which every woman and girl enjoys full gender equality and all legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment have been removed. A just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met.
    We envisage a world in which every country enjoys sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all. A world in which consumption and production patterns and use of all natural resources – from air to land, from rivers, lakes and aquifers to oceans and seas – are sustainable. One in which democracy, good governance and the rule of law as well as an enabling environment at national and international levels, are essential for sustainable development, including sustained and inclusive economic growth, social development, environmental protection and the eradication of poverty and hunger. One in which development and the application of technology are climate-sensitive, respect biodiversity and are resilient. One in which humanity lives in harmony with nature and in which wildlife and other living species are protected.

    OUR WORLD TODAY
    We are meeting at a time of immense challenges to sustainable development. Billions of our citizens continue to live in poverty and are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and among countries. There are enormous disparities of opportunity, wealth and power. Gender inequality remains a key challenge. Unemployment, particularly youth unemployment, is a major concern. Global health threats, more frequent and intense natural disasters, spiralling conflict, violent extremism, terrorism and related humanitarian crises and forced displacement of people threaten to reverse much of the development progress made in recent decades. Natural resource depletion and adverse impacts of environmental degradation, including desertification, drought, land degradation, freshwater scarcity and loss of biodiversity, add to and exacerbate the list of challenges which humanity faces. Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and its adverse impacts undermine the ability of all countries to achieve sustainable development. Increases in global temperature, sea level rise, ocean acidification and other climate change impacts are seriously affecting coastal areas and low-lying coastal countries, including many least developed countries and small island developing States. The survival of many societies, and of the biological support systems of the planet, is at risk.
    It is also, however, a time of immense opportunity. Significant progress has been made in meeting many development challenges. Within the past generation, hundreds of millions of people have emerged from extreme poverty. Access to education has greatly increased for both boys and girls. The spread of information and communications technology and global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas as diverse as medicine and energy.
    Almost fifteen years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were agreed. These provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas. But the progress has been uneven, particularly in Africa, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States, and some of the MDGs remain off-track, in particular those related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive health. We recommit ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs, including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focussed and scaled-up assistance to least developed countries and other countries in special situations, in line with relevant support programmes. The new Agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals and seeks to complete what these did not achieve, particularly in reaching the most vulnerable.

    THE NEW AGENDA
    We are announcing today 17 Sustainable Development Goals with 169 associated targets which are integrated and indivisible. Never before have world leaders pledged common action and endeavour across such a broad and universal policy agenda. We are setting out together on the path towards sustainable development, devoting ourselves collectively to the pursuit of global development and of “win-win” cooperation which can bring huge gains to all countries and all parts of the world. We reaffirm that every State has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent sovereignty over all its wealth, natural resources and economic activity. We will implement the Agenda for the full benefit of all, for today’s generation and for future generations. In doing so, we reaffirm our commitment to international law and emphasize that the Agenda is to be implemented in a manner that is consistent with the rights and obligations of states under international law.
    We reaffirm the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other international instruments relating to human rights and international law. We emphasize the responsibilities of all States, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, disability or other status.
    Realizing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls will make a crucial contribution to progress across all the Goals and targets. The achievement of full human potential and of sustainable development is not possible if one half of humanity continues to be denied its full human rights and opportunities. Women and girls must enjoy equal access to quality education, economic resources and political participation as well as equal opportunities with men and boys for employment, leadership and decision-making at all levels. We will work for a significant increase in investments to close the gender gap and strengthen support for institutions in relation to gender equality and the empowerment of women at the global, regional and national levels. All forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls will be eliminated, including through the engagement of men and boys. The systematic mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the implementation of the Agenda is crucial.

  84. Ogu Mercy Akudo says:

    Name:Ogu Mercy Akudo
    Reg number: 2017/249545
    Dept: Economics
    Email: mercyogu46@gmail.com

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) brought up by 193 member states held in a UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2000 was actually meant to improve on five areas which and they are: Planet, People, Peace, Prosperity, and Partnership. It means that they are very considerate in putting the different individuals in the various member states into account as well as taking into cognizance their environment. They were also of the opinion that these goals could not be achieved if the human rights problem is as complex as humanitarian issues were not treated and solved. These goals as said earlier are also not independent of each other and that they need to be implemented or carried out together. This means that the 17 SDGs are meant to be carried out together at the same time; that is when a country is trying to implement the no hunger policy now, she should also take into consideration that as she is trying to address that, she should also address the issue of poverty alongside. This is basically what the UN and it’s member state aimed to achieve with these goals.
    Goal 1: End poverty
    Goal 2: No hunger
    Goal 3: Promote well-being
    Goal 4: Quality education for all
    Goal 5: Gender Equality and Empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Availability and Sustainable Management of water and sanitation for all.
    Goal 7: Easy access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    Goal 8: Promote economic growth and productive employment for all.
    Goal 9: Promote industrialization and foster innovation.
    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive and conducive for all.
    Goal 12: Ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns.
    Goal 13: Climate Action
    Goal 14: Life below water
    Goal 15: Life on land
    Goal 16: Peace and Justice and Strong Institutions
    Goal 17: Partnership for the goals
    All these are meant to be achieved by the year 2030 of which Nigeria which is our case study and of course, our nation has tried up to an extent but still needs to do more if she really wants to develop. Now we are only considering the first 9 goals that we treated in class.
    Goal 1 has actually been tackled by Nigeria but still there’s no improvement. Many people still live on the streets till date. In Lagos I for one have seen men, women, children, that are not mad still living on the streets which is really bad even for we as a nation. I think that if the Nigerian Government would sit down and think this through and bring up polices that would be implemented by sensible officials, this issue of poverty would be reduced if not eliminated.
    Goal 2 has also be addressed as Nigeria has even gone the length of providing free food for school children though we all know that what brought up was because of the Covid-19 Pandemic of last year and now, we have not even heard A again of any food being given to school children not to talk of people on the streets.
    Goal 3 has not been addressed at all. My point is that the issue of insecurity has come up again heavily this time around in Nigeria. For the past two weeks now, we have been hearing about students, individuals but mostly students of various tertiary institutions being kidnapped or something; some have even been killed just because they chose to go to school in their own country.This is a problem that has not been addressed at all.
    Goal 4 has been addressed as there is now free education up to the level of primary education, which is why the UBE came up and now children can attain at least a primary education that can enable them to read and write.
    Goal 5 has been achieved as everywhere now, women now have their say in some matters concerning them as well.
    Goal 6 has not been tackled but has been addressed as even the government has fixed a day for the general sanitation for citizens and individuals to come out of their homes and clean their surroundings but still, some individuals will not come out and this has made our surroundings not healthy for us to leave in. Asides that, I have noticed that some individuals tend to just dispose used items wherever they feel like, which eventually is the ground rather than using the waste bin. This attitude has made us to now leave in a very unhealthy environment as most places are now littered. The issue of bad water has also been kind of tackled but still there are some places in the rural areas that do not have clean water to drink. Some even go as bad as drinking water from the gutter just to survive.
    Goal 7 has not even been treated but is still a work in progress as we at least have power though not steady.
    Goal 8 is the major issue in this country as a lot of graduates are out there walking aimlessly without jobs. Some even want to become entrepreneurs but there are no enabling environment for such.
    Goal 9 has been introduced but still a work in progress.
    Now talking about the issue whether Nigeria would be able to achieve these by the year 2030. At this present year 2021 and to tell the truth, not all of these 17 SDGs would be achieved by that year. This due to the fact that our governance is very bad.

  85. AKOMA CHIOMA ONYINYE (2017/241339) says:

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030. The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.
    Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses on the key issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5), and the enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16), and partnerships (SDG-17). This focus is based on Nigeria’s current development priorities and the development objectives of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration. This VNR is being developed while facing huge challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic testing Nigeria’s public health systems, and of the collapse in oil prices, for an economy still getting 86% of public revenue from oil and gas.

    Nigeria’s 2017 VNR outlined the institutional dimensions for creating an enabling policy environment for the implementation of the SDGs through its Economic and Recovery Growth Plan (ERGP) (2017-2020). The ERGP’s focus on economic, social and environmental dimensions of development makes it consistent with the aspirations of the SDGs.
    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality, there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to 132). COVID-19 has challenged our public health. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential services.
    SDG4-Education: A key challenge confronting the country has to do with Out-of- School-Children, a demographic challenge that relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). With a population of approximately 200 million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78% of South Western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17% of North Eastern children can. With only 1.6% of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    SDG8-Inclusive Economy: In terms of inclusive economy (SDG-8), Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53% of the Labour force and accounting for 65% of GDP. It is estimated that 75% of all new jobs are informal. Youth have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4% or 24.5 million1. This is the youth bulge that needs to be building the required skills to move into secure and less precarious forms of employment. Ensuring youth are well-educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can help reduce poverty (SDG-1) and help diversify growth beyond dependence on oil and gas. The Generation Unlimited intervention, which targets employment for 20 million youth is another good example. The banking sector can play an important role in supporting the country’s efforts to leverage greater private sector-led growth by providing access to finance, particularly for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, the Nigerian government can dramatically shift to digitization and strengthening its transition to e-government to facilitate its social protection to the poor and vulnerable population.Good strides have been made in the domestication process of the SDGs in Nigeria. First, there is an ongoing realignment of the National Statistical System (NSS) with the requirements and Indicators of the SDGs. Second, Nigeria has developed its home-grown ‘Integrated Sustainable Development Goals (iSDG Model) – an analytical framework for assessing how policy making can better address the indivisible nature of the SDGs. Third, the Nigeria’s 2020 VNR report has drawn on past evaluations across the Seven priority SDGs and has an ongoing evaluation of the country’s performance in SDG 3&4. This attempt to systematically use evaluations is an innovation in the VNR context. Nigeria should strengthen the evidencebased planning and accountability mechanisms at State level for accelerating the SDG decade of action. The post-ERGP National Development Plan (2021-2030) will be pivotal in advancing the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria
    Each goal typically has 8–12 targets, and each target has between 1 and 4 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. The targets are either “outcome” targets (circumstances to be attained) or “means of implementation” targets. The latter targets were introduced late in the process of negotiating the SDGs to address the concern of some Member States about how the SDGs were to be achieved. Goal 17 is wholly about how the SDGs will be achieved.
    List of Sustainable Development Goal targets and indicators
    Goal 1: No poverty
    SDG 1 is to: “End poverty in all its forms everywhere”. Achieving SDG 1 would end extreme poverty globally by 2030.
    The goal has seven targets and 13 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: eradication of extreme poverty; reduction of all poverty by half; implementation of social protection systems; ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources; and the building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters. The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.
    Despite the ongoing progress, 10 percent of the world’s population live in poverty and struggle to meet basic needs such as health, education, and access to water and sanitation. Extreme poverty remains prevalent in low-income countries particularly those affected by conflict and political upheaval. In 2015, more than half of the world’s 736 million people living in extreme poverty lived in Sub-Saharan Africa. Without a significant shift in social policy, extreme poverty will dramatically increase by 2030.[16] The rural poverty rate stands at 17.2 percent and 5.3 percent in urban areas (in 2016).
    Goal 2: Zero hunger
    Sufficient and healthy foods should be made available to everyone
    SDG 2 is to: “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”.
    SDG 2 has eight targets and 14 indicators to measure progress.[20] The five “outcome targets” are: ending hunger and improving access to food; ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity; sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices; and genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals; investments, research and technology. The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivatives.
    Goal 3: Good health and well-being
    SDG 3 is to: “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”.
    SDG 3 has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under 5 years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks.
    Goal 4: Quality education
    SDG 4 is to: “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”.

    SDG 4 has ten targets which are measured by 11 indicators. The seven “outcome-oriented targets” are: free primary and secondary education; equal access to quality pre-primary education; affordable technical, vocational and higher education; increased number of people with relevant skills for financial success; elimination of all discrimination in education; universal literacy and numeracy; and education for sustainable development and global citizenship. The three “means of achieving targets” are: build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools; expand higher education scholarships for developing countries; and increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries. Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls.
    Goal 5: Gender equality
    SDG 5 is to: “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”.
    Through the pledge to “Leave No One Behind”, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind, SDG 5 aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence. This is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    In 2020, representation by women in single or lower houses of national parliament reached 25 per cent, up slightly from 22 per cent in 2015. Women now have better access to decision-making positions at the local level, holding 36 per cent of elected seats in local deliberative bodies, based on data from 133 countries and areas. Whilst female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C) is becoming less common, at least 200 million girls and women have been subjected to this harmful practice.
    Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
    SDG 6 is to: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”.
    The six “outcome-oriented targets” include: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.
    The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of World Health Organisation WHO And United Nations International Children’s Emergency fund UNICEF reported in 2017 that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. Also in 2017, only 71 per cent of the global population used safely managed drinking water, and 2.2 billion persons were still without safely managed drinking water. With regards to water stress: “In 2017, Central and Southern Asia and Northern Africa registered very high water stress – defined as the ratio of fresh water withdrawn to total renewable freshwater resources – of more than 70 per cent”. Official development assistance (ODA) disbursements to the water sector increased to $9 billion in 2018.
    Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
    SDG 7 is to: “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”.
    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators. Three out of the five targets are “outcome targets”: Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving targets”: to promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy; and expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries. In other words, these targets include access to affordable and reliable energy while increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This would involve improving energy efficiency and enhancing international cooperation to facilitate more open access to clean energy technology and more investment in clean energy infrastructure. Plans call for particular attention to infrastructure support for the least developed countries, small islands and land-locked developing countries.
    Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
    SDG 8 is to: “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”.
    SDG 8 has twelve targets in total to be achieved by 2030. Some targets are for 2030; others are for 2020. The first ten are “outcome targets”. These are: sustainable economic growth; diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity; promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises; improve resource efficiency in consumption and production; full employment and decent work with equal pay; promote youth employment, education and training; end modern slavery, trafficking, and child labour; protect labour rights and promote safe working environments; promote beneficial and sustainable tourism; universal access to banking, insurance and financial services. In addition there are also two targets for “means of achieving”: Increase aid for trade support; develop a global youth employment strategy.
    Over the past five years, economic growth in least developed countries has been increasing at an average rate of 4.3 per cent. In 2018, the global growth rate of real GDP per capita was 2 per cent. In addition, the rate for least developed countries was 4.5 per cent in 2018 and 4.8 per cent in 2019, less than the 7 per cent growth rate targeted in SDG 8. In 2019, 22 per cent of the world’s young people were not in employment, education or training, a figure that has hardly changed since 2005. Addressing youth employment means finding solutions with and for young people who are seeking a decent and productive job. Such solutions should address both supply, i.e. education, skills development and training, and demand. In 2018, the number of women engaged in the labor force was put at 48 per cent while that of men was 75 per cent.

    Goal 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
    SDG 9 is to: “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation”.
    SDG 9 has eight targets, and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures; promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization; increase access to financial services and markets; upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability; enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies. The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.
    In 2019, 14% of the world’s workers were employed in manufacturing activities. This percentage has not changed much since 2000. The share of manufacturing employment was the largest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (18 percent) and the smallest in sub-Saharan Africa (6 percent). The intensity of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined by nearly one quarter since 2000, showing a general decoupling of carbon dioxide emissions from GDP growth. As at 2020, nearly the entire world population lives in an area covered by a mobile network. Millions of people are still unable to access the internet due to cost, coverage, and other reasons. It is estimated that just 53% of the world’s population are currently internet users.
    Goal 10: Reduced inequality
    SDG 10 is to: “Reduce income inequality within and among countries”.
    The Goal has ten targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards targets will be measured by indicators. The first seven targets are “outcome targets”: Reduce income inequalities; promote universal social, economic and political inclusion; ensure equal opportunities and end discrimination; adopt fiscal and social policies that promotes equality; improved regulation of global financial markets and institutions; enhanced representation for developing countries in financial institutions; responsible and well-managed migration policies. The other three targets are “means of achievement” targets: Special and differential treatment for developing countries; encourage development assistance and investment in least developed countries; reduce transaction costs for migrant remittances.
    In 73 countries during the period 2012–2017, the bottom 40 per cent of the population saw its incomes grow. Still, in all countries with data, the bottom 40 per cent of the population received less than 25 per cent of the overall income or consumption. Women are more likely to be victims of discrimination than men. Among those with disabilities, 3 in 10 personally experienced discrimination, with higher levels still among women with disabilities. The main grounds of discrimination mentioned by these women was not the disability itself, but religion, ethnicity and sex, pointing to the urgent need for measures to tackle multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination. In 2019, 54 per cent of countries have a comprehensive set of policy measures to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people.
    Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
    SDG 11 is to: “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable”.
    SDG 11 has 10 targets to be achieved, and this is being measured with 15 indicators. The seven “outcome targets” include: Safe and affordable housing, affordable and sustainable transport systems; inclusive and sustainable urbanization; protect the world’s cultural and natural heritage; reduce the adverse effects of natural disasters; reduce the environmental impacts of cities; provide access to safe and inclusive green and public spaces. The three “means of achieving” targets include: Strong national and regional development planning; implement policies for inclusion, resource efficiency and disaster risk reduction; support least developed countries in sustainable and resilient building.
    The number of slum dwellers reached more than 1 billion in 2018, or 24 per cent of the urban population. The number of people living in urban slums is highest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Central and Southern Asia. In 2019, only half of the world’s urban population had convenient access to public transport, defined as living within 500 metres’ walking distance from a low-capacity transport system (such as a bus stop) and within 1 km of a high-capacity transport system (such as a railway). In the period 1990–2015, most urban areas recorded a general increase in the extent of built-up area per person.
    Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production
    SDG 12 is to: “Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns”.
    The 11 targets of the goal are: implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns; achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources; reducing by half the per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels; achieving the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle; reducing waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse; encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices; promote public procurement practices that are sustainable; and ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development. The three “means of achieving” targets are: support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity; develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts; and remove market distortions, like fossil fuel subsidies, that encourage wasteful consumption.
    By 2019, 79 countries and the European Union have reported on at least one national policy instrument to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns. This was done to work towards the implementation of the “10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns”. Global fossil fuel subsidies in 2018 were $400 billion. This was double the estimated subsidies for renewables and is detrimental to the task of reducing global carbon dioxide emissions.
    Goal 13: Climate action
    SDG 13 is to: “Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy”.
    The targets cover a wide range of issues surrounding climate action. There are five targets in total. The first three targets are “output targets”: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related disasters; integrate climate change measures into policies and planning; build knowledge and capacity to meet climate change. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving” targets: To implement the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; and to promote mechanisms to raise capacity for planning and management. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.
    The decade between 2010 – 2019 was the warmest decade recorded in history. Currently climate change is affecting the global community in each country of the world. Its impact affects not only national economies, but also lives and livelihoods, especially those in vulnerable conditions. By 2018, climate change continued exacerbating the frequency of natural disasters, such as massive wildfires, droughts, hurricanes and floods, affecting more than 39 million of people. Over the period 2000–2018, green house emissions of developed countries and economies in transitions have declined by 6.5%. The emissions of the developing countries are up by 43% in the period between 2000 and 2013. In 2019, at least 120 of 153 developing countries had undertaken activities to formulate and implement national adaptation plans.
    Goal 14: Life below water
    SDG 14 is to: “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”.
    The first ten targets are “outcome targets”: Reduce marine pollution; protect and restore ecosystems; reduce ocean acidification; sustainable fishing; conserve coastal and marine areas; end subsidies contributing to overfishing; increase the economic benefits from sustainable use of marine resources. The last three targets are “means of achieving” targets: To increase scientific knowledge, research and technology for ocean health; support small scale fishers; implement and enforce international sea law.
    Oceans and fisheries support the global population’s economic, social and environmental needs. Oceans are the source of life of the planet and the global climate system regulator. They are the world’s largest ecosystem, home to nearly a million known species. Oceans cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. They are essential for making the planet livable. Rainwater, drinking water and climate are all regulated by ocean temperatures and currents. Over 3 billion people depend on marine life for their livelihood. However, there has been a 26 percent increase in acidification since the industrial revolution. Effective strategies to mitigate adverse effects of increased ocean acidification are needed to advance the sustainable use of oceans.
    The current efforts to protect oceans, marine environments and small-scale fishers are not meeting the need to protect the resources. One of the key drivers of global overfishing is illegal fishing. It threatens marine ecosystems, puts food security and regional stability at risk, and is linked to major human rights violations and even organized crime. Increased ocean temperatures and oxygen loss act concurrently with ocean acidification and constitute the “deadly trio” of climate change pressures on the marine environment.
    Goal 15: Life on land
    SDG 15 is to: “Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss”.
    The nine “outcome targets” include: Conserve and restore terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems; end deforestation and restore degraded forests; end desertification and restore degraded land; ensure conservation of mountain ecosystems, protect biodiversity and natural habitats; protect access to genetic resources and fair sharing of the benefits; eliminate poaching and trafficking of protected species; prevent invasive alien species on land and in water ecosystems; and integrate ecosystem and biodiversity in governmental planning. The three “means of achieving targets” include: Increase financial resources to conserve and sustainably use ecosystem and biodiversity; finance and incentivize sustainable forest management; combat global poaching and trafficking.
    Humans depend on earth and the ocean to live. This goal aims at securing sustainable livelihoods that will be enjoyed for generations to come. The human diet is composed 80% of plant life, which makes agriculture a very important economic resource. Plant life provides 80 percent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resources. Forests cover 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, provide vital habitats for millions of species, and important sources for clean air and water, as well as being crucial for combating climate change.
    The proportion of forest area fell, from 31.9 per cent of total land area in 2000 to 31.2 per cent in 2020, representing a net loss of nearly 100 million ha of the world’s forests. This was due to decreasing forest area decreased in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and South-Eastern Asia, driven by deforestation for agriculture. Desertification affects as much as one-sixth of the world’s population, 70% of all drylands, and one-quarter of the total land area of the world. It also leads to spreading poverty and the degradation of billion hectares of cropland. A report in 2020 stated that globally, the species extinction risk has worsened by about 10 per cent over the past three decades.
    Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions
    SDG 16 is to: “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”.
    The goal has ten “outcome targets”: Reduce violence; protect children from abuse, exploitation, trafficking and violence; promote the rule of law and ensure equal access to justice; combat organized crime and illicit financial and arms flows, substantially reduce corruption and bribery; develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions; ensure responsive, inclusive and representative decision-making; strengthen the participation in global governance; provide universal legal identity; ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms. There are also two “means of achieving targets”: Strengthen national institutions to prevent violence and combat crime and terrorism; promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies. Reducing violent crime, sex trafficking, forced labor, and child abuse are clear global goals. The International Community values peace and justice and calls for stronger judicial systems that will enforce laws and work toward a more peaceful and just society.
    Goal 17: Partnership for the goals
    SDG 17 is to: “Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development”. This goal has 19 outcome targets and 24 indicators. Increasing international cooperation is seen as vital to achieving each of the 16 previous goals. Goal 17 is included to assure that countries and organizations cooperate instead of compete. Developing multi-stakeholder partnerships to share knowledge, expertise, technology, and financial support is seen as critical to overall success of the SDGs. The goal encompasses improving north–south and South-South cooperation, and public-private partnerships which involve civil societies are specifically mentioned.

  86. Fidelis Emmanuel Oluebubechukwu says:

    Name: Fidelis Emmanuel Oluebubechukwu
    Reg. No.: 2017/241440
    Email: emmanuel.fidelis.241440@unn.edu.ng

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

    GOAL 1 End poverty in all its form everywhere:
    This can not be achieved within the time frame. This is because most Nigerians can’t and don’t have any means to provide for themselves. It is recorded that more than 50% of Nigeria’s population live in severe poverty making Nigeria the world poverty capital.

    GOAL 2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture:
    Given the present situation of things in Nigeria, this can not be achieved within the time frame. In the case of food security, farmers are no longer safe on their farms, when they go to their farms they are being attacked by either the fulani herdsmen or bandits. When farmer don’t go to farm, the supply of food decreases which will lead to scarcity of food supplies and an increase in the prices of those items. To end hunger, the percentage of people living in poverty needs to be reduced to the bearest minimum. So the end hunger depends on goal 1

    GOAL 3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    Goal 3 can be achieved if the government can provide standard health care facilities, employ qualified personnel (medicalprofessionals and people who will oversee activities) provide health insurance and also change some laws like the one where doctors ask for police report before treating a wounded patient

    GOAL 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all:
    Goal 4 can be achieved if the government can take education serious and provide the equipments and infrastructures needed and also update curriculum of institutions to meet world standard

    GOAL 5 Achieve Gender equality and empower all women and girls:
    This can not be achieved fully because of the cultural believes of the people. It is believed that there are certain things a woman can/can not do. Because of these believes, some positions/roles can not be given to women, but I believe that with time it will be fully achieved.

    GOAL 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all:
    Goal 6 can be achieved if the government take it serious and manage it properly. I remember years back in Zaria in Kaduna state, there used to be Kaduna State Water Board that always supplies water directly into our house, but as time goes on, it reduced and later stopped. For sanitation, this involves everybody living in Nigeria. Meaning it is the responsibility of everybody to keep their environment clean.

    GOAL 7 Ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable and modern energy for all.
    This can not be achieved because the amount of power generated is too small for the population of Nigeria

    8. Promote sustained , inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all:
    This can not be achieved because the companies that are suppose to create employment are leaving and the insecurity and other negative things happening in Nigeria are also discouraging new companies to invest in Nigeria.

    GOAL 9 Build resilient Infrastructure, Promote Inclusive and sustainable Industrialization and Foster Innovations:
    This can not be achieved within the time frame. This is because corruption has eaten dip into the system. We have seen cases where those who are awarded contracts embezzle the funds meant for projects and nothing was done about it. Recently, the Anambra international airport which the governor claimed was built with $2.2 billion dollar was opened and it was nothing to write home about when compared with the one China built with the same amount.

  87. Okaome Esther Chioma says:

    NAME; Okaome Esther Chioma
    REG NO; 2017/249554
    DEPARTMENT; Economics
    EMAIL; estherokaome@gmail.com

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs, also known as the Global Goals) are 17 goals with 169 targets that all UN Member States have agreed to work towards achieving by the year 2030. They set out a vision for a world free from poverty, hunger and disease.
    Health has a central place in SDG 3 “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”, underpinned by 13 targets that cover a wide spectrum of WHO’s work.Almost all of the other 16 goals are related to health or their achievement will contribute to health indirectly.
    The SDGs aim to be relevant to all countries – poor, rich and middle-income – to promote prosperity while protecting the environment and tackling climate change. They have a strong focus on improving equity to meet the needs of women, children and disadvantaged populations in particular so that “no one is left behind”.
    1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    10 Reduce inequality within and among countries
    11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
    12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
    13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
    14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
    15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
    16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
    17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

  88. AKOMA CHIOMA ONYINYE (2017/241339) says:

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030. The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.
    Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses on the key issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5), and the enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16), and partnerships (SDG-17). This focus is based on Nigeria’s current development priorities and the development objectives of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration. This VNR is being developed while facing huge challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic testing Nigeria’s public health systems, and of the collapse in oil prices, for an economy still getting 86% of public revenue from oil and gas.

    Nigeria’s 2017 VNR outlined the institutional dimensions for creating an enabling policy environment for the implementation of the SDGs through its Economic and Recovery Growth Plan (ERGP) (2017-2020). The ERGP’s focus on economic, social and environmental dimensions of development makes it consistent with the aspirations of the SDGs.
    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality, there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to 132). COVID-19 has challenged our public health. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential services.
    SDG4-Education: A key challenge confronting the country has to do with Out-of- School-Children, a demographic challenge that relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). With a population of approximately 200 million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78% of South Western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17% of North Eastern children can. With only 1.6% of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    SDG8-Inclusive Economy: In terms of inclusive economy (SDG-8), Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53% of the Labour force and accounting for 65% of GDP. It is estimated that 75% of all new jobs are informal. Youth have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4% or 24.5 million1. This is the youth bulge that needs to be building the required skills to move into secure and less precarious forms of employment. Ensuring youth are well-educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can help reduce poverty (SDG-1) and help diversify growth beyond dependence on oil and gas. The Generation Unlimited intervention, which targets employment for 20 million youth is another good example. The banking sector can play an important role in supporting the country’s efforts to leverage greater private sector-led growth by providing access to finance, particularly for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, the Nigerian government can dramatically shift to digitization and strengthening its transition to e-government to facilitate its social protection to the poor and vulnerable population.Good strides have been made in the domestication process of the SDGs in Nigeria. First, there is an ongoing realignment of the National Statistical System (NSS) with the requirements and Indicators of the SDGs. Second, Nigeria has developed its home-grown ‘Integrated Sustainable Development Goals (iSDG Model) – an analytical framework for assessing how policy making can better address the indivisible nature of the SDGs. Third, the Nigeria’s 2020 VNR report has drawn on past evaluations across the Seven priority SDGs and has an ongoing evaluation of the country’s performance in SDG 3&4. This attempt to systematically use evaluations is an innovation in the VNR context. Nigeria should strengthen the evidencebased planning and accountability mechanisms at State level for accelerating the SDG decade of action. The post-ERGP National Development Plan (2021-2030) will be pivotal in advancing the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria
    Each goal typically has 8–12 targets, and each target has between 1 and 4 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. The targets are either “outcome” targets (circumstances to be attained) or “means of implementation” targets. The latter targets were introduced late in the process of negotiating the SDGs to address the concern of some Member States about how the SDGs were to be achieved. Goal 17 is wholly about how the SDGs will be achieved.
    List of Sustainable Development Goal targets and indicators
    Goal 1: No poverty
    SDG 1 is to: “End poverty in all its forms everywhere”. Achieving SDG 1 would end extreme poverty globally by 2030.
    The goal has seven targets and 13 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: eradication of extreme poverty; reduction of all poverty by half; implementation of social protection systems; ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources; and the building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters. The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.
    Despite the ongoing progress, 10 percent of the world’s population live in poverty and struggle to meet basic needs such as health, education, and access to water and sanitation. Extreme poverty remains prevalent in low-income countries particularly those affected by conflict and political upheaval. In 2015, more than half of the world’s 736 million people living in extreme poverty lived in Sub-Saharan Africa. Without a significant shift in social policy, extreme poverty will dramatically increase by 2030.[16] The rural poverty rate stands at 17.2 percent and 5.3 percent in urban areas (in 2016).
    Goal 2: Zero hunger
    Sufficient and healthy foods should be made available to everyone
    SDG 2 is to: “End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”.
    SDG 2 has eight targets and 14 indicators to measure progress.[20] The five “outcome targets” are: ending hunger and improving access to food; ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity; sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices; and genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals; investments, research and technology. The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivatives.
    Goal 3: Good health and well-being
    SDG 3 is to: “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”.
    SDG 3 has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under 5 years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks.
    Goal 4: Quality education
    SDG 4 is to: “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”.

    SDG 4 has ten targets which are measured by 11 indicators. The seven “outcome-oriented targets” are: free primary and secondary education; equal access to quality pre-primary education; affordable technical, vocational and higher education; increased number of people with relevant skills for financial success; elimination of all discrimination in education; universal literacy and numeracy; and education for sustainable development and global citizenship. The three “means of achieving targets” are: build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools; expand higher education scholarships for developing countries; and increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries. Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls.
    Goal 5: Gender equality
    SDG 5 is to: “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”.
    Through the pledge to “Leave No One Behind”, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind, SDG 5 aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence. This is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    In 2020, representation by women in single or lower houses of national parliament reached 25 per cent, up slightly from 22 per cent in 2015. Women now have better access to decision-making positions at the local level, holding 36 per cent of elected seats in local deliberative bodies, based on data from 133 countries and areas. Whilst female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C) is becoming less common, at least 200 million girls and women have been subjected to this harmful practice.
    Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
    SDG 6 is to: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”.
    The six “outcome-oriented targets” include: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.
    The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of World Health Organisation WHO And United Nations International Children’s Emergency fund UNICEF reported in 2017 that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. Also in 2017, only 71 per cent of the global population used safely managed drinking water, and 2.2 billion persons were still without safely managed drinking water. With regards to water stress: “In 2017, Central and Southern Asia and Northern Africa registered very high water stress – defined as the ratio of fresh water withdrawn to total renewable freshwater resources – of more than 70 per cent”. Official development assistance (ODA) disbursements to the water sector increased to $9 billion in 2018.
    Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
    SDG 7 is to: “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”.
    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators. Three out of the five targets are “outcome targets”: Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving targets”: to promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy; and expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries. In other words, these targets include access to affordable and reliable energy while increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This would involve improving energy efficiency and enhancing international cooperation to facilitate more open access to clean energy technology and more investment in clean energy infrastructure. Plans call for particular attention to infrastructure support for the least developed countries, small islands and land-locked developing countries.
    Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
    SDG 8 is to: “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”.
    SDG 8 has twelve targets in total to be achieved by 2030. Some targets are for 2030; others are for 2020. The first ten are “outcome targets”. These are: sustainable economic growth; diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity; promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises; improve resource efficiency in consumption and production; full employment and decent work with equal pay; promote youth employment, education and training; end modern slavery, trafficking, and child labour; protect labour rights and promote safe working environments; promote beneficial and sustainable tourism; universal access to banking, insurance and financial services. In addition there are also two targets for “means of achieving”: Increase aid for trade support; develop a global youth employment strategy.
    Over the past five years, economic growth in least developed countries has been increasing at an average rate of 4.3 per cent. In 2018, the global growth rate of real GDP per capita was 2 per cent. In addition, the rate for least developed countries was 4.5 per cent in 2018 and 4.8 per cent in 2019, less than the 7 per cent growth rate targeted in SDG 8. In 2019, 22 per cent of the world’s young people were not in employment, education or training, a figure that has hardly changed since 2005. Addressing youth employment means finding solutions with and for young people who are seeking a decent and productive job. Such solutions should address both supply, i.e. education, skills development and training, and demand. In 2018, the number of women engaged in the labor force was put at 48 per cent while that of men was 75 per cent.

    Goal 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
    SDG 9 is to: “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation”.
    SDG 9 has eight targets, and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures; promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization; increase access to financial services and markets; upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability; enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies. The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.
    In 2019, 14% of the world’s workers were employed in manufacturing activities. This percentage has not changed much since 2000. The share of manufacturing employment was the largest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (18 percent) and the smallest in sub-Saharan Africa (6 percent). The intensity of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined by nearly one quarter since 2000, showing a general decoupling of carbon dioxide emissions from GDP growth. As at 2020, nearly the entire world population lives in an area covered by a mobile network. Millions of people are still unable to access the internet due to cost, coverage, and other reasons. It is estimated that just 53% of the world’s population are currently internet users.

  89. EZIKE MARYCYNTHIA CHIAMAKA says:

    Name: Ezike marycynthia chiamaka
    Reg no: 2017/242944
    Email: marycynthiachiamaka95@gmail.com
    Dept: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.[1] The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030.[2] The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015. Now the question of if this goal is attainable in nigeria should have a yes answer, within the stipulated time? I really don’t think so, considering the state of the country.
    1) To end poverty in all its forms, everywhere: Member countries have pledged to “Leave No One Behind”: underlying the goal is a “powerful commitment to leave no one behind and to reach those farthest behind first”.[2] SDG 1 aims to eradicate every form of extreme poverty including the lack of food, clean drinking water, and sanitation. Achieving this goal includes finding solutions to new threats caused by climate change and conflict. SDG 1 focuses not just on people living in poverty, but also on the services people rely on and social policy that either promotes or prevents poverty. Quite impressive but Nigeria asa country is way below the poverty line, the citizens are living in abject poverty and that will obviously take a long time to change.
    2) Zero hunger: SDG 2 has eight targets and 14 indicators to measure progress.[5] The five “outcome targets” are: ending hunger and improving access to food; ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity; sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices; and genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals; investments, research and technology. The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivatives. Considering the means if achievement, the agricultural system in nigeria is below it’s potential and that in it’s own needs to be tackled, then the malnutrition if children and other related stuff.
    3) To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages: The targets of SDG 3 cover and focus on various aspects of healthy life and healthy lifestyle. Progress towards the targets is measured using twenty-one indicators. Some of the targets are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under 5 years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; Considering Nigeria, alot of all these happen everyday and it has become a normal thing. Reason why the line, “the survival of the fittest” fits in so well. There’s alot of work to be done in regards to the health and lives if the members of this nation.
    4). Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all: Some of the targets are; free primary and secondary education; equal access to quality pre-primary education; affordable technical, vocational and higher education; increased number of people with relevant skills for financial success; etc. The three “means of achieving targets” are: build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools; expand higher education scholarships for developing countries; and increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries. Nigeria is improving in it’s academics but to achieve these goals it’s going to take a while.
    5). Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: ending all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere; ending violence and exploitation of women and girls; eliminating harmful practices such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation; increasing value of unpaid care and promoting shared domestic responsibilities; ensuring full participation of women in leadership and decision-making; and ensuring access to universal reproductive rights and health. The three “means of achieving” targets are: fostering equal rights to economic resources, property ownership and financial services for women; promoting empowerment of women through technology; and adopting, strengthening policies and enforcing legislation for gender equality. Nigeria is the bedrock of gender inequality, that I believe cannot just be eradicated in a just a small period of time. It takes changing the people mindset and ideology towards women to do that.
    6). Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The COVID-19 pandemic has made this goal increasingly important.[5] However this pandemic could affect the ability of water utilities to meet this goal by increasing losses on revenues that would otherwise be used to make investments.
    7). Affordable and clean energy: aims to “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.”[1] Access to energy is a very important pillar for the wellbeing of the people as well as economic development and poverty alleviation. Some of the targets include; Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency. The remaining two targets are “means of achieving targets”: to promote access to research, technology and investments in clean energy; and expand and upgrade energy services for developing countries. Nigeria sucks at efficient energy supply, tho achievable but will take a while.
    8). Decent work and economic growth: Some of it’s targets include; sustainable economic growth; diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity; promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises; improve resource efficiency in consumption and production; full employment and decent work with equal pay; promote youth employment, education and training; end modern slavery, trafficking, and child labour. Most of the citizens of Nigeria has no or few decent jobs, because of lack of employment opportunities, so many result to indecent jobs like robbery, frauds and kidnapping just to earn a living.
    9). Industry, innovation and infrastructure: Aims to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.

  90. Ugwoke Emmanuel Ifeanyi says:

    Name:Ugwoke Emmanuel Ifeanyi
    Reg: 2017/242426
    ifeanyie722@gmail.com

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS ) are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. The answer to whether this goals are to be fully achieved within the stipulated time is NO. The SDGs goal are as follows: (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4) Quality Education , (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation , (7) Affordable and Clean Energy , (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10) Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities ,(12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life OnLand , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions , (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    Why this goal wouldn’t be fully achieved is because of the following reasons:

    1. No poverty: The campaign against poverty did not start today. As far back as the MDGs, eliminating poverty has been on the spotlight but we can see that the percentage of those living in poverty has continued to escalate over the years. This goal can only be achieved when there is transparency, accountability, and honesty among our leaders. Only then can they formulate and implement policies that would better the lives of those at the grassroot. With the level of corruption in our country, it’s sad to say that even in the next 20 years, the rich will still keep getting richer while the poor man is left to hang and dry.

    2. No hunger: This is a function of the first goal. Only poverty subjects one to hunger. Hence, eliminating poverty is a direct solution to the problem of hunger.

    3. Good health and well-being: This goal has experienced appreciable improvement over the years and given the timeframe, a lot can still be done. The focus should be in terms of infrastructures, the medical and surgical equipments and quality of healthcare services rendered. With improvements in these areas both by the government and private entities, this goal can be achieved.

    4. Quality education: The neglect by the government on the educational system is alarming and with this attitude, this goal may not be achievable even with a longer time period. Though, the educational sector has witnessed significant improvement too but it was majorly with respect to the quantity of schools. The number of schools and institutions in the country has increased but the quality of the service is still very poor. The sector needs huge commitment and investment which sadly, the government is not will to put in.

    5. Gender equality: Given the progress we’ve had with this goal, it is achievable in the stated time period. Women have gained considerable recognition in various spheres and sectors of the economy. Even politically, they are making waves and with women in politics, there’s no limit to how far they can gain grounds in other sectors.

    6. Clean water and sanitation: Accessibility to clean water is one index used to determine how poor a person is. Given the poverty level, lots of people in the country still struggle with getting clean drinking water. Also, people with no homes or live in slums would care less about sanitation. So achieving this goal to a large extent depends on eradicating poverty.

    7. Affordable and clean energy: This goal is far from achievable in Nigeria. One major reason is corruption. There is little or no concern on the part of the government and even after handing over to private enterprise, it became worse. The power sector needs huge investment also to revitalize it and until the government decides to provide the necessary fund for the sector, there may be no reasonable progress.

    8. Decent work and economic growth: This goal is not attainable given the unemployment and underemployment level in the country. If there are investment in key sectors in the economy, there would be jobs for a great number of the citizens. Also, fiscal discipline should be embarked upon by the government to channel funds in the right sectors as this will also improve economic growth.

    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Depending on the policies and strategy of government, it will determine if this goal will be achieved. If there are no proactive policies, then this goal is not achievable.

  91. Anopueme Franklin Ifeanyi
    2017/249485
    http://www.franklin.anopue.249485@unn.edu.ng
    http://www.franksempire.wordpress.com
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Firstly, in the issue of Goal one(end poverty in all it’s forms everywhere), Nigeria has not achieved that goal and will not achieve it even in 2030. The reason is that the leaders are so corrupt, instead of developing our country, they loot our money and put it in a bank overseas. Fattening their own greedy pockets instead.
    For the second goal, I believe Nigeria will achieve it by 2030, because so many youths are now engaged in Agriculture due to ban on foreign goods.
    The third Goal can be achieve by 2030 because by achieving goal two, we can be able to live healthy lives and promote our well being.
    For the fourth goal, Nigeria cannot achieve it because there is no way those rich and corrupt politicians will allow their children to stay in the same learning space with the poor.
    The fifth goal can be achieved in the sense that Nigeria has been giving women the opportunity to participate in politics and contest for any post. They have also been empowering women.
    For the sixth and seventh goals, it is impossible to achieve such goals, because up til now, there are places that still experience poor electricity supply and the leaders are not even making any effort to see that there’s any improvement. Same goes with erosion that always chases some people out of their homes, because the Nigerian government cannot manage water flows.
    The eight goal can be achieved by 2030, and it can be achieved by Nigeria helping to reduce restrictions placed on some big companies that generates employment opportunities.
    Finally, the ninth goal cannot be achieved, because our leaders are not interested in infrastructural development, their only concern is to stuff money in their pockets, making innovation difficult to achieve.

  92. ODOH CHUKWUNONSO MICHAEL 2017/249541 says:

    Name: Odoh Chukwunonso Michael
    Reg No: 2017/249541
    Department: Economics Major

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.
    [1] The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030.
    [2] The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.
    The 17 SDGs are:
    (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    To achieve sustainable development, the three sectors need to come together. The economic, socio-political, and environmental sectors are all critically important and interdependent. Progress will require multidisciplinary and trans-disciplinary research across all three sectors. This proves difficult when major governments fail to support it.

    According to the UN, the target is to reach the community farthest behind. Commitments should be transformed into effective actions requiring a correct perception of target populations. However, numerical and non-numerical data or information must address all vulnerable groups such as children, elderly folks, persons with disabilities, refugees, indigenous peoples, migrants, and internally-displaced persons.
    Implementation of the SDGs started worldwide in 2016. This process can also be called “Localizing the SDGs”. Individual people, universities, governments, institutions and organizations of all kinds work are working separately but one or more goals at the same time. Individual governments must translate the goals into national legislation, develop a plan of action, and establish their own budget. However, at the same time, they must be open to and actively searching for partners. Coordination at the international level is crucial, making partnerships valuable. The SDGs note that countries with less access to financial resources need partnerships with more well-to-do countries.
    The co-chairs of the SDG negotiations each produced a book to help people to understand the Sustainable Development Goals and how they evolved. The books are: “Negotiating the Sustainable Development Goals: A transformational agenda for an insecure world” by Ambassador David Donoghue, Felix Dodds and Jimena Leiva and “Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy: The Inside Story of the Sustainable Development Goals” by Macharia Kamau, David O’Connor and Pamela Chasek.

    A 2018 study in the journal Nature found that while “nearly all African countries demonstrated improvements for children under 5 years old for stunting, wasting, and underweight… much, if not all of the continent will fail to meet the Sustainable Development Goal target—to end malnutrition by 2030”.
    Our Focus
    Poverty is complex and multidimensional, therefore, it calls for a comprehensive approach to eradication, addressing all aspects of a family’s life including meeting their basic needs, educating their children, having access to affordable healthcare and, most importantly, helping them to develop a skill and/or trade to generate income. It is equally important to provide them with support and encouragement throughout their journey to self-sufficiency as living in poverty is not just an economic state but also an emotional one.

    Each family is served individually, with services and programs that meet their specific needs. The common element through all of our programs is a sincere concern for the family and an earnest desire to help them lift themselves out of extreme poverty.

    BEST WAY TO SERVE THE POOR (Our Programs)
    HOME
    families are stabilized by providing food for them to eat, clean water for them to drink, and ensuring their living conditions are safe and secure.
    HEALTH
    Health is addressed through the development of an integrated system of healthcare delivery which includes clinics, hospitals, education, and outreach.
    EDUCATION
    Education is provided through small two-year schools in villages, teaching children their native language (Bangla), English, math and social studies, as well as art, dance, and music. From there, children enter the government schools in grade 3 ready to succeed.
    WORK
    Once stable, families are provided opportunities, tools, education, and training to engage in economic opportunities to lift themselves out of poverty.
    A wide variety of programs and strategies are employed in order to empower the poor and
    iciency standards in reading and mathematics. We’re committed to providing inclusive and eradicate poverty from their lives and their local areas. We support democracy in our relationship to the poor by treating everyone equally. This especially includes respecting women’s rights and involving them in the process and working with local people and institutions in this commitment to poverty eradication.
    GOALS
    Goal 1: No poverty:
    In 2013, an estimated 11% of the world’s population lived below the extreme poverty threshold. Reaching remote areas and offering the opportunity for sustainable education helps lift people out of poverty, giving them hope for future possibilities.
    Goal 3: Good health and wellbeing:
    Healthy, sustainable lifestyles are promoted through UWS schools. Many of our schools teach the students about farming through our vegetable gardens, ensuring they have access to balanced and varied diets.
    Goal 4: Quality Education:
    Education is the key to improving development in some of the world’s poorest communities. Sustainable Development Goal Four calls for inclusive, equitable and quality education for all. Despite this, in 2018, more than half of children and adolescents worldwide did not meet minimum proficiency standards in reading and mathematics. We’re committed to providing inclusive and quality education in these regions.
    Goal 5: Gender equality:
    The fifth Sustainable Development Goal is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. This is an area in which there has been great progress over the past decade, as the risk of a girl marrying in her childhood in Southern Asia has dropped by over 40% between 2000 and 2017. We are striving to continue this trend by giving young girls the opportunity to go to school.
    Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation:
    When built, many of our schools are fitted with a well which provides clean, safe drinking water. We also provide hygiene and sanitation education to support the wellbeing of our students.

    Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy:
    Many of our schools are fitted with solar panels when built to provide renewable, sustainable energy.
    Goal 8: Decent work and economic growthUWS schools provide employment for locals during construction and as teachers. In the long-term, educated children are will have higher incomes and more skilled employment, aiding a country’s overall economic growth.
    Goal 10: Global and National equality:
    Our role in these remote communities also reduce inequality. There are huge rural-urban disparities in all of the countries we work in. Often, the most remote areas are left behind, as governments lack the funding and capacity to provide education to these areas. UWS aims to reduce these disparities by providing the children in these communities with an education.

  93. NWAFOR CLARA DABELECHI says:

    NWAFOR CLARA DABELECHI
    2017/249534
    ECONOMICS

    The United Nations sustainable development goals are series of goals that aim to end poverty, protect the planet and improve the life and prospect of everyone by 2030.In 2015, the United Nations member states made it their mission to achieve peace and prosperity by 2030. To measure governments progress towards these goals, they established 17 sustainable development goals. They include 1. Zero poverty 2. Zero Hunger 3. Good Health and Wellbeing 4. Quality Education 5. Gender Equality 6. Clean Water and Sanitation 7. Affordable and Clean Energy 8. Decent Work and Economic Growth 9. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure 10. Reduced Inequalities 11. Sustainable Cities and Communities 12. Responsible Consumption and Products 13. Climate Action 14. Life Below Water 15. Life on Land 16. Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions 17. Partnerships for the Goals. Will these goals especially the first 9 be achieved in Nigeria by 2030 as lanned? The answers is No. Since 2030 is just 9 years time from now being 2021, the only fate for Nigeria is improvement and reduction in poverty and others. Total eradication of poverty, hunger, inequality, etc is not possible in Nigeria in in 9 years time. Considering how far Nigeria has gone since 2015 when this goals was formulated shows nothing Has been done so far.

  94. Asangolo Joseph dallas says:

    Name: Asangolo Joseph dallas

    Reg No: 2017/241436

    Dept: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people centered as well as planet sensitive. They are universal as they apply to all countries while recognizing the different realities as well as capabilities. Most importantly, they recognize that we can’t reach our development goals without addressing human rights and complex humanitarian issues. These SDGs are stated thus:
    1. End poverty: This is the move to ameliorate poverty in all its forms everywhere. This wouldn’t be attainable in Nigeria since a very large number of it’s citizens are living below $1 per day.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not attainable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: We can’t ensure healthy lives if we don’t exterminate poverty because most unhealthy persons in the country are poverty-stricken.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since poverty is widespread, education for all is not attainable.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Since gender disparity exists between the males and their female counterparts, then this goal wouldn’t be achieved.
    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Thus is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes water toxic for use. Hence adequate sensitization is required to right this wrong.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Since we lack adequate monitoring of electricity generation and distribution, a sustained and accessible energy for all is not attainable. Hence there is need to revitalize the electricity sector.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Since at least 70% of the country’s population is unemployed, underemployed or working poor efforts to curb the rage of unemployment is required to boost economic growth and bring about full employment.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: Since Nigeria lags behind in terms of infrastructure, there is need to build up structures that would foster innovation in the country as well as support innovative minds.

  95. UGWU PERPERTUA ODINAKA says:

    UGWU PERPETUA ODINAKA
    2017/244848
    everlastinggift9507@gmail.com
    ugwuodinakap.blogspot.com
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    THE ACHIEVABILITY OF THE FIRST 9 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN NIGERIA BY 2030
    1. END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS (GOAL 1)
    Poverty eradication remains one of the major focus areas for the Government of Nigeria. Given the poverty profile of 62.6%, the Federal Government as well as the other two tiers of government are aggressively pursuing strategies that will eliminate poverty in Nigeria. To begin with, the government is implementing a national Social Investment Programme which focuses on providing Social Safety Nets for the poor, welfare for the unemployed and job creation and skills enhancement with a target of creating about 3 million jobs.
    The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has leveraged on its social reforms agenda to ensure a pro-poor, gender disaggregated expenditure framework within the MediumTerm Expenditure Framework (MTEF). The underlying goal is to produce an inclusive budget that will ensure equity and justice in the distribution of national resources.
    All these information use to be sweet to our hearing but to implement it is usually impossible in Nigeria. The problem with this goal is that nobody should be left behind which is not possible because in Nigeria where the does not work for the people but for their family and friends, only those in power with their friends and family will actually benefit from the Social Investment Programme .The poor that really suffers from poverty will not even hear about the programme.
    Come to think of creating 3 million jobs, it still going to be those connected to the people on power that will benefit first before talking about the poor in rural areas. Also, distribution of raw materials has never been equal in Nigeria; the non accountability of Nigerian government does not even allow the people, especially at the grassroots, to know when the resources are distributed.
    2. END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY; IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE (GOAL 2)
    As the threat of hunger and food insecurity looms in most part of Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria already embarked on a review as far back as 2006. The aim was to achieve a ‘zero hunger’ target and provide nutritious food to its teeming population. The prevalence of undernourishment reflected the fact that some 25.5% of the population was lacking adequate and improved nutrition. At the same time, severe food insecurity within the population based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale stood at 26.4% based on data from the National Bureau of Statistics.
    In addition, there was a stunting or delayed growth prevalence of 37.45% among children of kindergarten; 37.4% for school age and 15% severe cases of malnutrition for under 5 children. The Government’s response was to embark on an aggressive growth enhancement scheme to improve the yield of agricultural commodities. Huge investments were made on the setting up of irrigation sites for farmers in order to provide the platform for cultivation of agricultural products all year round.
    The reverse is the case as the Federal government has given only cattle rearers priority and power kill crop farmers and use their growing farm lands to graze/feed their cattle. Thereby, leading to shortage of food, discouraging crop farming and increasing hunger.
    Therefore, this goal cannot be achieved in Nigeria by 2030.Also, without ending poverty, hunger in GOAL 1 persists.
    3. ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE THE WELL-BEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES (GOAL 3)
    Nigeria’s human development indices in the health sector remain abysmally low and this portends complex challenges in the health care delivery system. As enunciated in the NERGP, the top priority is to improve the availability, accessibility, affordability and quality of health services by increasing access to primary health care services, expanding health coverage and improving the quality of the services provided.
    This goal cannot be achieved in Nigeria by 2030 because in my community for example, we have a well built Medical Center but it has never been active since I grew up; more than 18years now, and we are talking about 9years remaining here. Also, as long as poverty and hunger persist, healthy living and well-being cannot be achieved because poverty and hunger are very deadly diseases that are neglected by the public.
    4. ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFELONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL (GOAL 4)
    Nigeria’s development and progress is heavily linked to access to quality inclusive and equitable universal education for all gender groups, including those with disability. A programme such as the home-grown school feeding is very effective in enhancing school enrolment and incentivizing learning.
    The NERGP places emphasis on Vocational and Technical Education, Information and Communication Technology, technical engineering and scientific programmes with the objective of ensuring that youths and people living with disabilities acquire basic skills that will be useful and applicable in the job market.
    Education for all would have been achievable in Nigeria if poverty and hunger were eradicated but the reverse is the case here. Many parents are still struggling for what to eat not even school uniforms and books. For inclusive education , without provision for learning aids for students with learning aids, learning cannot be achieved. This goal will be achievable if government will channel enough resources to educational sector.
    But from what am seeing in UNN, this goal cannot be achieved by 2030 because of poverty negligence of educational sector by the government.
    5. ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS (GOAL 5)
    Gender equality and women’s empowerment has been considered critical to economic development and the advancement of women in Nigeria. However, challenges abound as cases of physical, pyschological and sexual abuse against women still persist. About 33.5% of women and girls 15 years and older, according to data provided by the Natioanl Bureau of Statistics in 2015, still confront cases of violence and emotional abuse. For instance, in 2015, 24.8% of girls and women aged 15 to 49 were reported to have undergone genital mutilation or cutting while 33.5% of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older were subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by either a current or former intimate partner. Also, the statistics available showed that 34.9% of women and girls aged 15 years and older were subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in 2015. The proportion of women aged 15-49 who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care was 24.8% in 2015 and the percentage of the women population that owned agriculture land was 71.1% in the same year.
    The issue of early marriage among girls still posses challenge to education and decent jobs for women in the in some parts of the country. The girl-child is exposed to VVF and HIV and AIDS through early marriage, which impedes her growth and development. The percentage of girls and women who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting remains as high as 39.9%. Access to ownership and rights to agricultural land is improving. On a positive note, women population who own mobile phones in the rural communities is on the increase. Overall, mainstreaming of gender in the NERGP remains top priority as part of inclusive policy formulation.
    From the above information compared to what is still happening in Nigeria today, this goal cannot be achieved in Nigeria by 2030 of because inadequate support from men and unseriousness from the side of most women as well.
    6. ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALL (GOAL 6)
    Availability of water can be achieved, so also sanitation but not for all. This is because Nigerian government don’t even know the whole local governments here in Nigeria and so might not know that they are lacking water and sanitation. Also those that represent the government in those rural areas sometimes embezzle the funds knowing fully that government will not come to check their work.
    Thus, this goal cannot be achieved in Nigeria by 2030.
    7. ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY FOR ALL (GOAL 7)
    This cannot be achievable in Nigeria by 2030 because in my community for example, we have been fighting for any energy supply at all since 1982 but couldn’t get it until 2019. So, within just this 9years remaining, my community and the like will not even think of affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all even, in the next 20 years.
    8. PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK FOR ALL (GOAL 8)
    This cannot be achieved by 2030 in Nigeria that depends only on petroleum as source of economic growth. Nigeria is filled 90% population of unemployed, underemployed and inactive employed working class. Even most of the employed workers experience unfavourable working condition for more than 10years now.
    9. BUILDING RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND FOSTERING INNOVATION (GOAL 9)
    Nigeria government has prioritized infrastructure development in its development agenda and this has started yielding significant results. In the period under review, the infrastructure sector’s contribution to the GDP has been put at 35% while Nigeria’s Electric Power Sector which was privatized in 2005 had about 12.5GW installed capacity as at November 2016 with about 15 per cent of installed capacity distributed to end users. In terms of industrialization, Nigeria has so far established 34 free zones aimed at promoting the industrial and economic growth of the nation.
    This goal can be achieved in Nigeria by 2030 if government should channel the resources very well to these objectives and avoid embezzling the budgeted fund for it. Accountability should also be maintained.

  96. Irueforum joseph emeka says:

    IRUEFORUM JOSEPH EMEKA
    2017/249519
    ECONOMICS

    Nigeria’s 2017 VNR outlined the institutional dimensions for creating an enabling policy environment for the implementation of the SDGs through its Economic and Recovery Growth Plan (ERGP) (2017-2020). The ERGP’s focus on economic, social and environmental dimensions of development makes it consistent with the aspirations of the SDGs.

    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality, there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to 132). COVID-19 has challenged our public health 2 | Page system. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential services.

    SDG4-Education: A key challenge confronting the country has to do with Out-of- School-Children, a demographic challenge that relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). With a population of approximately 200 million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78% of South Western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17% of North Eastern children can. With only 1.6% of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.

    SDG8-Inclusive Economy: In terms of inclusive economy (SDG-8), Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53% of the Labour force and accounting for 65% of GDP. It is estimated that 75% of all new jobs are informal. Youth have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4% or 24.5 million1. This is the youth bulge that needs to be building the required skills to move into secure and less precarious forms of employment. Ensuring youth are well-educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can help reduce poverty (SDG-1) and help diversify growth beyond dependence on oil and gas. The Generation Unlimited intervention, which targets employment for 20 million youth is another good example. The banking sector can play an important role in supporting the country’s efforts to leverage greater private sector-led growth by providing access to finance, particularly for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, the Nigerian government can dramatically shift to digitization and strengthening its transition to e-government to facilitate its social protection to the poor and vulnerable population.

    Alignment of national planning to SDGs: Good strides have been made in the domestication process of the SDGs in Nigeria. First, there is an ongoing realignment of the National Statistical System (NSS) with the requirements and Indicators of the SDGs. Second, Nigeria has developed its home-grown ‘Integrated Sustainable Development Goals (iSDG Model) – an analytical framework for assessing how policy making can better address the indivisible nature of the SDGs. Third, the Nigeria’s 2020 VNR report has drawn on past evaluations across the Seven priority SDGs and has an ongoing evaluation of the country’s performance in SDG 3&4. This attempt to systematically use evaluations is an innovation in the VNR context. Nigeria should strengthen the evidencebased planning and accountability mechanisms at State level for accelerating the SDG decade of action. The post-ERGP National Development Plan (2021-2030) will be pivotal in advancing the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria.

  97. Enechi chukwemeka Pius says:

    Enechi chukwemeka Pius
    2017/249497
    slemcruz25@gmail.com

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) are as follows;
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    Now in my own opinion, Looking at only the first nine(9) goals, it is evident that it cannot be achieved before 2030. It even seems to me that we’re moving in the opposite directions of the goals. Take a look at our dear country, there’s still poverty and rate at which it continues to increase is alarming, these days , the rich is getting poorer and the poor are just in pure danger.
    The level of hunger in Nigeria due to the level of poverty people find it very difficult to carter for their daily needs. The price of goods in the market keeps climbing everyday.
    Poor medical or health facilities has contributed to careless deaths,
    The level of quality education is also nothing to write about due to strike and high level of corruption leading to employment of unqualified teachers and lecturers. Due to cultural and religious beliefs women and girl child have been written off in almost all the sector’s in the economy which leads to Nigeria not making optimum use of the labour force.
    Mismanagement of public funds has lead to low level of technology and have also contributed or paid little attention to the benefits of the development of modern technology and energy in Nigeria.
    From our current year(2021) to 2030,is approximately nine(9) years. I feel it’s too short for our dear country to achieve those goals. These times are becoming way too scary and it’s only God that can help us.

  98. Nwobodo Ifeanyichukwu Victor says:

    NWOBODO IFEANYICHUKWU VICTOR
    2017/249535
    Economics
    1. End poverty: While the number of people living in extreme poverty dropped by more than half between 1990 and 2015, too many are still struggling for the most basic human needs.
    As of 2015, about 736 million people still lived on less than US$1.90 a day; many lack food, clean drinking water and sanitation. Rapid growth in countries such as China and India has lifted millions out of poverty, but progress has been uneven. Women are more likely to be poor than men because they have less paid work, education, and own less property
    2. End hunger: Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. There are 821 million people estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2017, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought and biodiversity loss. Over 90 million children under five are dangerously underweight. Undernourishment and severe food insecurity appear to be increasing in almost all regions of Africa, as well as in South America.
    3. Good health: We have made great progress against several leading causes of death and disease. Life expectancy has increased dramatically; infant and maternal mortality rates have declined, we’ve turned the tide on HIV and malaria deaths have halved.
    Good health is essential to sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda reflects the complexity and interconnectedness of the two. It takes into account widening economic and social inequalities, rapid urbanization, threats to the climate and the environment, the continuing burden of HIV and other infectious diseases, and emerging challenges such as noncommunicable diseases. Universal health coverage will be integral to achieving SDG 3, ending poverty and reducing inequalities. Emerging global health priorities not explicitly included in the SDGs, including antimicrobial resistance, also demand action.
    4. Education: Since 2000, there has been enormous progress in achieving the target of universal primary education. The total enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015, and the worldwide number of children out of school has dropped by almost half. There has also been a dramatic increase in literacy rates, and many more girls are in school than ever before. These are all remarkable successes. Nokomis harass war on education is one of the factors that is making this goal hard to achieve. Also most of the public school provided are debilitated.
    Progress has also been tough in some developing regions due to high levels of poverty, armed conflicts and other emergencies.
    5. Gender equality: Ending all discrimination against women and girls is not only a basic human right, it’s crucial for sustainable future; it’s proven that empowering women and girls helps economic growth and development.
    6. Access to water: Goal 6 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is focused on ensuring inclusive and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water, sanitation and hygiene for all. However, in lower and middle-income countries like Nigeria, millions of people are without access to clean water and sanitation. According to the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene National Outcome Routine Mapping (WASHNorm) 2018, about 55 million Nigerians still do not have access to clean water supply services, 110 million Nigerians lack decent toilets, and over 47 million practice open defecation.
    7. Affordable and clean energy: Between 2000 and 2016, the number of people with electricity increased from 78 to 87 percent, and the numbers without electricity dipped to just below one billion.Yet as the population continues to grow, so will the demand for cheap energy, and an economy reliant on fossil fuels is creating drastic changes to our climate.
    8. Decent work and economic growth
    Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the lasting impact of the 2008 economic crisis and global recession. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015
    9. Build infrastructure: Nigeria is lacking infrastructural facilities that are necessary in achieving the preceeding goals mentioned above

  99. Abiazia Rufus Chidiebube (2017/243371) Economics says:

    Abiazia Rufus Chidiebube
    201/243371
    Economics

    The ambitious UN-adopted sustainable development goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being inconsistent, difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. Disparaging analysis suggests that there exists a potential inconsistency in the SDGs, particularly between the socio-economic development and the environmental sustainability goals. Critiques also raise questions on the measurability and monitoring of the broadly framed SDGs. The goals are non-binding, with each country being expected to create their own national or regional plans. Moreover, the source(s) and the extent of the financial resources and investments for the SDGs are ambiguous. This chapter quantifies and examines the inconsistencies of the SDGs. It further inspects which of the underlying social, economic or environmental pillars are that most effective for achieving sustainable development. Analyses of the data reveal that the developed countries need to remain focused on their social and environmental policies. The developing countries, on the other hand, are better off being focused on their economics and social policies in the short run, even though environmental policies remain significant for sustainable development.

    (1) No Poverty ,
    (2) Zero Hunger ,
    (3) Good Health and Well-being ,
    (4)Quality Education,
    (5) Gender Equality,
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation,
    (7) Affordable and Clean Energy,
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth ,
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure ,

    The Economist and the Gates Foundation have slated the goals for being too wide-ranging, too cumbersome to be packaged into sound-bites. But thoroughness can hardly be the problem here; It seems more likely that the SDGs are being ignored because, unlike with the MDGs, there is nothing in them that’s really new.
    At base, the Zero Draft reflects old thinking, and calls for little more than business as usual.

    People are not getting excited about the SDGs because they know that business as usual isn’t going to deliver the new economy we so desperately need. In this sense, the goals are not only a missed opportunity, they are actively dangerous: they lock in the global development agenda for the next 15 years around a failing economic model that requires urgent and deep structural changes, and they kick the hard challenge of real transformation down the road for the next generation to deal with – by which time it may be too late.

  100. Omada Dorathy Amarachukwu says:

    Name: Omada Dorathy Amarachukwu
    Reg No: 2017/ 243131
    Department: Economics Education
    300 Level
    dorathyamarachi.blogpost.com
    amarachidora8@gmail.com

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.The 17 SDGs are integrated—that is, they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.
    Through the pledge to Leave No One Behind, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind first. That is why the SDGs are designed to bring the world to several life-changing ‘zeros’, including zero poverty, hunger, AIDS and discrimination against women and girls. Everyone is needed to reach these ambitious targets. The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context. In theyear 2015, leaders from193 countries of theworld came together to face the future and what they saw was daunting. Famines. Drought. Wars. Plagues. Poverty. Not just in some faraway place, but in their own cities and towns and villages.They knew things didn’t have to be this way. They knew we had enough food to feed the world, but that it wasn’t getting shared. They knew there were medicines for HIV and other diseases, but they cost a lot. They knew that earthquakes and floods were inevitable, but that the high death tolls were not. They also knew that billions of people worldwide shared their hope for a better future. So leaders from these countries created a plan called the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This set of 17 goals imagines a future just 15 years off that would be rid of poverty and hunger, and safe from the worst effects of climate change. It’s an ambitious plan. But there’s ample evidence that we can succeed. In the past 15 years, the international community cut extreme poverty in half. Now we can finish the job.The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is one of the leading organizations working to fulfil the SDGs by the year 2030. Present in nearly 170 countries and territories, we help nations make the Goals a reality. We also champion the Goals so that people everywhere know how to do their part. UNDP is proud to continue as a leader in this global movement. The following are the 17 set of sustainable development goals:
    1. No poverty
    Yes, it’s an ambitious goal—but we believe it can be done. In 2000, the world committed to halving the number of people living in extreme poverty by the year 2015 and we met this goal. However, more than 800 million people around the world still live on less than $1.25 a day—that’s about the equivalent of the entire population of Europe living in extreme poverty. Now it’s time to build on what we learned and end poverty altogether. 2. Zero hunger
    In the past 20 years, hunger has dropped by almost half. Many countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of their most vulnerable people. It’s an incredible accomplishment. Now we can go further and end hunger and malnutrition once and for all. That means doing things such as promoting sustainable agriculture and supporting small farmers. It’s a tall order. But for the sake of the nearly 1 out of every 9 people on earth who go to bed hungry every night, we’ve got to try. Imagine a world where everyone has access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. Together, we can make that a reality by 2030
    3. Good health and wellbeing
    We all know how important it is to be in good health. Our health affects everything from how much we enjoy life to what work we can perform. That’s why there’s a Goal to make sure everyone has health coverage and access to safe and effective medicines and vaccines. In the 25 years before the SDGs, we made big strides—preventable child deaths dropped by more than half, and maternal mortality went down by almost as much. And yet some other numbers remain tragically high, like the fact that 6 million children die every year before their fifth birthday, or that AIDS is the leading cause of death for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. We have the means to turn that around and make good health more than just a wish.

    4. Quality education
    First, the bad news on education. Poverty, armed conflict and other emergencies keep many, many kids around the world out of school. In fact, kids from the poorest households are four times more likely to be out of school than those of the richest households. Now for some good news. Since 2000, there has been enormous progress on the goal to provide primary education to all children worldwide: the total enrolment rate in developing regions has reached 91%. By measures in any school, that’s a good grade. Now, let’s get an even better grade for all kids, and achieve the goal of universal primary and secondary education, affordable vocational training, access to higher education and more.
    5. Gender equality
    We can celebrate the great progress the world has made in becoming more prosperous and fair. But there’s a shadow to the celebration. In just about every way, women and girls lag behind. There are still gross inequalities in work and wages, lots of unpaid “women’s work” such as child care and domestic work, and discrimination in public decision￾making. But there are grounds for hope. More girls are in school now compared to in 2000. Most regions have reached gender parity in primary education. The percentage of women getting paid for their work is on the rise. The Sustainable Development Goals aim to build on these achievements to ensure that there is an end to discrimination against women and girls everywhere.

    6. Clean water and sanitation
    Everyone on earth should have access to safe and affordable drinking water. That’s the goal for 2030. While many people take clean drinking water and sanitation for granted, many others don’t. Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, and that number is projected to go even higher as a result of climate change. If we continue the path we’re on, by 2050 at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages. But we can take a new path—more international cooperation, protecting wetlands and rivers, sharing water-treatment technologies—that leads to accomplishing this Goal.
    7. Affordable and clean energy
    Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity increased by 1.7 billion. That’s progress to be proud of. And yet as the world’s population continues to rise, still more people will need cheap energy to light their homes and streets, use phones and computers, and do their everyday business. How we get that energy is at issue; fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions are making drastic changes in the climate, leading to big problems on every continent. Instead, we can become more energy-efficient and invest in clean energy sources such as solar and wind. That way we’ll meet electricity needs and protect the environment. How’s that for a balancing act?
    8. Decent and Economic growth
    An important part of economic growth is that people have jobs that pay enough to support themselves and their families. The good news is that the middle class is growing worldwide—almost tripling in size in developing countries in the last 25 years, to more than a third of the population. But today, job growth is not keeping pace with the growing labour force. Things don’t have to be that way. We can promote policies that encourage entrepreneurship and job creation. We can eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. And in the end we can achieve the goal of decent work for all women and men by 2030.
    9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure
    Technological progress helps us address big global challenges such as creating jobs and becoming more energy efficient. For example, the world is becoming ever more interconnected and prosperous thanks to the internet. The more connected we are, the more we can all benefit from the wisdom and contributions of people everywhere on earth. And yet four billion people have no way of getting online, the vast majority of them in developing countries. The more we invest in innovation and infrastructure, the better off we’ll all be. Bridging the digital divide, promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.
    We could say that the following goals are very much achievable in Nigeria , if Nigeria as a country come together inorder to achieve this goal within the time frame allotted.

  101. Kingsley Gift Ebubechukwu says:

    Name: Kingsley Gift Ebubechukwu
    Reg number: 2017/241438
    Dept: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.

    The 17 SDGs are:
    1) No Poverty
    2) Zero Hunger
    3) Good Health and Well-being
    4) Quality Education,
    5) Gender Equality
    6) Clean Water and Sanitation
    7) Affordable and Clean Energy
    8) Decent Work and Economic Growth
    9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    10) Reducing Inequality
    11) Sustainable Cities and Communities
    12) Responsible Consumption and Production
    13) Climate Action
    14) Life Below Water
    15) Life On Land
    16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
    17) Partnerships for the Goals.

    An analysis of Whether this SDG are attainable in Nigeria within the given time frame and their reasons.
    1) No poverty:
    Nigeria as a country hasn’t been progressing well enough to meet up with the SDG to eliminate poverty. According to Cnnin 2018, Nigeria overtakes India to be come the poverty capital of the world. Yet with the economic effects of the COVID-19 crisis, the national poverty rate is instead forecast to jump from 40.1% in 2019 to 45.2% in 2022, implying that 100.9 million Nigerians will be living in poverty by 2022. Nigeria is no where near in achieving this set goal of NO POVERTY.

    Second: Zero hunger.
    This is almost interlinked with the first goal started above. If the poverty rate in Nigeria keeps increasing and cannot be reduced, the hunger rates will definitely not be left out.

    3) Good Health and Well-being: Hospitals and healthy care facilities has been built by the government in the recent years. But the major problems facing these facilities are lack of infrastructural maintenance of this facilities. Most of the equipments used like bed, chairs, good medical equipments are in bad shapes and are without replacement. This can be seen in mostly General teaching hospitals.

    4) Quality Education: The educational quality in Nigeria is on a zero levels. Facilities in most government schools are already in bad shape and with no replacement plans on ground, teachers employed are Poor untrained. And in the higher levels of education, the educational process is usually obstructed by strike over delay/ No payment of Salaries and bonuses.

    5) Gender equality and empower all women and girls: This seems like an almost impossible task in Nigeria to empower all women and girls. One factor affecting this is as a result of the some culture inclination and the aggressive role of women in the home coped with the less importance a greater number of village communities has placed on women. This serves as a problem that hinders the SDG goal number 5.

    6) Clean Water and Sanitation: This is a problem because majority of Nigerians dont usually participate in community Sanitations as everyone is busy with their different aspects of life endeavors. The water bodies in Nigeria are so polluted and messed up and lithered with a lot of harmful waste products most especially waste from factories. Intensive and aggressive environmental cleaning scheme can help correct this problems.

    7) Affordable and Clean energy: This can be achieved if the government can accelerate the transition to an affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy system by investing in renewable energy resources and adopting clean energy technologies and infrastructure.
    8) Decent Work and Economic Growth: With the effective and efficient use of our Nation’s resources, there will be increase in Economics growth. This will create increased job opportunities and also working towards the achievement of the goal 8 of the SDG GOALS.
    9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Using the right strategics, Development plans and policies by the government, it can bring about innovation, advancing technology into the industry and Increased infrastructure growth in the country at large.

    All these are achievable when the right policies, programs, efforts and resources, are effectively utilized efficiently.

  102. Okorie Judith Onyinye says:

    Name: Okorie Judith Onyinye
    Reg number: 2017/241450
    Dept: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all, set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030.

    In Considering the first nine (9) goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), using Nigeria as a case study given its time frame, the following are my points:

    Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    Is this goal ambitious? Yes. But it can be achieved. With the right Poverty Alleviation Program such as The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), The National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP), Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES), it can help reduce the rate of poverty in the country although these programs independence have yielded very little fruit; they lacked clearly defined policy framework with proper guidelines for poverty alleviation; they suffer from political instability, interference, policy and macroeconomic dislocations; and are riddled with corruption, political deception, outright kleptomania and distasteful looting.

    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    Hunger can be eliminated within this lifetime, if we create better opportunities for farmers and focus on the needs of undernourished groups. Sustainability means using fewer natural resources to produce food and reducing food waste and loss. Improved nutrition means reducing both hunger and obesity through improved education, and access and availability of quality foods. All these can be achieved with effect strategic policy planning.

    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    Innovation in terms of delivery models and technology mean is bringing the goal of healthy living for all within sight. Business models based on public-private cooperation unlock crucial investment without the need for massive infrastructure investment.

    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    Technology can help us to fundamentally transform education delivery in Nigeria and, with the right mix of policies and incentives, we can scale up early success stories. Business must play a critical role in the constant skilling, reskilling and upskilling of employees and broader communities.

    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    We will not achieve any of our goals if girls and women are not equal partners to boys and men. We have made tremendous strides in awareness of the gender gap – from schools to boardrooms across different states in Nigeria – it’s time to translate these movements and campaigns into action. Workplaces, governments and healthcare and education systems must be designed to provide a level playing field. Practices that have worked already must be adapted more broadly in different Sector of the countries.

    Goal 6: ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALL.
    These can be achievable in Nigeria through the expansion of programs and scheme to expand clean water supply production and Sanitation support across the country. Engagements in the grassroots should not be left out in the good water and sanitation management schemes and programs.

    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Evolution of distributed energy technology, maturity of financial tools and a greater awareness across stakeholders offer a new opportunity for solving the global issue of energy across Nigeria. With technology largely available, the critical factors to overcome are the financial challenge – by making long-term investment projects, there will be tremendous increase in the accessability and affordability of modern energy.

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    Economics policies to move the Nation forward has to be put in place to foster Economics growth and development. And to achieve and provide decent work, proper Infrastructure has to be in place to ensure efficient use of resources. And ensure full employment.

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    Through a resilient, trusted digital infrastructure we have a unique opportunity to add 200 million people to the innovation process. This leads to expansion of the indusries and it leads to innovation at all levels of Development in the country.

    With all these said and analyzed, I can say that the achievement of MDG is still a working progress and with good governance, adequate policies and right spending, the SDG GOALS can be achievable.

  103. Ugwu Chidimma Joy says:

    Name: Ugwu Chidimma Joy
    Reg no: 2017/249584
    Department: Economics

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    From my own of view none of the first 9 goals have been achieved and cannot be achieved before 2030.
    The question here is, has Nigeria been able to achieve 1-9 of these goals? From my own perspective Nigeria has not being able to achieve these goals reason being that Nigeria is one country that is characterized by corruption and bad governance and this has eaten so deep into the society. Let’s analyze this:
    1) No poverty: this is the first goal of the SDGs, which until now has not being achieved in the country because the poor are only getting poorer and the rich riding on the eagles wings. The number of poor helpless citizens are far way higher than that of the rich in population. This is still as a result of corruption and bad governance which has led to unemployment, government looting the money of the masses and still charging them, looting of natural resources thereby making it scarce for the citizen and these has led to increase in the rate of poverty.
    2) Zero hunger: this is the second SDGs which has also not been achieved in Nigeria as a country. The Masses still die as a result of hunger, crimes are still committed due to hunger cause people are searching for what to eat to sustain life. Many people are on the street begging today due to hunger, many are sick and malnourished due to hunger and the prices of commodity is still rising that the poor can’t really afford much to eat.
    3) Good health and well being: This is the third SDGs, which is still pending in Nigeria because no proper maintenance or presence of quality medical centers, the ones that happens to be good cuts the poor’s head with charges, thereby leaving lots of people unhealthy. Malnourishment as a result of poverty and hunger also affects the health and well being of the people.
    4) Quality Education: this too has bot been in achieved in Nigeria. Because the Federal government and the ASSU are still having their differences thereby shutting down schools for long. The employment of unqualified teachers and lectures as a result of having connection at the detriment of the people’s knowledge.
    5) Gender Equality: this is still far fetched in Nigeria because in some states women are still discriminated in terms of education and also in government. Women are subjected to being house wife even when they have something to offer to the country far better than men.
    6) Clean water and Sanitation: the government are involved in achieving this as well as the citizens but it has nit been achieved due to poulltion and oil spillage caused by industries which at the end of the day contaminates the source of water and environment.
    7) Affordable and clean energy: Nigeria as a country that supplies other countries with light have not been able to boast of a day without power failure. While these countries that they are supplying energy to can boast of years without power failure.
    8) Decent work and economic growth: due to high rate of poverty and unemployment people tend to create jobs by and for themselves in order to gain income and sustain life and this has led to many indecent work in the country they by affecting the growth of the country.
    9) Industry, innovation an infrastructure: this is still pending in Nigeria. Due to bad governance and corruption cause the money and resources that should be used for innovation, building new industries and infrastructures at scarce due to looting done be the government.
    In summary, the above listed SDGs and interconnected to each other what affects one affects all. If one is achieved it will open a gate way to the rest. And it is still pending mostly because of corruption and the people we call our leaders who only work to satisfy their selfish interest.

  104. NWANKWO BASIL CHUKWUEMEKA says:

    NWANKWO BASIL CHUKWUEMEKA
    300L
    2016/233850
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    The seventeen global goals project Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: End poverty
    Goal 2: No hunger
    Goal 3: Promote well-being
    Goal 4: Quality education for all
    Goal 5: Gender Equality and Empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Availability and Sustainable Management of water and sanitation for all.
    Goal 7: Easy access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    Goal 8: Promote economic growth and productive employment for all.
    Goal 9: Promote industrialization and foster innovation.
    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive and conducive for all.
    Goal 12: Ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns.
    Goal 13: Climate Action
    Goal 14: Life below water
    Goal 15: Life on land
    Goal 16: Peace and Justice and Strong Institutions
    Goal 17: Partnership for the goals
    Some of these goals can be achieved within the time frame given while some might take a little bit longer
    1:End Poverty in all its forms everywhere :
    The above goal is not achievable in Nigeria within the stipulated time. The reason being that, it’s not possible to end poverty in totality, it can only be reduced to its bearest minimum.
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture: This goal is not achievable because when there is a high rate of poor people in the country, the rate of hunger will still be on an increase because poor people are obviously hungry. Also since these goals go side by side, if the rate of poverty in the country is not been taken care of ,then the rate of hunger will still be on an increase.
    3. Good Health and Wellbeing
    This can be achieved if all health care centres and hospitals are well equipped and the era of favouritism and lackadaisical attitude on the part of the medical staffs are minimized or eradicated.
    Goal 4 ensure inclusive and equitable quality education
    It Is extremely obvious by now that our leaders do not care at all about our education judging from the the increasing number of strikes In our universities.
    5. Gender equality: Given the progress we’ve had with this goal, it is achievable in the stated time period. Women have gained considerable recognition in various spheres and sectors of the economy. Even politically, they are making waves and with women in politics, there’s no limit to how far they can gain grounds in other sectors.
    6. Clean water and sanitation: Accessibility to clean water is one index used to determine how poor a person is. Given the poverty level, lots of people in the country still struggle with getting clean drinking water. Also, people with no homes or live in slums would care less about sanitation. So achieving this goal to a large extent depends on eradicating poverty.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    This is achievable but needs a great effort from the government. Even though energy supply has been privatized in Nigeria, the government can still give grant to private energy supplies to ensure that energy is reliable, sustainable and also affordable for the people.
    Goal 8 promote sustained inclusive and sustainable economic growth
    A buoyant economy is industrious, we are far from industrious in Nigeria
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructures, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: If goal 8 is not achievable ,then this is obviously not achievable even in 100yrs.Because in a country like Nigeria where there is low level of unemployment, rate of poverty accompanied with hunger ,and there is low or no quality education, with an unsustainable economic growth, then a resilient infrastructure and inclusive and sustainable industrialization sounds like a joke and quite laughable. And with the current state of Nigeria does not give room for innovation and creativity and that’s part of the reason why the economy is stagnant.
    CONCLUSION
    From the above explained, some of these goals will be easily achievable while the rest will take a bit longer to be achieved

  105. NWACHUKWU MARYJANE says:

    Name: Nwachukwu Maryjane
    Ref.No: 2017/249533
    Dept: Economics, 300 levels.

    THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    Sustainable Development Goals was adopted by the United Nations on 15th September 2015. It comprises of 17 goal agenda which is targeted to be achieved by 2030. The SDGs can be said to be the extension of the millennium development goals (MDGs). The goals were made more actionable in July 2017 by UN resolution adopted by the General Assembly because of its broad nature and some indicators were reached to monitor the effectiveness of the goals. Some of the goals were set to be achieved between 2020 and 2030 while others has no specific date given. To facilitate monitoring of the goals a variety of tools exist to track and visualize progress towards the goal with the intention of making more data available and easily understood. The SDGs cut across all the issues that affect member countries and seek to find a solution each of the problem before 2030.
    THE SDG GOALS ARE:

    (1) No Poverty ,
    (2) Zero Hunger ,
    (3) Good Health and Well-being ,
    (4) Quality Education ,
    (5) Gender Equality ,
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation ,
    (7) Affordable and Clean Energy ,
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth ,
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure ,
    (10) Reducing Inequality ,
    (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities ,
    (12)Responsible Consumption and Production ,
    (13) Climate Action ,
    (14) Life Below Water,
    (15) Life On Land ,
    (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions ,
    (17) Partnerships for the Goals .

    Each of the goals has about 8 to 12 targets with an indicator of 1 to 4 for measuring it’s progress. The target can either be outcome, circumstances to be attained or means of implementations. The 17th goal is mainly on how to achieve the other SDG goals.

    Now are the first 9 goals achievable in Nigeria?
    My answer is yes. Reasons is because Nigeria as a country has what it takes to achieve the 1st 9goals with the specified time frame. If Nigeria will work on it’s internal and external policies with the sole aim of achieving results rather than pursuing personal interest I personally believe that this goals are achievable. This can be done by following the UN system of implementations to enforce the internal policies on how to achieve this goals and I believe having internal and active indicator though not as large as that of UN will goal a long way to ensure full achievement of various goals. More also investing genuinely in the agricultural sector will aid in the achieving goals number 1and 2 and will also lead to achieving goal 8. Encouraging those who genuinely want to engage in agriculture not attaching any form of favoritism, tribalism or religious sentiment, i.e giving loans or whatsoever incentive on the basis of monitored and investigated ground will help to achieve those goals.
    In conclusion, just like every other United Nations States are struggling to achieve the SDGs I believe that Nigeria should not be an exception to this. If only Nigeria will embrace the SDGs with purpose oriented mind, I also believe that it can achieve if not all but a reasonable number of the SDGs before the expiration date.

  106. NAME: Emmanuel Treasure Adanne
    Department: Economics
    Reg No: 2017/242436
    Email address: http://www.treasureadaemmanuel@gmail.com
    Website: treshvinaemman54.blogspot.com
    Answer:
    The Sustainable Development goals were made to improve people lives globally in five areas people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership also known as the 5Ps. However some of these goals might be difficult if not impossible to achieve in developing countries like Nigeria. Using Nigeria as a case study we will discuss the first 9 of these goals and if they can be achieved within the time frame of 9 years and if not why, we will look at possible solutions too.
    The first goal is to end poverty in all it’s forms everywhere which implies no poverty. When talking about poverty we mean that the income level from employment is so low that basic human needs can’t be met. And so its will be quite difficult or even impossible to eliminate poverty in Nigeria, due to the corruption and so the rich extort money from the middle class and since they are not been questioned or even disciplined would not stop. Due to this uneven distribution of wealth in Nigeria this goal is unachieveable even in the next 9 years. Even when corruption is reduced due to the population of Nigeria and the fact that many are knowledgeably poor when it comes to how to make a living, will make it difficult for Nigeria to end poverty in ALL IT’S FORMS EVERYWHERE.
    The second goal is to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. This goal is unachieveable in the next 9 years since the first goal cannot be achieved because for hunger to end, poverty needs to end. For the goal of improved nutrition, if the government makes sure that all food are sold within a particular range making it affordable then people will eat whatever they wish to eat not eating just to avoid Ulcer as some many in Nigeria do. For example a man in his late forties needs to reduce the intake of beef and eat more of white meat but because he is poor will go for beef in order to it to be enough for his family thereby damaging his body. Some food are very expensive in relative to others even though they are very much available. Government should encourage sustaineable agriculture and subsidize some goods especially ones produced locally so as to encourage people to produce more make food available and affordable anytime.
    The third goal is to ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages. If the second goal is achieved then this goal can be achieved too.
    The fourth goal is to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life being learning opportunities for all. This goal can be achievable if the government ensures that even youth who comes out from secondary school have to opportunity to further his or her education and those who cannot afford it should be given scholarship. In Nigeria it had been observed that scholarship opportunities are only open to prestigious and famous schools. However extension should be made even to public schools since they need it more.
    The fifth goal is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. This goal can be achievable to some extent. Girls should be educated about their rights and be taught how to speak up when abused(physically, emotionally, mentally, otherwise). Sanctions and severe punishments should be made to violators of women rights.
    The sixth goal is to ensure availability and sustainable management of water sanitation for all. This goal can be achievable if the government provides water in places that naturally lack water resources through reservoirs. Maintenance is important too however both the government and individuals have a part to play. Citizens should not use a water reservoir to be a dump place or even use harsh object on places where there are pipe lines for water. Government plays a part here through coordination and violators should be punished.
    The seventh goal is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable economic growth and modern energy for all. This goal is very much achievable if greedy politicians in Nigeria will use to money allocated to finance energy in Nigeria in a proper manner ensuring affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for its people and not a medium if extortion as is the case today in Nigeria.
    The eighth goal is to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. Its quite difficult to have full employment in any economy however productive employment can be achievable if Nigerian government ensures that people are well employed and well educated enough to employ themselves when the need arise. Government shouldn’t in the name if tax extort from these self employed individuals in order not to lead them to work that are not decent.
    The nineth goal is to rebuild resident infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. This goal can be achievable if government encouraged locally private investors to invest in their own country not taking their investment to other economy. They can do this by providing a safe and favorable environment for these investors.
    Conclusion
    The government have a big role to play in achieving these goals. However mind set matters too because when a person does not know his problem it makes it very much difficult to help the person. So we all have a part to play if we are to achieve the SDGs.

  107. OKOYECHUKWU CHIOMA AUGUSTINA says:

    NAME: OKOYECHUKWU CHIOMA AUGUSTINA
    REG NO: 2017/244837
    DEPT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    Email: chiomaaugustina5@gmail.com

    The SDGs or the Project 2030 is a global call to put an end to poverty , secure the planet and ensure that everyone enjoys peace and prosperity by 2030. It was adopted by 193 countries with Nigeria as one of its country members. The SDGs are set of seventeen interconnected goals which have targets with at least one or two indicators for each targets. The implementation of “Global Goals” for all kicked off in January, 2015. Its objectives are to ensure social inclusion , protect the environment and foster economic growth . Governments , private sector , research, academia and CSOs receive support from the UN as the SDGs encourage partnerships. It ensures the right choices are adopted now to improve life for future generations in a sustainable way. The SDGs are blueprints for the world to experience peace and prosperity at the fullest by 2030.
    According to the agreement of Nigerian with the United Nations, aims to align its development priorities in partnership with CSOs and the private sector to achieve the SDGs together. The Agenda 2030, is designed to build sustainable world around the five P’s, namely; People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace, and Partnerships, which span across the 17 SDGs . In 2017, Nigeria was among 44 member countries of the United Nations that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) on the implementation of the 2030 agenda and the SDGs at HLPF .
    Since the year 2017, Nigeria has volunteered to be among the countries to review the progress of the 2030 Agenda. Voluntary National Review (VNR) presentations are annual reviews presented to the UN High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF). Nigeria was among 44 member countries of the United Nations that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) on the implementation of the 2030 agenda and the SDGs at HLPF.
    In 2020, Nigeria also volunteered with other 46 countries for VNR. ”Nigeria’s 2020 VNR on SDGs focuses on poverty (SDG-1), inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3),Education (SDG-4), gender equality (SDG-5), enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16) and partnerships (SDG-17).”
    The focus areas are based on President Buhari’s current development priorities and objectives. “The report was given in spite of the covid-19 Pandemic which is believed to slow down the progress of the 2030 Agenda.”
    In July 2020, President Muhammadu Buhari presented the report at the HLPF’s second panel session, online for the first time due to the COVID-19 pandemic. He gave the progress of seven of the SDGs which are referred to as core to the country at large.
    Financing
    On July 1, 2020 Nigeria officially commenced the process of designing and implementing an Integrated National Financing Framework (INFF) for financing national development priorities and achieving the SDGs. The integrated National Financing Framework (INFF) is a United Nations initiative to support countries in operationalizing the agreements of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda (AAAA) for financing the SDGs. UNDP has been supporting the government and its people by addressing development challenges, strengthening and building institutions that promote inclusive sustainable development and democratic governance. For example, during the COVID-19 crisis, UNDP partnered with Japan to support Nigeria’s health and socio-economic response.
    Challenges
    The year 2020, which is referred to as “Decade of Action” is said to have slow progress regards the progress of SDGs as reported by President Muhammadu Buhari during Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR).” The focus of the report was on issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5), and the enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16), and partnerships (SDG-17).

  108. Name:Oroke charity N
    Reg no :2017/243816
    Department: Economics
    Course :Eco 362

    What are the Sustainable Development Goals?
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
    The 17 SDGs are integrated—that is, they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.
    Through the pledge to Leave No One Behind, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind first. That is why the SDGs are designed to bring the world to several life-changing ‘zeros’, including zero poverty, hunger, AIDS and discrimination against women and girls.
    These goals include:
    (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    No poverty:To end poverty in all its forms everywhere. Achieving SDG 1 would end extreme poverty globally by 2030.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal
    The goal has seven targets and 13 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: eradication of extreme poverty; reduction of all poverty by half; implementation of social protection systems; ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources; and the building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters. The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.
    Good health and well-being: To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal
    It has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under 5 years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks.
    Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common causes of child and maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2016, the worldwide under-five mortality rate decreased by percent (from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births).Still, the number of children dying under age five is very high: 5.6 million in 2016.
    Qaulity Education :Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    Gender equality :Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”.[28]
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 5[edit]
    Through the pledge to “Leave No One Behind”, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind, first.SDG 5 aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence. This is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    Clean water and sanitation:Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.The eight targets are measured by 11 indicators.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 6
    The six “outcome-oriented targets” include: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.
    Affordable and clean energy: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 7
    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators.Three out of the five targets are “outcome targets”: Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency.
    Industry , innovation and infrastructure:Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 9
    SDG 9 has eight targets, and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures; promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization; increase access to financial services and markets; upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability; enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies. The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.
    Peace , Justice and strong institutions:To Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
    Responsible consumption and production: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

    The 11 targets of the goal are: implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns; achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources; reducing by half the per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels; achieving the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle; reducing waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse; encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices; promote public procurement practices that are sustainable; and ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development.

  109. Name:Oroke charity N
    Reg no :2017/243816
    Department: Economics
    Course :Eco 362

    What are the Sustainable Development Goals?
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
    The 17 SDGs are integrated—that is, they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.
    Through the pledge to Leave No One Behind, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind first. That is why the SDGs are designed to bring the world to several life-changing ‘zeros’, including zero poverty, hunger, AIDS and discrimination against women and girls.
    These goals include:
    (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    No poverty:To end poverty in all its forms everywhere. Achieving SDG 1 would end extreme poverty globally by 2030.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal
    The goal has seven targets and 13 indicators to measure progress. The five “outcome targets” are: eradication of extreme poverty; reduction of all poverty by half; implementation of social protection systems; ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources; and the building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters. The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG 1 are mobilization of resources to end poverty; and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.
    Good health and well-being: To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal
    It has 13 targets and 28 indicators to measure progress toward targets. The first nine targets are “outcome targets”. Those are: reduction of maternal mortality; ending all preventable deaths under 5 years of age; fight communicable diseases; ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health; prevent and treat substance abuse; reduce road injuries and deaths; grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education; achieve universal health coverage; and reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution. The four “means to achieving” SDG 3 targets are: implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines; increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries; and improve early warning systems for global health risks.
    Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common causes of child and maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2016, the worldwide under-five mortality rate decreased by percent (from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births).Still, the number of children dying under age five is very high: 5.6 million in 2016.
    Qaulity Education :Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    Gender equality :Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”.[28]
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 5[edit]
    Through the pledge to “Leave No One Behind”, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind, first.SDG 5 aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence. This is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    Clean water and sanitation:Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.The eight targets are measured by 11 indicators.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 6
    The six “outcome-oriented targets” include: Safe and affordable drinking water; end open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene, improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse, increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies, implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems. The two “means of achieving” targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.
    Affordable and clean energy: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 7
    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators.Three out of the five targets are “outcome targets”: Universal access to modern energy; increase global percentage of renewable energy; double the improvement in energy efficiency.
    Industry , innovation and infrastructure:Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
    This section is an excerpt from Sustainable Development Goal 9
    SDG 9 has eight targets, and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”: Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures; promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization; increase access to financial services and markets; upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability; enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies. The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets: Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries; support domestic technology development and industrial diversification; universal access to information and communications technology.
    Peace , Justice and strong institutions:To Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
    Responsible consumption and production: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

    The 11 targets of the goal are: implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns; achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources; reducing by half the per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels; achieving the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle; reducing waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse; encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices; promote public procurement practices that are sustainable; and ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development.

  110. Ayogu Uchechi Euphemia says:

    Name:Ayogu Uchechi Euphemia
    Reg No: 2017/244738
    Department: Education/economics
    INTRODUCTION
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
    The 17 SDGs are integrated—that is, they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.Through the pledge to Leave No One Behind, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind first. That is why the SDGs are designed to bring the world to several life-changing ‘zeros’, including zero poverty, hunger, AIDS and discrimination against women and girls.Everyone is needed to reach these ambitious targets. The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context.
    Sustainable Development Goals In Nigeria
    Since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Nigeria has continued to demonstrate its commitment to the SDGs promise through leadership and ownership of the implementation process. At UNDP, we are building on our support through provision of technical support to the Office of the Senior Special Advisor to the President on SDGs (OSSAP) and line ministries in an effort to ensure that planning and budgeting for development activities in the country are done within the framework of the SDGs. Using lessons learnt from the MDGs era, we are working closely with the Government of Nigeria and other partners in ensuring that the SDGs are efficient and effective implemented and that resources are allocated to sectors of the economy that will yield highest dividend for the poor and vulnerable millions across the country.
    We have supported the Government of Nigeria in conducting the SDGs Data Mapping Exercise and conducting a Baseline Surveys whose results have been useful in developing baseline indicators for SDGs implementation, monitoring and reporting in the country. The baseline survey continue to be updated by-annually to reflect current situation and changing trends in the country. In addition to conducting various advocacy and awareness activities with several government ministries, departments and agencies, we supported initiatives aimed at promoting strategic engagements around the SDGs. For example, with our support, the government developed the Private Sector Engagement Strategy which provides for and recommended the establishment of the first-ever Private Sector Advisory Group on SDGs. We have also supported the establishment of SDGs Development Partners Forum which we also achor.
    We provide both technical and financial support toward ongoing efforts aimed at integrating the SDGs into national and State-level policies, plans and budgets. In support of Government’s efforts aimed at sharing its experiences so far, we are providing technical support towards the development of Voluntary National Reviews (VNR). The VNRs facilitate the sharing of experiences, including successes, challenges and lessons learned, with a view to accelerating the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The NRVs will serves as a basis for anticipated regular reviews by the high-level political forum (HLPF) meetings held every year. The VNRs also seek to strengthen policies and institutions of governments and to mobilize partnerships.
    As the UN’s agency mandated to eradicate poverty, UNDP will continue supporting the Governments and people of Nigeria in tackling the new agenda and taking it forward over the next couple of years. We will continue to provide support to the as we all continue on this long path towards the SDGs promise- a promise of a just, equitable and sustainable planet – our common heritage; a promise of peace and prosperity for all.

  111. BLESSING says:

    NAME: OKON BLESSING ANIEFIOK
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG. NO.: 2017/243366
    blessing.okon.243366@unn.edu.ng

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deal with ending extreme poverty, achieving zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, affordable responsible consumption and production, climate action, peace and justice, partnership for the goals, etc.
    Looking at the goal there are mostly interrelated and interdependent, but build on balancing the three (3) pillars of economic, social and environmental objectives for global sustainability.
    POVERTY: Currently, World Poverty Clock, and NGO that estimate and track the number of world’s poor, reported that Nigeria has surpassed India to become the global capital of poverty, with 87 million people living on less than $1.89 per day and that number is rising. This is a central and one of the most devastating facts on the situation we have found ourselves, after extracting almost $1 million of oil since our national independence. we have effectively squandered an opportunity to utilize the natural resources, we obtained policy by chance instead of investing to uplift our people’s lives on political elite by commission or omission, chose the path of short term comfort and purchase of loyalty through economically unwise, or corruption riddle/ national expenditures, at the expense of economically-sound investment in both human and physical assets to transform our nation, Nigeria. it is obvious that, the first goal ending extreme poverty is already going with WRONG DIRECTION.
    Nigeria is getting poorer, and our economy is transforming the prospect in the next few years do not appear as bright as we think can be.

  112. IJE VORDA GOODNESS says:

    NAME: IJEaction VORDA GOODNESS
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/ 249514
    EMAIL: vordagoodness78@gmail.com

    ANSWER
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a list of 17 goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 with the view of achieving those goals by 2030. The goals include no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, decent work and economic growth, industry , innovation and infrastructure, reducing inequality, sustainable cities and communities , responsible consumption and production, climate action, life below water, life on land, peace, justice and stronger institutions and finally partnership for the goals.
    However local and international efforts have been taken for the achievement of these goals by 2030 but so many problem has stalled the process. The following seeks to highlight the problem so that tangible steps can be takes to achieve it.
    ▪ No poverty: In my view the achievement of this goal in Nigeria will take a long while because there’s no will on the part of the Nigerian Government to end poverty in the land as the political elites capitalize on this during election periods to buy the masses’ votes and use them for electoral violence and thuggery. Recently Nigeria became the poverty capital of the world I therefore don’t see the feasibility of this goal by 2030.
    ️▪ Zero hunger: Over the years efforts have been made in Nigeria to achieve this goal but it hasn’t paid off due to corruption. Funds supposed to be used to develop the requisite infrastructure for the achievement of this goal are embezzled. The government need to build strong institutions to monitor implementation of projects.
    ️▪ Good health and well-being: This goal the third on the SDGs list is no achievable in Nigeria by 2030 as our primary health care system is underdeveloped and grossly inefficient. Our politicans also have the culture of medical tourism preferring to access treatment abroad instead of developing local health system. A bill stating that Nigerian politicans must access health care in Nigeria will help in the achievement of this goal so they are forced to develop local health care. Till then this goal is not feasible in Nigeria by 2030.
    ️▪️ Quality education: As the day goes by our educational standards are falling below international ratings. Frequent strike and disruption in the system has enabled this.
    ▪ Gender equality: More efforts need to be put into the achievement of this goal as harmful gender stereotypes still exists among us even today. Thankful the conversation around gender equality has helped increase the number of girls who go to school. During the lockdown it was named the shadow pandemic because it became evident that more work still need to be done. Deliberate and purposeful efforts should be taken like changing our preconceived ideas of gender stereotypes, abolishing laws that discriminate on gender grounds etc.
    ️▪️ Clean water and sanitation: I don’t see the feasibility in the achievement of this goal by 2030. Access to Clean water in Nigeria is expensive and difficult, they are no proper drainages that will aid the achievement of this goal.
    ▪ Decent work and economic growth: Nigeria has had 2 recession in the space of 5 years. Our economy is greatly shakened and so many people have lots job or their business have folded up. This people are then absolved in the illegal informal sector. Cyber crime is very high in Nigeria. This cannot be fully achieved by 2030 but purposeful can be take to address this achieve it at a time not too far from 2030.
    ️▪ Industry, innovation, and infrastructure: Corruption has stalled this goal in Nigeria. Embezzlement of funds for capital projects and substandard capital projects is inhibiting the achievement of this goal. Furthermore, the government doesn’t provide funds and incentives to encourage science and technology in Nigeria. When countries of the world worked tiredlessly to develop vaccines for the deadly corona virus the Nigerian government waited to imports from others instead of investing heavily in research.
    ️▪️ Reducing inequality: The gap between the rich and the poor in widened in Nigeria over the years and the government has failed in its redistribution role.
    However this is not to say we should remain where we are but to buoy us to do better. We can and must do better so these goals become our reality.

  113. IJE VORDA GOODNESS says:

    NAME: IJE VORDA GOODNESS
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/ 249514
    EMAIL: vordagoodness78@gmail.com

    ANSWER
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a list of 17 goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 with the view of achieving those goals by 2030. The goals include no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, decent work and economic growth, industry , innovation and infrastructure, reducing inequality, sustainable cities and communities , responsible consumption and production, climate action, life below water, life on land, peace, justice and stronger institutions and finally partnership for the goals.
    However local and international efforts have been taken for the achievement of these goals by 2030 but so many problem has stalled the process. The following seeks to highlight the problem so that tangible steps can be takes to achieve it.
    ▪ No poverty: In my view the achievement of this goal in Nigeria will take a long while because there’s no will on the part of the Nigerian Government to end poverty in the land as the political elites capitalize on this during election periods to buy the masses’ votes and use them for electoral violence and thuggery. Recently Nigeria became the poverty capital of the world I therefore don’t see the feasibility of this goal by 2030.
    ️▪ Zero hunger: Over the years efforts have been made in Nigeria to achieve this goal but it hasn’t paid off due to corruption. Funds supposed to be used to develop the requisite infrastructure for the achievement of this goal are embezzled. The government need to build strong institutions to monitor implementation of projects.
    ️▪ Good health and well-being: This goal the third on the SDGs list is no achievable in Nigeria by 2030 as our primary health care system is underdeveloped and grossly inefficient. Our politicans also have the culture of medical tourism preferring to access treatment abroad instead of developing local health system. A bill stating that Nigerian politicans must access health care in Nigeria will help in the achievement of this goal so they are forced to develop local health care. Till then this goal is not feasible in Nigeria by 2030.
    ️▪️ Quality education: As the day goes by our educational standards are falling below international ratings. Frequent strike and disruption in the system has enabled this.
    ▪ Gender equality: More efforts need to be put into the achievement of this goal as harmful gender stereotypes still exists among us even today. Thankful the conversation around gender equality has helped increase the number of girls who go to school. During the lockdown it was named the shadow pandemic because it became evident that more work still need to be done. Deliberate and purposeful efforts should be taken like changing our preconceived ideas of gender stereotypes, abolishing laws that discriminate on gender grounds etc.
    ️▪️ Clean water and sanitation: I don’t see the feasibility in the achievement of this goal by 2030. Access to Clean water in Nigeria is expensive and difficult, they are no proper drainages that will aid the achievement of this goal.
    ▪ Decent work and economic growth: Nigeria has had 2 recession in the space of 5 years. Our economy is greatly shakened and so many people have lots job or their business have folded up. This people are then absolved in the illegal informal sector. Cyber crime is very high in Nigeria. This cannot be fully achieved by 2030 but purposeful can be take to address this achieve it at a time not too far from 2030.
    ️▪ Industry, innovation, and infrastructure: Corruption has stalled this goal in Nigeria. Embezzlement of funds for capital projects and substandard capital projects is inhibiting the achievement of this goal. Furthermore, the government doesn’t provide funds and incentives to encourage science and technology in Nigeria. When countries of the world worked tiredlessly to develop vaccines for the deadly corona virus the Nigerian government waited to imports from others instead of investing heavily in research.
    ️▪️ Reducing inequality: The gap between the rich and the poor in widened in Nigeria over the years and the government has failed in its redistribution role.
    However this is not to say we should remain where we are but to buoy us to do better. We can and must do better so these goals become our reality.

  114. IJE VORDA GOODNESS . says:

    NAME: IJE VORDA GOODNESS
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2017/ 249514
    EMAIL: vordagoodness78@gmail.com

    ANSWER
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a list of 17 goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 with the view of achieving those goals by 2030. The goals include no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, decent work and economic growth, industry , innovation and infrastructure, reducing inequality, sustainable cities and communities , responsible consumption and production, climate action, life below water, life on land, peace, justice and stronger institutions and finally partnership for the goals.
    However local and international efforts have been taken for the achievement of these goals by 2030 but so many problem has stalled the process. The following seeks to highlight the problem so that tangible steps can be takes to achieve it.
    ▪ No poverty: In my view the achievement of this goal in Nigeria will take a long while because there’s no will on the part of the Nigerian Government to end poverty in the land as the political elites capitalize on this during election periods to buy the masses’ votes and use them for electoral violence and thuggery. Recently Nigeria became the poverty capital of the world I therefore don’t see the feasibility of this goal by 2030.
    ️▪ Zero hunger: Over the years efforts have been made in Nigeria to achieve this goal but it hasn’t paid off due to corruption. Funds supposed to be used to develop the requisite infrastructure for the achievement of this goal are embezzled. The government need to build strong institutions to monitor implementation of projects.
    ️▪ Good health and well-being: This goal the third on the SDGs list is no achievable in Nigeria by 2030 as our primary health care system is underdeveloped and grossly inefficient. Our politicans also have the culture of medical tourism preferring to access treatment abroad instead of developing local health system. A bill stating that Nigerian politicans must access health care in Nigeria will help in the achievement of this goal so they are forced to develop local health care. Till then this goal is not feasible in Nigeria by 2030.
    ️▪️ Quality education: As the day goes by our educational standards are falling below international ratings. Frequent strike and disruption in the system has enabled this.
    ▪ Gender equality: More efforts need to be put into the achievement of this goal as harmful gender stereotypes still exists among us even today. Thankful the conversation around gender equality has helped increase the number of girls who go to school. During the lockdown it was named the shadow pandemic because it became evident that more work still need to be done. Deliberate and purposeful efforts should be taken like changing our preconceived ideas of gender stereotypes, abolishing laws that discriminate on gender grounds etc.
    ️▪️ Clean water and sanitation: I don’t see the feasibility in the achievement of this goal by 2030. Access to Clean water in Nigeria is expensive and difficult, they are no proper drainages that will aid the achievement of this goal.
    ▪ Decent work and economic growth: Nigeria has had 2 recession in the space of 5 years. Our economy is greatly shakened and so many people have lots job or their business have folded up. This people are then absolved in the illegal informal sector. Cyber crime is very high in Nigeria. This cannot be fully achieved by 2030 but purposeful can be take to address this achieve it at a time not too far from 2030.
    ️▪ Industry, innovation, and infrastructure: Corruption has stalled this goal in Nigeria. Embezzlement of funds for capital projects and substandard capital projects is inhibiting the achievement of this goal. Furthermore, the government doesn’t provide funds and incentives to encourage science and technology in Nigeria. When countries of the world worked tiredlessly to develop vaccines for the deadly corona virus the Nigerian government waited to imports from others instead of investing heavily in research.
    ️▪️ Reducing inequality: The gap between the rich and the poor in widened in Nigeria over the years and the government has failed in its redistribution role.
    However this is not to say we should remain where we are but to buoy us to do better. We can and must do better so these goals become our reality.

  115. Ugwoke Cornelius Esomchi says:

    Ugwoke Cornelius Esomchi
    2017/249581

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s form and everywhere..
    It’s possible: through effective and efficient use of nations available resources. This resources magament will bring about increase in the nations productivity, national output ( GDP) and development of all form. Through development poverty will be eradicated
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    This is possible; through the practice of large scale agriculture with advance maintenance techniques. These techniques will improve agriculture products, reduce cost and ensure food availability.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    This is possible; through revitalization of our nations health sector. This revitalization will come in the form of improved health facilities, payment of medical personnels, public education on health issues etc.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunity for all.
    This is possible; if the government policies on education will be void of any form of tribalism and favoritism. Our government should take education seriously by ensuring proper ministration to it’s matters.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is possible; if our government and society will see the need to provide a field of equal opportunity for all gender without any form of favoritism towards any gender.
    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This is possible; if all and sundry will come to the realization of the importance of water and proper sanitation is to our environment. And taking required steps to ensure it stays in it’s best form.
    Goal 7: build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Innovation and infrastructure is a product of good governance. Thus it is possible if good governance is ensured.
    Goal 8: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    The pursuit of human rights and equality of all before the law by all nations is the way of making this goal possible
    Goal 9: Make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
    This is possible; through the eradication of discrimination of humans by all nations of the world.

  116. Ugwu Kingsley ugocukwu says:

    Ugwu Kingsley ugocukwu
    2017/249581
    The sustainable development goals or global goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Considering the first nine (9) goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and using Nigeria as a case study given its time frame, the following are my points;

    1. END POVERTY IN ALL IT’S FORM EVERYWHERE
    Considering the time frame of 9 years, it is practically impossible for poverty to end in Nigeria. This is because there is no programme put in place to ensure that poverty is eradicated for poverty to end, there must be massive creation of employment and equal distribution of income. There must exist poverty alleviating programmes which can come in form of infrastructural development grants and loans and also skill Acquisition Avenue. Therefore, looking at the 9 years’ time span, it is impossible for Nigeria to achieve this because there is no plan in motion currently and these programmes are not achievable in just 9 years.

    2. END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE.
    The second goal can be a partial success in the aspect of achieving a sustainable agriculture. There have been programme and organization set up by the government (eg FADMA) to encourage farmers especially the poor. All that needs to be done in this aspect is to ensure through monitoring that such projects get to its target area (which is farmers in rural area). However; hunger, food, security and improved nutrition cannot be achieved. This is because a poor person cannot afford 3 meals in a day nether does he care how secure his meal is due to hunger.

    3. ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELL-BEING FOR ALL AT ALLEGES.
    This goal is achievable, considering the fact that so many provisions have been made for infant health and also does with deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. However, little effort needs to made by equipping the hospitals to be more functional and reducing the cost of health care especially for the old.

    4. ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFE LONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES.
    Inclusive education, not really achievable, and if achievable it would not be equitable seeing as society is divided into sections with different levels of opportunities available to each section. Life long learning opportunities is achievable due to the presence of the internet and online learning.

    5. ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS.

    Programs can be set up to do this and they can be funded by the government. However, we say funded by the government but with the level of corruption, any money appropriated to this will most certainly be embezzled. If NGOs are factored in, this just might be achievable.

    6. ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION.
    Nigeria is not gotten to the point where sustainable water management is a priority and it’s relevance has not been fully disseminated which would be a stumbling block for this goal. Sanitation is possible if there is Nation wide sensitisation and government actually make REAL efforts towards it.

    7. ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY.
    Just like in the case of the goal before this , the fact that the importance of this is not known to the public is going to be a problem. Also the technology needed for production of modern energy is not domestically produced, hence it cannot be affordable.

    8. PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK.
    Economic growth with all the above features is a nice concept but that is all it is, a concept. Theories are nice but practicals are what matters. Nigeria has a rooted problem with her Political sector which poisons the Economic sector, 15 years cannot correct Nigeria’s political defect as well as bring about full employment. Things can get a bit better but total achievement is doubtful.

    9. BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALISATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION.
    This can be done as long as the government are willing to reward hard work and show it’s support for innovation by sponsoring and rewarding innovators. This will reduce brain drain which would ensure there are capable hands to industrialize the country before 2030.

  117. Anyabuike Victor ifeanyi (2017/243144)economics education says:

    Key facts
    Globally, the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age fell from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013.
    In developing countries, the percentage of underweight children under 5 years old dropped from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013.
    Globally, new HIV infections declined by 38% between 2001 and 2013.
    Existing cases of tuberculosis are declining, along with deaths among HIV-negative tuberculosis cases.
    In 2010, the world met the United Nations Millennium Development Goals target on access to safe drinking-water, as measured by the proxy indicator of access to improved drinking-water sources, but more needs to be done to achieve the sanitation target.
    The MDGs have been superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.

    Progress report on the health-related MDGs
    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    More countries are now achieving high levels of immunization coverage; in 2013, 66% of Member States reached at least 90% coverage. In 2013, global measles immunization coverage was 84% among children aged 12–23 months. During 2000–2013, estimated measles deaths decreased by 74% from 481 000 to 124 000.

    Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.

    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.

    The proportion of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy was about 83% for the period 2007–2014, but for the recommended minimum of 4 or more visits the corresponding figure drops to around 64%.

    The proportion of births attended by skilled personnel – crucial for reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths – is above 90% in 3 of the 6 WHO regions. However, increased coverage is needed in certain regions, such as the WHO African Region where the figure was still only 51%.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.

    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    Malaria
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.

    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.

    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.

    Tuberculosis
    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people).

    Globally, treatment success rates have been sustained at high levels since 2007, at or above the target of 85%. However, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which emerged primarily as a result of inadequate treatment, continues to pose problems.

    Other diseases
    MDG Target 6.C also includes neglected tropical diseases – a medically diverse group of infectious conditions caused by a variety of pathogens.

    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.

    Plans to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem worldwide by 2020 have also been prepared and are being implemented. The elimination of visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent by 2020 is on track with a greater than 75% reduction in incident cases recorded since the launch of the programme in 2005. In the case of lymphatic filariasis, more than 5 billion treatments have been delivered since 2000 to stop its spread and of the 73 known endemic countries 39 are on track to achieve its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.

    Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
    Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.

    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development
    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries
    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.

    Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.

  118. Sunday Emem Mfon says:

    Name: Sunday Emem Mfon Sunday
    Reg no: 2017/242429

    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
    And with this goals;
    -End poverty in all it’s forms.
    -End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    -Ensure healthy lived and promote well-being for all at all ages.
    -Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all.
    -Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    -Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    -Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    -Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive and decent work for all.
    -Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovations etc. are not unachievable in Nigeria with the time frame provided.

    The first goal is impossible to since to achieve because of the high rate of poverty cause by high level of unemployment and corruption of our leaders.
    The second goal is unachievable since it is not possible to achieve the first goal, it is impossible to end hunger as those who are poor are unable to provide their basic needs. Since this is unachievable, the citizens who are not well to do cannot be secured, leading to low standard of living as regards to the third goal which is unachievable, since it is interconnected to the first and second goal, healthy lived and promote well-being for all at all ages cannot be achieved.
    And also with regards to the fourth goal, those who are poor cannot afford such luxury.
    In regards to the fifth goal gender equality can be achieved as women are now being educated on their rights and putting them to action. Now most of them are now participating in elections as regards political offices, women also come out to vote and are also obtaining proper educations in schools. In achieving the sixth goal, it can be attained through proper orientation of citizens on the importance of keeping or environment clean an taking measures that will prevent people from littering their environment. Also boreholes and pipe borne water could be provided to ensure water availability for citizens of the country.
    The following goal cannot be achieved as been faced with power failures as money paid to this sector is usually being looted by greedy politicians.
    In the eight goal, economic growth cannot be achieved as productive activities are not being encouraged in the country because of poor power supply and here imported good are preferred to locally made goods.
    Also funds allocated for infrastructures and social amenities are looted for selfish gains by political leaders. These are the reasons why the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved in Nigeria.

  119. Sunday Emem Mfon says:

    Name: Sunday Emem Mfon Sunday
    Reg no: 2017/242429

    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
    And with this goals;
    1 -End poverty in all it’s forms.
    2 -End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    3 -Ensure healthy lived and promote well-being for all at all ages.
    4 -Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all.
    5 -Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    6 -Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    7 -Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    8 -Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive and decent work for all.
    9 -Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovations etc. are not unachievable in Nigeria though not all with the time frame provided because;

    The first goal is impossible to since to achieve because of the high rate of poverty cause by high level of unemployment, underemployment and corruption of our leaders.
    The second goal is unachievable since it is not possible to achieve the first goal, it will also be impossible to end hunger.
    Since this is unachievable, the citizens who are not well to do cannot be safe, leading to low standard of living as regards to the third goal which is unachievable, since it is interconnected to the first and second goal, it
    cannot be achieved.
    And also with regards to the fourth goal, those who are poor cannot afford such luxury.
    In regards to the fifth goal gender equality can be achieved as women are now allowed educated and are taught on their rights. Now most of them are now participating in elections either to vote or to be voted for.
    In achieving the sixth goal which achieved, it can be through enlightening the citizens on the importance of keeping their environment clean and preventing people from littering their environment.
    Also the seventh goal can be achieved if boreholes and pipe borne water are provided to ensure water is available for the citizens of the country.
    The following goal cannot be achieved because of the power failures faced in Nigeria as money paid to this sector is usually being embezzled by greedy politicians.
    In the eight goal, economic growth cannot be achieved in the country because of poor power supply which will lead to low productive, hence imported good are preferred to locally made goods.
    Also in the last goal, funds allocated to build good infrastructures and social amenities for the welfare of the citizens are taken by political leaders for their own selfish interest.
    These are thewhy the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)cannot be achieved in Nigeria.

  120. Name:ugwuda chidera Blessing
    Reg No:2017/243804
    Dept:Economics education
    Course: Eco 362
    Topic: Discuss the analysis of sustainable development goal 1_9

    Goal1:End poverty in all its forms everywhere….this goal is not achievable because of certain reasons ..for instance in Nigeria where our leaders are selfish ..unemployed youths every where and yet the money meant to use for the development of the country will still be pocketed in their private pockets where the rich keep getting richer and the poor getting poorer..there fore this goal is not achievable unless there is equitable distribution among all.
    Goal2:End hunger achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture _this goal can be achieved if only our government officials will allocate proper resources to the masses..for instance some agricultural tools like tractors and things like fertilizer and loan will be given to farmer in support of there farm work will actually boost a sustainable agriculture.
    Goal3:Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all ages_this goal can be achieved if there is enough money to build good hospital , provide hospital equipment and good drugs that will help in boosting healthy life for all ages.But in absence of this it cannot be achieved.
    Goal4:Achieve gender equality and sustAinable and empower women and girls:Gender inequality can be achieved if women start playing the role of men in the society ..both gender should be given equal opportunity both in the family school and working place.women should also be empowered by granting them access to education at all ages unlike before when women were denied education because they were seen as people who do not necessarily need to go to school in the sense that they will be married out.
    Goal5:Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns_this goal can be achieved if the agricultural sector will be funded enough to supply agricultural equipments like good farm tools ,fertilizer ,pesticides ,insecticide etc which will aid increase in farm produce which will help in providing sufficient food for consumption and provision of farm machinery like tractor bulldozer will enhance large production.
    Goal6:Reduce inequality within and among countries_Many countries across the world feel superior than others..eg country like Nigerian are not regarded by many countries they are seen as people with bad intentions everywhere they go ,therefore creating discrimination and inequality among each country, For this goal to be achieved ,there should be an organization that will bring different countries across the world together and enable each country to play a particular role in the organizational activities..eg an organization like the UN(united nations).
    Goal7:Build resident infrastructure,promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation_This can be achieved if only the there should be enough capital to build infrastructures like good roads, electricity,good hospital and water which aids in man’s daily survival ,to promote inclusive it can be achieved by giving everyone one equal opportunity IE people with special needs and people with out special needs to participate in some activities and creation of industries which will bring more employment opportunities in the nation and economic growth and development as well.
    Goal8:Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all_this is achievable ,it can be done by setting up different pipe borne water all over the community and ensure that water supply is in abundance and least with this proper sanitation will be maintained when there is adequate supply of water.
    Goal9:Ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable economic growth,full and productive employment and decent work for all_This is not achievable because resources to satisfy this are not in abundance coupled with corrupt and greedy leaders.

  121. ODOH KOSISOCHI DORIS says:

    NAME : ODOH KOSISOCHI DORIS
    REG NO: 2017/249542
    DEPT : ECONOMICS
    E-MAIL: kosisochidoris@gmail.com

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) brought up by 193 member states held in a UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2000 was actually meant to improve on five areas which I like to call the 5Ps and they are: Planet, People, Peace, Prosperity, and Partnership.
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people-centered and planet-sensitive. They are universal, applying to all countries while recognizing different realities and capabilities. The goals are not independent from each other; they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. Using Nigeria as a case study the 17 SDGs will not be achievable within the allotted time-frame.
    1. No poverty: Nigeria with its large population has a very poor economy which keeps moving down the drain on a daily basis, with price of agricultural produce skyrocketing leading to food inflation .imagine a country that cannot comfortably feed her population then, how can she afford other basic social amenities like quality education, clean water and so on.
    2. Zero hunger: hunger can only be eradicated in Nigeria if the government of this country grow the agricultural sector of the economy by introducing mechanized farming, and provision of grants and loans to farmers.
    3. Good health and well-being: for this goal to be achieved in Nigeria, all forms of corruption especially nepotism and tribalism will be eradicated so that the revenue generated from our natural resources will be used to improve our standard of living.
    4. Quality education: for this goal to be achieved in Nigeria there will reduction in poverty level and improvement in the standard of living for people.
    5. Gender equality: places like Sokoto where they do not believe in female education most times there girls are being given out to marriage thereby ending the girls education. And for gender equality to be achieved all and sundry must be knowledgeable and educated to an extent.
    6. Availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: for this goal to be achieved the government will have to sensitize the public on the need to manage our water by avoiding disposal of refuse, by construction of sewers and implementation of policies against abuse of water bodies.
    7. Easy access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: the government should subsidize the cost of electricity for all and sundry, and also should innovate other reliable and sustainable source of energy.
    8. Promote economic growth and productive employment for all: there are lots of graduates with no job in Nigeria and no proper enabling environments for entrepreneurs. People should be employed based on merit and not otherwise.
    9. Promote industrialization and foster innovation: t his can only be achieved if the government of Nigeria support education by encouraging technocrats in the country and also by giving scholarships to students.

  122. Emegbue Benjamin says:

    EMEGBUE BENJAMIN
    2017/241452
    Economics Dept.

    The SDGs, a set of targets designed to effectively address various social, cultural, and economic issues, as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”, was launched in 2015,
    with an achievement timeline set at 2030. Now in its fifth year, the drive towards reviewing the implementation processes involved in achieving these goals is of top priority more than ever. Owing to the immense resources, manpower, expertise, and involvement required to sufficiently achieve these goals, the private sector is be singled out yet again as a key enabler of the kind of progress any State, particularly Nigeria, might
    seek to make with the Sustainable Development Goals.

  123. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people centered as well as planet sensitive. They are universal as they apply to all countries while recognizing the different realities as well as capabilities. Most importantly, they recognize that we can’t reach our development goals without addressing human rights and complex humanitarian issues. These SDGs are stated thus:
    1. End poverty: This is the move to alleviate poverty in all its forms everywhere. This wouldn’t be achievable in Nigeria since a very large number of it’s citizens are living below $1 per day.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not achievable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: We can’t ensure healthy lives if we don’t exterminate poverty because most unhealthy persons in the country are poverty-stricken.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since poverty is widespread, education for all is not achievable.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Since gender disparity exists between the males and their female counterparts, then this goal wouldn’t be achieved.
    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Thus is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes water toxic for use. Hence adequate sensitization is required to solve this menace.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Since we lack adequate monitoring of electricity generation and distribution, a sustained and accessible energy for all is not attainable. Hence there is need to revitalize the electricity sector.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Since at least 70% of the country’s population is unemployed, underemployed or working poor efforts to curb the rage of unemployment is required to boost economic growth and bring about full employment.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: Since Nigeria lags behind in terms of infrastructure, there is need to build up structures that would foster innovation in the country as well as support innovative minds.

  124. UGORJI IJEOMA JUDITH says:

    Name: Ugorji Ijeoma Judith.

    Reg no: 2017/243088

    Department: ECONOMICS

    Blogspot: peppyxperience.blogspot.com

    The seventeen (17) sustainable development goals (SDGs) are people centered in that they are targetted towards meeting the basic and fundamental needs of people so as to improve their welfare and sustain a better and decent standard of living. The SDGs are also global in nature. It is all encompassing, taking into consideration different nations, their prospective and capacities as well as their national policies and programs.
    The major aim of the SDGs is to address fundamental and salient issues that affect basic human rights and complex humanitarian issues which cuts across the countries of the world while ravaging the less developed nations. However given this very much desirable aim, the SDGs is expected to stimulate actions that would lead to growth and development in five key areas of absolute importance in issues regarding humanity. These key areas are people (people inclined), planet (planet sensitive), peace for all, partnership and prosperity.
    These goals are interelated and independent on one another so that in achieving some, the success of others are incorporated. Hence the need for a method of integration of these goals so as to achieve each purpose simultaneously.
    Nigeria, still grappling with corruption and such macroeconomic issues as inflation and unemployment has a lot to do in seeing that this goals are achieved. Despite the prevailing economic issues, the country to an extent have been able to work on some of these goals and have recorded certain amount of success. Of course with restructuring and proper reforms, some if not all of these goals could be achieved given the time stipulated frame.
    Assessing this goals and it’s implementation thus far in Nigeria, and considering them individually,
    Goal 1. End poverty in all it’s form can be achieved in Nigeria if the country can diversify it’s economy, invest in other sectors if the economy other than the oil sector so as to industrialise there by creating jobs. When there is enough jobs, people would earn income to improve their lives and step out of poverty. Social empowerment programs should be encouraged. Through this, loans, grants may be given out for small and medium scale enterprises to thrive in the country. This will take a lot of jobless people off the street. In this way, poverty can be eliminated.
    Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agricultural. This boils down to diversification of the economy. Improving the agricultural sector of the economy by providing more credits to farmers and agro producers, revisiting the land tenure system as it affect agriculture provision of agricultural raw materials for farmers, going in large mechanised agriculture will bring a total reform in the agricultural sector. This will bring about massive food production such that the country well have enough for consumption and for export through which it generates revenue.
    Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all ages. This is sure achievable in Nigeria if investing and improving the health sector is a priority for the government. Environmental sustainability is another key element in ensuring healthy life. A healthy populace is a wealthy nation.
    Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all. This is achievable in Nigeria through improvement on the quality of education at all level of learning. Proper infrastructure for schools should be put in place. Provision or subsidization of learning materials should be encouraged especially at primary level.
    Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and Empower all women and girls. Access to education for both male and female is to a great extend a laudable achievement in Nigeria. Both gender are allowed access to education at all levels except for very minimal exception in the northern part of the country majorly due to religious and traditional reasons. Women in Nigeria in recent times can now take up jobs which previously were perceived to be male centered. They also take up political positions at different levels of government.
    Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. This too is very much achievable and it’s the collective due of both the government and the governed.
    Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy to all. This is achievable if proper implementation of policies relating to energy generation and distribution are ensured.
    Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. This is achievable through investment in infrastructure and capital projects, reform in the agricultural sector and growth of small and medium scale enterprises which forms a large portion of the informal sector of the economy.
    Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainability in industrialisation and foster innovation. This is achievable through government making infrastructure a priority.this would foster economic growth and prevent capital flight as well.

  125. ONAH GEORGE CHIEDOZIE says:

    Name: ONAH GEORGE CHIEDOZIE.
    REG. NO: 2017/241453.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.Through the pledge to Leave No One Behind, countries have committed to fast-track progress for those furthest behind first. That is why the SDGs are designed to bring the world to several life-changing ‘zeros’, including zero poverty, hunger, AIDS and discrimination against women and girls.
    Everyone is needed to reach these ambitious targets. The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context.
    The legacy and achievements of the MDGs provide us with valuable lessons and experience to begin work on the new goals. But for millions of people around the world the job remains unfinished. We need to go the last mile on ending hunger, achieving full gender equality, improving health services and getting every child into school beyond primary. The SDGs are also an urgent call to shift the world onto a more sustainable path.
    The SDGs are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and tackle some of the more pressing challenges facing the world today. All 17 Goals interconnect, meaning success in one affects success for others. Dealing with the threat of climate change impacts how we manage our fragile natural resources, achieving gender equality or better health helps eradicate poverty, and fostering peace and inclusive societies will reduce inequalities and help economies prosper. In short, this is the greatest chance we have to improve life for future generations.
    The SDGs coincided with another historic agreement reached in 2015 at the COP21 Paris Climate Conference. Together with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, signed in Japan in March 2015, these agreements provide a set of common standards and achievable targets to reduce carbon emissions, manage the risks of climate change and natural disasters, and to build back better after a crisis.
    The SDGs are unique in that they cover issues that affect us all. They reaffirm our international commitment to end poverty, permanently, everywhere. They are ambitious in making sure no one is left behind. More importantly, they involve us all to build a more sustainable, safer, more prosperous planet for all humanity.
    ”Since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Nigeria has continued to demonstrate its commitment to the SDGs promise through leadership and ownership of the implementation process”. In summary this goals are partially implemented in Nigeria because of weak institutions.

  126. OBIOMA GOD'SWILL NNAEMEKA says:

    Obioma God’swill Nnaemeka
    2017/251914
    Economics

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    Poverty in Nigeria is a phenomenon that is bound to continue thriving with this poorly executed well planned policies, though Nigerian government have been making policies to alleviate poverty but the execution part is nothing write about.

    Many Nigerians are always looking angry because as they say a hungry man is an angry man, Nigeria will remain a hunger risen Nation unless better policies are better executed.

    Good health and wellbeing can’t be achieved in thus setting because of hunger, poverty and the high cost of good medical care in the country.

    High cost of education coupled with the incessant strike activities of the academic and non academic union has and is likely to serve as a bane to the education sector of the country.

    Clean drinkable water and sanitation has been a thing of worry among Nigerians and is likely yo remain a worry as the Government of the Nation hasn’t given it the needed attention

    Energy, hmmm. Nigeria over the past week overtook Zambia as the Country with the worst power supply in the world, policies to improve this jiggery-pockery are far from been established in the country and even execution is likely to be a more demanding tqsj within this corrupt system.

    with the ever growing Nigeria population and need to meet ends by People, it’s economy is likely to continue growing but development and good working environment is not attainable due to poor education system, poor working conditions etc

    Accountability, transparency and prudence is a way to ensure infrastructural growth and development in the industries and encourage innovation.

  127. Name : Chukwu mmesoma faith
    Reg no: 2017/243807
    Department: education and economics
    Let us try to analyze some of these SDGs set out by the United Nations. It is a fact that while citizens of some African and Asian countries are starving, the rich countries are beset with obesity. Discrepancies of these types are morally disturbing. The United Nations is ideally suited to ending these shocking inequalities because it hosts all the nations of the world and endows each with identical voting power in the General Assembly. The poorest and the weakest are equal to the richest and the strongest.

    The most urgent approach to promoting a global partnership for sustainable development is the ending of warfare. War, whether intramural or international, wreaks havoc on the elements necessary for health, housing, education, employment, the rule of law, the environment, and happiness generally.

    War is enormously expensive. It diverts resources from schools, hospitals, roads and telecommunications to AK-47s, Kalashnikovs, missiles, bombs and artillery shells. Moreover, wars regularly entail the use of child soldiers, for example, in Sierra Leone, Angola and Sudan. The children are deprived of educational opportunities. Many are maimed and become permanently disabled from productive employment. Others become emotionally and psychologically disturbed, an ailment that routinely finds expression in criminal or anti-social behavior. By killing or deracinating the flower of youth, war keeps a country immersed in misery and underdevelopment.

    War also arrests economic development. Foreign investment withers. Infrastructure is destroyed. The consequence is widespread poverty.

    War also creates a culture antithetical to democracy and the rule of law. It teaches that disputes should be resolved by the bullet in lieu of the ballot box.

    I admit that denunciation of warfare is easier than prevention. But if mankind can assemble knowledge to send men to the moon and Land Rovers to Mars, the knowledge necessary to end wars cannot be far behind. As is said in the Song of Solomon, “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” Prophet Muhammad appealed to the conscience of human beings by saying, “The pen is mightier than the sword.”

    The second urgent global sustainable development objective should be universal literacy and education. As Socrates explained, the unexamined life is not worth living. Or as philosopher Sam Johnson amplified, there is the same difference between the learned and unlearned as between the living and the dead. And as the Quran says, “Are those who know equal with those who know not?” These observations are made not to deride or degrade the uneducated but to underscore the criticality of education to making life morally meaningful and fulfilling between ashes to ashes and dust to dust.

    Education is also human capital that fuels economic growth. A worker’s productivity and compensation generally rise commensurate with educational achievement. In addition, education correlates with a worker’s ability to shift jobs and master new skills in an ever-changing global economy.

    The United Nations should thus develop educational yardsticks that a nation must satisfy to receive economic or military aid from third parties, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The yardsticks should be incorporated in a treaty to be ratified by all United Nations members. A civilization lives by symbols, and what could be more inspiring than privileged persons sacrificing on behalf of underprivileged ones.

    Third on the global sustainable development agenda should be the elimination of poverty and the securing for every man, woman and child a right to flourishing health, a clean environment, comfortable housing and nutritious food. The goal is not a choice but a moral obligation. Thus, rich countries should transfer much of their riches to poor countries.

    Next on the list of global sustainable development priorities should be the ending of all racial, ethnic, or class hatreds or enmities. Think of the horrifying quantity of violence in the world whose fundamental cause can be traced back to such social divisions. It infects every country on the planet. And if even one person suffers from invidious discrimination, then all are threatened and civilization has been tarnished.

    The attainment of equality for women is another pressing yardstick of global sustainable development. Experience and intuition both demonstrate that women are as intelligent as men. They are as entrepreneurial and disciplined. They contribute every bit as much to economic growth and social cohesion as men. It is thus imperative that women receive the same legal rights and social dignity as men if global sustainable development is to advance.

    The halting of trafficking in women or children to provide sexually decadent pleasures for the rich and squalid also should rank high on the agenda of global sustainable development. Degradation as commercial sex objects is morally repulsive. The United Nations must do everything in its power to end the vile practice. It scars women and children both physically and emotionally. It enriches the wretched and rewards the worst lusts.

    Similarly repugnant is trafficking in children for slave labor. The parental sellers, the buyers, and the users of child slave labor should be held accountable as criminals. Children are the future of mankind. They cannot be permitted to groan, suffer and wither to satisfy the greed and lust for the pleasure of the wicked.

    Global sustainable development also requires universal access to the Internet, a technological marvel that brings the excitement of knowledge and the joys of instant communication to every user. The United Nations should play a key role in the universal access quest.

    A clean environment is also essential to global sustainable development. Pollution is more than twice cursed. It damages crops. It kills lakes and rivers. It occasions disease and illness through water and air, for example, lead poisoning or cholera. And it may even cause the submersion of entire island nations through global warming, a variation on the biblical flood. A clean environment, therefore, is a key element of community fairness and justice.

    Let me with great humility offer a few closing observations about the entire global sustainable development enterprise. It is characteristic that national or international organizations employ quantitative benchmarks to measure success in meeting enumerated objectives. For instance, a longstanding objective has been for each nation to contribute a specified percentage of its gross domestic product for humanitarian or foreign aid. Companion quantitative benchmarks have been set for literacy, vaccinations, annual income, longevity, smoking, etc.

    There is nothing inherently mischievous about these development yardsticks. But they should never distract from our recognition that the highest in sustainable development consists of non-quantifiable characteristics. These would include acts of charity, humility, courage, benevolence, magnanimity, self-restraint, and non-vindictiveness. It would seem to me to turn logic and morality on their heads to award higher sustainable development acclaim to a nation whose citizens were universally economically prosperous, literate, healthy, long-lived, non-polluting, but also mean-spirited, selfish, and egotistical than to a nation whose citizens were impoverished, plagued by disease, but were generous in time, effusive in hospitality, austere in habits, and selfless for the community.

    These goals seem to be ambitious, but as President Erdogan amplified on Nov. 1, 2020, “We must fulfill our responsibility, not only for ourselves and our countries but also for the future of our children.”

  128. Nwobodo Christian Chukwuemeka says:

    Nwobodo Christian Chukwuemeka
    2017/241437
    Economics Department

    APPRAISAL OF THE SDGs PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
    Sequel to the MDGs which ended in 2015, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals was designed to be the global goal towards a better world by 2030. In this discourse, we’d attempt to appraise the state of these goals and targets in Nigeria towards the attainment of the SDGs by 2030.

    1. End Poverty in all in its forms everywhere:
    Walking through the streets of Nigeria, one can evidently see that this goal can not be achieved by 2030 as the
    needed infrastructure and orientation of the people are not yet in place. The poor are getting poorer by the day as
    the economy is getting into a recession by the day.

    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture:
    The worsening economic condition leaves a lot of people struggling to have a meal per day let alone achieving
    food security. While this goal will not be achieved by 2030, realistic economic development strategies can be put in
    place to help the citizens have a better life in the near future.

    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages:
    This goal can be achieved in the near future but not before 2030 as the healthcare system is still in a deplorable
    state. Also by establishing initiatives like maternal care, the well-being of many will be improved.

    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all:
    Inclusive education for all, particularly females is being encouraged by the day. Though a lifelong opportunity for all
    is unrealistic as the education sector that drives this is being ignored.

    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls:
    Gender equality is being championed across Nigeria, which makes it a feasible goal by 2030.

    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all:
    This is not necessarily feasible by 2030 as the issue of water is a great issue across the country. Sanitation is not
    given due attention by the people. Thus a lot has to be done to re-orient the attitude of the citizens towards proper
    sanitaion.

    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all:
    This is a far cry from reality as the power supply is the main challenge affecting the Nigerian economy. Generating
    and distributing energy is truly costly and not easily obtained in the ecountry.

    8. Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent
    work for all:
    This will not be achieved by the end of 2030 as nepotism and tribalism have become the grounds for employment
    in the country.

    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation:
    In present-day Nigeria, this goal will not be achieved by 2030 as infrastructure is still a big challenge to our
    economic development. In the absence of resilient ing]frastructure, sustainable industrialization cannot be achieved,
    thus innovation cannot be fostered efficiently.

  129. Anachuna Cynthia Chisom says:

    Anachuna Cynthia Chisom
    2017/249481.

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are comprised of seventeen objectives which is relied upon to be accomplished by 2030 in each country on the planet to accomplish a superior and more reasonable future. Among this 17 objectives I will zero in on the initial 9 objectives. The SDGs include:

    1. End destitution in the entirety of its structures all over the place.

    2. End hunger, accomplish food security and improved sustenance, advance reasonable farming.

    3. Guarantee solid lives and advance prosperity for all at all ages.

    4. Guarantee comprehensive and fair quality schooling and advance deep rooted learning openings for all.

    5. Accomplish sex correspondence and enable all ladies and young ladies.

    6. Guarantee accessibility and practical administration of water and sterilization for all.

    7. Guarantee admittance to reasonable, dependable, feasible and present day energy for all.

    8. Advance maintained, comprehensive and practical monetary development, full and gainful business and fair work for all.

    9. Construct tough foundation, advance comprehensive and feasible industrialization and cultivate development.

    1. End destitution in the entirety of its structures all over the place: This could be accomplished by utilizing the accessible assets adequately and productively, which will prompt turn of events and full business that will help in killing neediness before 2030.

    2. End hunger, accomplish food security and improved sustenance, advance maintainable agribusiness: This could be accomplished through improving and diverting enough assets to the agrarian area by empowering the ranchers and giving them enough gear and compost. On the off chance that the public authority do this, I accept that by 2030 there will be no appetite and we will accomplish food security and improved nourishment.

    3. Guarantee solid lives and advance prosperity for all at all ages: This will be accomplished by building and keeping up medical services offices and by giving qualified medical services works and sufficient gear.

    4. Guarantee comprehensive and impartial quality training and advance long lasting learning openings for everything: This could be accomplished given the public authority turn around its consideration and offer life to public foundations once more, by appropriately subsidizing them, not owing the scholarly and non-scholastic staffs, improve frameworks and receives world accepted procedures regarding guidelines and innovation in schools.

    5. Accomplish sex correspondence and enable all ladies and young ladies: I accept this has been accomplished as in they currently go to class and take an interest strategically, socially and something else and they are presently engaged.

    6. Guarantee accessibility and feasible administration of water and sterilization for everything: This could be accomplished by 2030, if government put resources into water innovative work, and advance the consideration of ladies, youth, and native networks in water assets administration by producing familiarity with these jobs and making a move that will prompt mutually beneficial outcomes and expanded maintainability and trustworthiness for both human and biological frameworks. we can likewise engage in the World Water Day and World Toilet Day crusades that plan to give data and motivation on cleanliness.

    7. Guarantee admittance to reasonable, dependable, maintainable and current energy for everything: This can be accomplished if the public authority can speed up the progress to a moderate, solid, and manageable energy framework by putting resources into environmentally friendly power assets and embracing clean energy advancements and foundation.

    8. Advance supported, comprehensive and maintainable financial development, full and profitable business and good work for all: Like I said in the primary objective about finishing neediness, we can likewise accomplish this if government utilize the accessible assets productively and adequately.

    9. Fabricate strong framework, advance comprehensive and reasonable industrialization and cultivate development: this is conceivable by building up guidelines and advancing guidelines that guarantees organization ventures and drives are overseen economically. This is likewise conceivable if there is acceptable administration since great administration achieves Innovation and framework.

  130. Ugwoke faith chinazaekpere says:

    ugwoke faith chinazaekpere
    2017/249582
    Economics major
    The 17 sustainable goals include the following :
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    this sustainable development can be achieved if Govt can make a policy by setting up a regulatory body guilding them and citizens checking what they always do and it’s impact(both positive and negative impact) in the society. proper orientation can equally help in curbing it in the society.

  131. Agbo Jennifer Amarachi says:

    Agbo Jennifer Amarachi
    2017/249476
    jenniferamarachi.agbo@gmail.com
    Economics

    Actually some of the first Nine Sustainable Development Goals can still be achieved in Nigeria before 2030 to an extent.

    The first Goal- No poverty which seeks to end poverty in all its form everywhere, considering the given time frame, is something quite not achievable by 2030. Well, Ever since the inception of these SDGs, Nigeria’s poverty rate rather be increased instead of decreasing. To an extent this goal will be achieved if the time frame will be extended and if corruption, mismanagement of resources and misappropriation /unfair distribution of income and opportunities be eradicated in Nigeria.

    The Goal 2-Zero Hunger which ensures Healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. Although achieving this goal is still quite a bit difficult, research shows that it has been quite successful. In 2030, if Nigeria’s resources are properly managed and harnessed, this goal will be achievable.

    The Goal 3-Good Health and Well-being, ensures Healthy lives and promotes Well-being for all at all ages. I have observed most especially in my community that there are now better hospitals with good health facilities. This shows there is actually an improvement. Not only that there are several immunization programs that have been provided to children on a free basis. Though this development has not fully extended to some other areas, I believe that before 2030, coupled with good governance, this goal might be fully achieved.

    The Goal 4-Quality education, ensures inclusive and equitable quality of education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all. Well, with current state of political activities in Nigeria, which is filled with corruption, this goal might not be achieved before 2030. If and only if the budget allocation to education will be increased, teachers/lecturers paid well, facilities that aid learning and teaching provided, this goal will not be achieved within this time frame.

    The Goal 5-Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Well, to an extent this goal has been achieved in Nigeria. Women are now into many offices with leadership positions for instance, women are now lecturers and professors, doctors and engineers and C. E. O. of many firms and industries. This means that with further active programs, policies, orientation, sensitization and more enlightenment, this goal will be achieved.

    The Goal 6-Clean Water and Sanitation, ensures availability and Sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Here, the word “for all”, signals that this goal might not be achievable. In various part of Nigeria, Abakiliki in Ebonyi state for instance and so many places in the North, people depend on Microorganisms infected water for drinking, cooking and other household uses of water. For sanitation, only q few Urban cities in a few states have recognized the need for it. Whereas, 60% of places in Nigeria are littered, poverty stricken and dirty. This goal will be difficult to achieve before 2030.

    The Goal 7-Affordable and clean Energy, ensure access to affordable , reliable, sustainable and modern Energy for all. Just like the reasons stated above, this goal too won’t be achieved. Nigeria does not even have a strong modern Energy yet, not to talk of making it affordable, reliable and Sustainable. In 2030, this goal will not be achieved.

    The Goal 8-Decent Work and Economic growth, promotes sustainable, inclusive and sustainable Economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. The Unemployment rate of Nigeria has been on an increase since these Goals started. Furthermore, the economic and political system in Nigeria is not even inclusive enough for all. There are no Jobs, there are mismanagement of resources and high levels of corruption. Unless this problems are tackled, this goal will not be achieved.

    The Goal 9-Indistry, innovation and infrastructure, build resilient infrastructure promote inclusion and sustainable industrialization and foster Innovation: if I should say, Nigeria is still at the basic level of infrastructural development and encouragement of innovation but then, it is still not enough and cannot even be fully achieved in 2030 because Nigeria government is not yet ready to relinquish their corrupt tendencies and practices.

    Actually in conclusion, it is not as if our dear country will not get better in the years to come. But that considering the give time frame (2021-2030), most of these goals to some extent are unachievable. The Macroeconomic and political problems should be addressed to while achieving this goal.

  132. Ijara Peter Elochukwu. says:

    Name: Ijara Peter Elochukwu
    Department: ECONOMICS
    Reg no: 2017/ 249513
    EMAIL: petochris86@yahoo.com

    A list of 17 goals was adopted in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly called Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They anticipated achieving those goals by 2030. The SDGs are also know as ‘Global goals’ as they apply to all countries. The goals ranges from no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, decent work and economic growth, industry , innovation and infrastructure, reducing inequality, sustainable cities and communities , responsible consumption and production, climate action, life below water, life on land, peace, justice and stronger institutions and the last partnership for the goals.
    Efforts are been made to achieve these goals by 2030 but there are lots of challenges hindering the goals from fully blown status
    ▪ No poverty: this goal in Nigeria will take a longer time because there’s no will on the part of the Nigerian Government to end poverty in Nigeria as the political elites benefit from this. During election periods the masses’ votes can be bought due to poverty and the poor among us are more prone to been used for electoral violence and thuggery. Nigeria is now the poverty capital of the world I therefore don’t see the possibility of achieving goal 1 in 2030
    ️▪ Zero hunger: Funds supposed to be used to develop the requisite infrastructure for the achievement of this goal are embezzled. The government need to build strong institutions to monitor implementation of projects.
    ️▪ Good health and well-being: This goal is not achievable in Nigeria by 2030 as our primary health care system which is the foundation of a functioning health sector is underdeveloped and grossly inefficient. Nigerian politicians prefer medical tourism to developing local health system.

    ️▪️ Quality education: Frequent strike and disruption in the educational system has prevented the achievement of this. Poor investment in education is a contributing factor.
    ▪ Gender equality: More efforts need to be put into the achievement of this goal as harmful gender stereotypes still exists among us even today. Religious and cultural beliefs has stall the process.
    ️▪️ Clean water and sanitation: The possibility of achieve in Nigeria is slim since they are no proper drainages that will aid the achievement of this goal.
    ▪ Decent work and economic growth: Our economy is greatly shakened and so many people have been thrown out of work and business have folded up. This people are then absolved in the illegal informal sector. Cyber crime is very high in Nigeria. This cannot be fully achieved by 2030 but we can start laying the foundation for achievement in 2030.
    ️▪ Industry, innovation, and infrastructure: Corruption hindered the achievement of this goal in Nigeria. Embezzlement of funds for capital projects and substandard capital projects is inhibiting the achievement of this goal. Furthermore, the government doesn’t provide funds and incentives to encourage science and technology in Nigeria. When countries worked on developing vaccines for the deadly corona virus Nigeria and it’s govt waited patiently to imports from other nations. The government has however not invested heavily on industry and investment.
    ️▪️ Reducing inequality: The gap between the have and the have-nots in widened in Nigeria over the years and the government has failed in its redistribution role.
    However we must work harder to get the society of our dreams.

  133. Emmanuel Okororie says:

    Okororie Emmanuel Kelechi
    2017/242947
    Economics

    Goal 1: No poverty.
    Nigeria, a country regarded as the giant of Africa is the poverty capital of the world! Very sad. With millions of Nigeria below the poverty line. Given the timeframe and the kind of leaders we have, this goal will be impossible to achieve until we sit up and enact policies that’ll combat poverty.

    Goal 2: Zero hunger.
    When there’s poverty, hunger will be imminent. For goal 2 to be solved, goal 1 has to be solved because the two goals are interconnected.

    Goal 3: Good health and well-being.
    Thousands of Nigerian doctors travel abroad for better pay because here the government do not pay them. Even our leaders travel outside Nigeria for medical treatments. This has left the health care facilities in a pitiable condition. This goal will be achieved only if conscious efforts are made to revive our health sector.

    Goal 4: Quality education.
    This goal is far from being achieved. Bandits killing students in several parts of the country. Parents scared of sending their kids to school and the government is totally unconcerned about it. According to UNESCO, 1 in every 5 out of school children is a Nigerian.

    Goal 5: Gender equality
    Women are being empowered in our contemporary society. There are myriads of opportunities geared towards empowering women eg. Code for girls, girl power etc. Women now occupy powerful positions in the economy. This goal can be achieved in Nigeria if we continue this way and possibly improve.

    Goal 6: Clean water and Sanitation.
    Our environment is not clean and the water we drink are not totally safe. Niger Delta residents for instance do not have quality water because of out spillage and the effects it has on the environment. Companies needs to be taxed for the negative externalities to the society.

    Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy.
    Energy in Nigeria is not affordable and it’s definitely not clean. Exorbitant prices are charged for electricity and other sources of energy like, wind, solar etc. has not been harnessed.

    Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth.
    Our economy has suffered from economic downturns and recession which was heightened by the covid. People do not have decent jobs. Sometimes, females have to sleep with their potential boss to secure a job. This is the society we are in.

    Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure.
    The Nigerian government is well known for frustrating innovative ideas and scare away foreign investors. Critical infrastructures are like electricity, good road network, pipe borne water are not available.

  134. Name: chukwu mmesoma faith:
    Reg no: 2017/243807
    Department: education and economics

    1) No Poverty: End poverty in all its forms. everywhere
    2) Zero Hunger: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    3) Good Health and Well-being: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    4) Quality Education: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    5) Gender Equality: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    6) Clean Water and Sanitation: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    7) Affordable and Clean Energy: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    8) Decent Work and Economic Growth: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

  135. Okoye Felix Onyekachi says:

    Okoye Felix Onyekachi
    2017/241446
    Felix.okoye.241447@unn.edu.ng

    Success Tonics Blog

    ECO. 362—-27-4-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 5—Analysis of Sustainable Development Goals 1-9)
    Tony Orji by Tony Orji April 27, 2021Reading Time: 1min read
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    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people-centered and planet-sensitive. They are universal, applying to all countries while recognizing different realities and capabilities. The goals are not independent from each other; they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. From what you learnt about the first 9 goals do you think they are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame allotted? If yes, how? if no why? Clearly discuss them one after the the other and explain your points lucidly!

    Tags: AssignmentQuizSustainable Development Goals
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    Comments 135
    Okoronkwo Emmanuel Ositadinma (2017/242433) (Economics) (level 300) 3 weeks ago
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10)
    Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production , (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life On Land , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17)
    Partnerships for the Goals.

    We’ve treated the first nine, but the question is, is this goals obtainable with the situation of Nigeria today?
    Firstly, in the area of no poverty Nigeria keep moving towards poor and hungry economy, majority of the families can barely feed twice a day. The price of goods continue skyrocketing without an equal increase in income. With all Nigeria will continue being poor and the goal of eradication of poverty cannot be achieve.

    Secondly, in the side of zero hunger: As mentioned earlier, high population of citizens in Nigeria are very hungry. The people leading us only dwells on selfish interest. Hunger can only reduce drastically when the government understand the place of the citizens and interfere.

    Concerning good health care and well bein: Nigeria government provides some hospitals which helps to facilitate the well being of the people. Though there hospital is not well equipt.

    Concerning Quality Education, in a country where they government provide almost a zero budgeted expenditure to educational sector, how do we expect “Quality Education”. The sum is the government is not trying at all in the area of improving education in Nigeria.

    Speaking of Gender equality, let’s be realistic, in Nigeria the two genders can never be equal. Reason being that, women of this part of the world has this myopic mindset of dependency on men. In such a scenario, men will always dominate. Infact, even the holy Bible makes it clear that men should be the head of the family.

    Furthermore, in the side of clean water and sanitation, Nigerian government is actually putting effort to enhance sanitation and the water system within the country.

    Speaking of affordable and clean energy, Nigeria government continue lagging behind. If this continues we don’t have future in the area of energy.

    Now concerning decent work and economic growth: corrupt politicians who only channel public fund to the family and selfish investment can never bring about economic growth in Nigeria.

    Lastly; industry, innovation and infrastructure: Nigeria has little industries, poor infrastructure and zero innovation. Government don’t care about your giftens and creativities, and this will make the economy to continue depreciating instead of developing.

    In conclusion all the above limitations listed above must be eliminated before we move to the next phase!!!

    Reply
    Amah Saint Timothy (2017/249480) 3 weeks ago
    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
    In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    From my own of view none of the first 9 goals have been achieved and cannot be achieved before 2030.
    There’s still poverty due to high rate of unemployment and also the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.
    There’s also hunger in Nigeria due to the level of poverty people find it very difficult to carter for their daily needs
    Poor medical or health facilities has contributed to unhealthy lives and also medicals practitioners demands are also not meet
    The level of quality education is also nothing to write about due to strike and high level of corruption leading to employment of unqualified teachers and lecturers.
    Due to cultural and religious beliefs women and girl child have been written off in almost all the sector’s in the economy
    Mismanagement of public funds has lead to low level of technology which have also contributed or paid little attention to modern technology and energy

    Reply
    NGWU OSITA ENOCH 3 weeks ago
    NGWU OSITA ENOCH
    2017/242022
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    OSITANGWU95@GMAIL.COM
    ENOCHONLINE.BLOGSPOT.COM

    The most important Sustainable Development Goals according to their rank and average expert score are:
    1 SDG 1: Reduced Inequalities 4.1569
    2 SDG 2: No Poverty 3.7812
    3 SDG 3: Gender Equality 3.5569
    4 SDG 4: Peace Justice & Strong Institutions 3.0923
    5 SDG 5: Affordable & Clean Energy 2.2784
    6 SDG 6: Quality Education 2.0549
    7 SDG 7: Clean Water & Sanitation 1.8721
    8 SDG 8: Decent Work & Economic Growth 1.7282
    9 SDG 9: Good Health & Well Being 1.6018
    10 SDG 10: Partnerships for the Goals 1.5608
    11 SDG 11: Climate Action 1.3412
    12 SDG 12: Industry Innovation & Infrastructure 1.1950
    13 SDG 13: Responsible Consumption & Production 1.0235
    14 SDG 14: Zero Hunger 0.9412
    15 SDG 15: Life On Land 0.7824
    16 SDG 16: Sustainable Cities & Communities 0.6000
    17 SDG 17: Life Below Water 0.4206
    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    t is common knowledge within development circle that development involves a physical reality and a state of mind. Through development process, the interactions between social, economic and institutional processes must be continually sustained to meet up with increasing future demands in terms of population growth and continuous use of natural, human and material resources. It has been observed that changes in the integrated approach to social, economic and environmental issues have not really facilitated the developmental goals in Nigeria. For instance, problems such as poverty, flooding, ethnicity, environmental pollution corruption, attitudes and lopsided income distribution have been on the increase. A cursory look at the poverty profile in Nigeria showed that in 2004, Nigeria’s relative poverty measurement stood at 54.4%, but increased to 69% in 2010. In absolute terms, 54.7% of Nigerians were living in poverty in 2004 but this increased to 60.9% (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010). Besides these in the early 1990s Nigerian cities experienced flood hazards have more than doubled in the last ten years (Odermeho, 1993). While in recent times, it was recorded that Nigeria experienced the worst flooding as at the year 2012. In view of these challenges, it should be recalled that in the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted by 189 member countries of the United Nations including Nigeria. This was with a view to fast track key developmental issues in Nigeria which include increasing the availability of basic life sustaining goods, raising the standard of people’s living as well as expanding the range of economic and social choices. A set of eight goals to be achieved by 2015 was adopted by the United Nations which were to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development In view of these goals, it is pertinent for the Nigerian economy to understand the prospects and underlying principles for achieving these goals as well as sustaining the process of development desired.
    Environmental protection Nigeria is a member of international and global community and as such share in the effects of technological advancement specifically environmental management is particularly necessary and its major aim should is to avoid stressing a valued ecosystem beyond the limits of its resilience, stability and carrying capacity (Oyeshola, 2008) The oil rich regions such as have a greater effect of most of this environmental degradation challenges in areas such as: oil spillage; crude oil content chemical substances as sulphur nitrogen, oxygen as well as hydrocarbon component oil spillage will affect living things comment will life, aquatic life plant life directly indirectly thereby being implications for the bio-diversity of all living things new and in future.
    • Gas flaring. These flares contribute to greenhouse gases which contain toxins and therefore, exposes everyone to diseases such as asthma, respiratory illness, cancer and premature deaths . To combat these particular environmental issues in Nigeria,
    • We can develop a gas policy which will be favorable to both the population and the investors
    • Articulate a national environmental health policy and national health action plan
    • Review and harmonise existing health Laws
    • Promote safe use of pesticides and other agrochemicals
    • Develop a master plan on solid waste management
    • Develop environmental health performance indicators
    • Bringing pollution and environmental waste under control
    • Phase out ozone-depleting substances
    • Phase out persistent organic pollutant
    • Use alternative Energy services that are more favourable- solar power, wind power and hydro power
    • Comply with international standards in controlling and monitoring of environment.
    Economic Development This involve achieving a balance in all sectors of the Economy in the process of production of goods and services be it agriculture, finance, manufacturing, health, education, e.t.c The Economic challenge inherent in the Nigeria Economy include issues social such as poverty, low per capital income, inequitable distribution of home, low capital formation, inefficiency in the mobilization of resource, over- dependence on a singular commodity oil-as a major source of income, Unemployment, inflation to mention a few. To tackle some of these challenges, some measures to be taken include:
    – Provision of soft loans to less privileged persons to promote Small and Medium scale Enterprise (SMEs).
    – Address the problem of financing the real sector end mobilization of long term savings for investment.
    – Job training of people in skills relevant to their immediate work environment and rural development should be incorporated.
    – Agriculture and food security policies should be enhanced by strengthening research and development to improve production and enhance exportation thereby boosting income.
    – Strengthen the regulation and supervisory framework of the financial sector .
    – Promotion of indigenous goods and services especially through SMEs.
    Social Development This is set to achieve equity in social issues as education, health politics, social infrastructures, e.t.c It is reaffirmed that Nigeria in order to achieve any meaningful development must take care of social services of basic education, functional health care, employment for youth, clean water, security of life and properties, and access to quality infrastructures. To handle some of these issues, giving the nature of their externality, the reasonability of government cannot be overemphasized. To achieve this social development, the Nigeria government in addition to existing policies can adopt the following.
    – Creation of new employment opportunities for young school learners and rural dwellers.
    – Strengthen institutions of governance at all levels including adequate attention to human right and conflict prevention.
    – Provision of basic social and essential sources education, health, clean water, Maintenance of Existing structures and creation of new ones where they are needed.
    Conclusion
    In a bid to address the challenge of sustainable development globally, and particularly in Nigeria, all available means must be employed to tackle related problems of the environment as well as economic and social issues. This can be achieved by taking a conscious step towards the achievement of the goal of sustainable development given as stated in section 5 above. In addition, the issue of sustainability must be a concern to all parastatals (public and private) and individuals. This will require educating everyone on the need for sustainable development and as a result walk towards its actualization. Besides sanctions for erring persons must be ensured if the success of the process of sustainable development is to be attained Finally, policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of individual countries, which are consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development.

    Reply
    Onah Hope Nnenna 3 weeks ago
    Name: Onah Hope Nnenna
    Reg no: 2017/249565
    Dept: Economics
    Email: onahnnenna123@gmail.com

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    And so on.
    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
    Firstly, in the issue of Goal one(end poverty in all it’s forms everywhere), Nigeria has not achieved that goal and will not even achieve it in 2030. The reason is that Nigeria’s leaders are so corrupt, instead of developing our country, they loot our money and put it in a bank overseas. Thy don’t create Jobs for the youth, rather increasing unemployment which in turn creates poverty.
    For the second goal, Nigeria will achieve it by 2030 because so many youths now engage in Agriculture due to ban on foreign goods. This will do a lot good in ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition.
    The third Goal can be achieve by 2030 because by achieving goal two, we can be able to live healthy lives and promote our well being.
    For the fourth goal, Nigeria cannot achieve it because there is no way those rich and corrupt politicians will allow their children to stay in the same learning space with the poor.
    The fifth goal can be achieved in the sense that Nigeria has been giving women the opportunity to participate in politics and contest for any post. They have also been empowering women.
    For the sixth and seventh goals, it is impossible to achieve such goals because up til now there are places that haven’t experience the joy of having light since they were born and they are not even making effort to see that it happens. Same goes with erosion that always chases some people out of their homes because Nigeria cannot manage water flows
    The eight goals can be achieved by 2030, and how it can be achieved is by Nigeria helping to reduce restrictions placed on some big companies that generates employment opportunities
    Finally, the ninth goal cannot be achieved because our leaders are not interested in infrastructural development, their only concern is to stuff money in their pockets making innovation difficult to achieve.

    Reply
    ogbonna chika philip 3 weeks ago
    Ogbonna Chika Philip
    2017/242029
    Education/Economics
    chika.ogbonna.242029@unn.edu.ng

    The SDGs first 9 goals; whether they are achievable? is yes, but with the time limit of year 2030, there is likely a no answer to that. However, we proceed to justify the position taken as below;

    1. End poverty in all its form everywhere; Goal 1 may not be feasible for a country as ours within the time frame as there is high level of deprivation and are found in every forms that connotes poverty. An instance is the evidence of the beggars on the streets, the unavailability of jobs that could guarantee the said minimum earning of 1 dollar pay day, with which survival and sustenance is heavily relied on in terms of healthy nutrition that will cure hunger poverty.

    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture;
    Goal 2 within the time frame is unattainable in Nigeria. This is as there is no signs of jobs that will put money into the pockets of million unemployed citizens from which food could be accessed and which in turn will lower hunger and improve citizens nutrition status. added to this is that the environment as in the present Nigeria have been made un-conducive to guarantee food security and sustained agriculture through the activities of unknown gun men, fulani herdsmen depriving farmers of their activities.

    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    Goal 3 is fair and could be attained within the time frame if proper attentions is paid to the sector that guarantees it. the improvement in health services both at the national and at the local/primary level is commendable and have led to reduced mortality cases accessible drugs for cures to various ailments etc.

    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all.
    Goal 4 is also attainable provided the government reverse its attention and give life to public institutions again, by properly funding them, not owing the academic and non academic staffs. improve infrastructures and adopts world best practices in terms of standards and technology in schools.

    5. Achieve Gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    Goal 5 seems not attainable, as in Africa and Nigeria in particular have tribal and cultural inclinations that defines the role of women as against the men. the gender equality may appreciate to some level but will not be possible as is stated or wanted. women are given positions and not takers of position in the political and social environments of ours and this limits the possibility of this goals. also women are seen as weaker and does no have say in public matters. this is a problem that may hinder the attainment of the SDGs program of goal 5.

    6.Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    Goal 6 is possible if the government have it at present and locally as a priority, because in the various ancient localities, the colonial/ earliest governments that followed had a system of functional water management and well managed waste practices and disposals. the government in partnership with the SDGs program can continue from what have been put in place and advance it. But with the level of water scarcity, refuse dumps all around, industrial spillages etc. one should have a doubt of the attaining SDGs program at the time limit.

    7. Ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable and modern energy for all. Goal 7 is far from been achievable in the present Nigeria, because the level of politics been played in the areas of power and energy is unimaginably very bad. there are water bodies in every parts of this country that could be converted to dams. well managed that could generate electricity but that is not the point of focus of the leaders, that of solar energy as alternative that could be harnessed; enough is not done in local research that could help remedy the short fall in energy supply witnessed in the country. how could the SDGs program be achieved in the presence of this underlying problems is the question.

    8. Promote sustained , inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    GOAL 8 is also possible, but on condition that the present leadership addresses the worsening insecurity, how could the SDGs point of decent work for all be possible when herders make some categories of workers to face hostility, where those who are luckily employed are owed and there is little or no power supply that could encourage entrepreneurs and foster innovations. Economic growth is possible within the time frame, if the key critical sectors like; Education, Security, Energy, Agriculture, Industries in partnership with the SDGs program are given proper attention. Full and productive employment are guaranteed by functional social economic system as highlighted above and quality educational system.

    9. Build resilient Infrastructure, Promote Inclusive and sustainable Industrialization and Foster Innovations. Goal 9 may be attained half way with the reasons that outcomes may be seen partly in few selected locations and not in the entire cities. this is accompanied by the politics which drives every growth witnessed in infrastructure in this part of the world. High level of corruption and embezzlement in the system is another blockade that will deprive the attainment of effective SDGs programs at stated time frame.

    Reply
    IJIGA CHRISTIAN ADAKOLE 3 weeks ago
    NAME: IJIGA CHRISTIAN ADAKOLE
    REG NO: 2017/241255
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SC EDU( Edu/Eco).
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people-centered and planet-sensitive. They are universal, applying to all countries while recognizing different realities and capabilities. The goals are not independent from each other; they need to be implemented in an integrated manner. From what you learnt about the first 9 goals do you think they are achievable in Nigeria within the time frame allotted? If yes, how? if no why? Clearly discuss them one after the the other and explain your points lucidly!
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure , (10)
    Reducing Inequality , (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production , (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water , (15) Life On Land , (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17)
    Partnerships for the Goals.
    We’ve treated the first nine, but the question is, is this goals obtainable with the situation of Nigeria today?
    Firstly, in the area of no poverty Nigeria keep moving towards poor and hungry economy, majority of the families can barely feed twice a day. The price of goods continue skyrocketing without an equal increase in income. With all Nigeria will continue being poor and the goal of eradication of poverty cannot be achieve.
    Secondly, in the side of zero hunger: As mentioned earlier, high population of citizens in Nigeria are very hungry. The people leading us only dwells on selfish interest. Hunger can only reduce drastically when the government understand the place of the citizens and interfere.
    Concerning good health care and well bein: Nigeria government provides some hospitals which helps to facilitate the well being of the people. Though there hospital is not well equipt.
    Concerning Quality Education, in a country where they government provide almost a zero budgeted expenditure to educational sector, how do we expect “Quality Education”. The sum is the government is not trying at all in the area of improving education in Nigeria.
    Speaking of Gender equality, let’s be realistic, in Nigeria the two genders can never be equal. Reason being that, women of this part of the world has this myopic mindset of dependency on men. In such a scenario, men will always dominate. Infact, even the holy Bible makes it clear that men should be the head of the family.
    Furthermore, in the side of clean water and sanitation, Nigerian government is actually putting effort to enhance sanitation and the water system within the country.
    Speaking of affordable and clean energy, Nigeria government continue lagging behind. If this continues we don’t have future in the area of energy.
    Now concerning decent work and economic growth: corrupt politicians who only channel public fund to the family and selfish investment can never bring about economic growth in Nigeria.
    Lastly; industry, innovation and infrastructure: Nigeria has little industries, poor infrastructure and zero innovation. Government don’t care about your giftens and creativities, and this will make the economy to continue depreciating instead of developing.
    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
    In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    Conclusion
    In a bid to address the challenge of sustainable development globally, and particularly in Nigeria, all available means must be employed to tackle related problems of the environment as well as economic and social issues. This can be achieved by taking a conscious step towards the achievement of the goal of sustainable development given as stated in section 5 above. In addition, the issue of sustainability must be a concern to all parastatals (public and private) and individuals. This will require educating everyone on the need for sustainable development and as a result walk towards its actualization. Besides sanctions for erring persons must be ensured if the success of the process of sustainable development is to be attained Finally, policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of individual countries, which are consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development.

    Reply
    Okoye Amblessed Amarachi 3 weeks ago
    Name: Okoye Amblessed Amarachi

    Reg No: 2017/249560

    Dept: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people centered as well as planet sensitive. They are universal as they apply to all countries while recognizing the different realities as well as capabilities. Most importantly, they recognize that we can’t reach our development goals without addressing human rights and complex humanitarian issues. These SDGs are stated thus:
    1. End poverty: This is the move to ameliorate poverty in all its forms everywhere. This wouldn’t be attainable in Nigeria since a very large number of it’s citizens are living below $1 per day.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not attainable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: We can’t ensure healthy lives if we don’t exterminate poverty because most unhealthy persons in the country are poverty-stricken.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since poverty is widespread, education for all is not attainable.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Since gender disparity exists between the males and their female counterparts, then this goal wouldn’t be achieved.
    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Thus is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes water toxic for use. Hence adequate sensitization is required to right this wrong.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Since we lack adequate monitoring of electricity generation and distribution, a sustained and accessible energy for all is not attainable. Hence there is need to revitalize the electricity sector.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Since at least 70% of the country’s population is unemployed, underemployed or working poor efforts to curb the rage of unemployment is required to boost economic growth and bring about full employment.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: Since Nigeria lags behind in terms of infrastructure, there is need to build up structures that would foster innovation in the country as well as support innovative minds.

    Reply
    Okonkwo Chidinma Alisa 3 weeks ago
    OKONKWO CHIDINMA ALISA
    2017/243086
    ECONOMICS
    300 LEVEL

    ANSWER
    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) brought up by 193 member states held in a UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2000 was actually meant to improve on five areas which I like to call the 5Ps and they are: Planet, People, Peace, Prosperity, and Partnership. Let’s not forget that these SDGs are people-oriented and planet-sensitive. This implies that they are very considerate in putting the different individuals in the various member states into account as well as taking into cognizance their environment or otherwise called planet. They were also of the opinion that these goals could not be achieved if the problem of human rights as well as complex humanitarian issues were not tackled and solved. These goals has said earlier are also not independent of each other and that they need to be implemented or carried out together. This means that the 17 SDGs are meant to be carried out together at the same time; that is when a country is trying to implement the no hunger policy now, she should also take into consideration that as she is trying to address that, she should also address the issue of poverty alongside. This is basically what the UN through the 193 member states aimed to achieve with these goals.
    Goal 1: End poverty
    Goal 2: No hunger
    Goal 3: Promote well-being
    Goal 4: Quality education for all
    Goal 5: Gender Equality and Empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Availability and Sustainable Management of water and sanitation for all.
    Goal 7: Easy access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
    Goal 8: Promote economic growth and productive employment for all.
    Goal 9: Promote industrialization and foster innovation.
    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive and conducive for all.
    Goal 12: Ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns.
    Goal 13: Climate Action
    Goal 14: Life below water
    Goal 15: Life on land
    Goal 16: Peace and Justice and Strong Institutions
    Goal 17: Partnership for the goals
    All these are meant to be achieved by the year 2030 of which Nigeria which is our case study and of course, our nation has tried up to an extent but still needs to do more if she really wants to develop. Now we are only considering on the first 9 goals that we treated in class.
    Goal 1 has actually been tackled by Nigeria but still there’s no improvement. Many people still live on the streets till date. In Lagos I for one have seen men, women, children, that are not mad still living on the streets which is really bad even for we as a nation. I think that if the Nigerian Government would sit down and think this through and bring up polices (effective and efficient ones o) that would be implemented by sensible officials, this issue of poverty would be reduced if not eliminated.
    Goal 2 has also be addressed as Nigeria has even gone the length of providing free food for school children though we all know that what brought that up was because of the Covid-19 Pandemic of last year and now, we have not even heard A again of any food being given to school children not to talk of people on the streets.
    Goal 3 has not been addressed at all. My point is that the issue of insecurity has come up again heavily this time around on Nigeria. For the past two weeks now, we have been hearing about students, individuals but mostly students of various tertiary institutions being kidnapped or something; some have even been killed just because they chose to school in their own country. For me, this problem has not been addressed at all.
    Goal 4 has been addressed as there is now free education up to the level of primary education, which is why the Universal Basic Education came up and now children can attain at least a primary education that can enable them to read and write.
    Goal 5 has been achieved as everywhere now, women now have their say in some matters concerning them as well.
    Goal 6 has not been tackled but has been addressed as even the government has fixed a day for the general sanitation for citizens and individuals to come out of their homes and clean their surroundings but still, some individuals will not come out and this has made our surroundings not healthy for us to leave in. Asides that, I have noticed that some individuals after eating biscuits or using anything that has a wrapper, they tend to just dispose it wherever they are which eventually is the ground rather that using the waste bin. This attitude has made us to now leave in a very unhealthy environment as most places are now littered take a look at our hostels and classrooms). The issue of bad water has also been kind of addressed but still there are some interior places in the rural areas that do not have clean water to drink. Some even go as bad as drinking water from the gutter just to survive.
    Goal 7 has not even be tackled but is still a work in progress as we at least have power though not steady.
    Goal 8 is the major issue in this country as a lot of graduates are out there walking aimlessly without jobs. Some even want to become entrepreneurs but there are no enabling environment for such.
    Goal 9 has been introduced but still a work in progress.
    Now coming to the issue whether Nigeria would be able to achieve these by the year 2030. This is 2021 and to say the truth, some not all of these 17 SDGs would be achieved by that year. This due to the fact that our governance is very bad first of all as well as other concerning problems and challenges facing there goals. But with God, this is possible. Thank you.

    Reply
    Oko nkem frankline 3 weeks ago
    Name: Oko Nkem Frankline
    Reg No:2017/243813
    Dept:Economics
    Answer
    1. The most important Sustainable Development Goals according to their rank and average expert score are:
    1: Reduced Inequalities 4.1569
    2: No Poverty 3.7812
    3: Gender Equality 3.5569
    4: Peace Justice & Strong Institutions 3.0923
    5: Affordable & Clean Energy 2.2784
    6: Quality Education 2.0549
    7: Clean Water & Sanitation 1.8721
    8: Decent Work & Economic Growth 1.7282
    9: Good Health & Well Being 1.6018
    10: Partnerships for the Goals 1.5608
    11: Climate Action 1.3412
    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    t is common knowledge within development circle that development involves a physical reality and a state of mind. Through development process, the interactions between social, economic and institutional processes must be continually sustained to meet up with increasing future demands in terms of population growth and continuous use of natural, human and material resources. It has been observed that changes in the integrated approach to social, economic and environmental issues have not really facilitated the developmental goals in Nigeria. For instance, problems such as poverty, flooding, ethnicity, environmental pollution corruption, attitudes and lopsided income distribution have been on the increase. A cursory look at the poverty profile in Nigeria showed that in 2004, Nigeria’s relative poverty measurement stood at 54.4%, but increased to 69% in 2010. In absolute terms, 54.7% of Nigerians were living in poverty in 2004 but this increased to 60.9% (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010). Besides these in the early 1990s Nigerian cities experienced flood hazards have more than doubled in the last ten years (Odermeho, 1993). While in recent times, it was recorded that Nigeria experienced the worst flooding as at the year 2012. In view of these challenges, it should be recalled that in the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted by 189 member countries of the United Nations including Nigeria. This was with a view to fast track key developmental issues in Nigeria which include increasing the availability of basic life sustaining goods, raising the standard of people’s living as well as expanding the range of economic and social choices. A set of eight goals to be achieved by 2015 was adopted by the United Nations which were to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development In view of these goals, it is pertinent for the Nigerian economy to understand the prospects and underlying principles for achieving these goals as well as sustaining the process of development desired.
    Environmental protection Nigeria is a member of international and global community and as such share in the effects of technological advancement specifically environmental management is particularly necessary and its major aim should is to avoid stressing a valued ecosystem beyond the limits of its resilience, stability and carrying capacity (Oyeshola, 2008) The oil rich regions such as have a greater effect of most of this environmental degradation challenges in areas such as: oil spillage; crude oil content chemical substances as sulphur nitrogen, oxygen as well as hydrocarbon component oil spillage will affect living things comment will life, aquatic life plant life directly indirectly thereby being implications for the bio-diversity of all living things new and in future.
    • Gas flaring. These flares contribute to greenhouse gases which contain toxins and therefore, exposes everyone to diseases such as asthma, respiratory illness, cancer and premature deaths . To combat these particular environmental issues in Nigeria,
    • We can develop a gas policy which will be favorable to both the population and the investors
    • Articulate a national environmental health policy and national health action plan
    • Review and harmonise existing health Laws
    • Promote safe use of pesticides and other agrochemicals
    • Develop a master plan on solid waste management
    • Develop environmental health performance indicators
    • Bringing pollution and environmental waste under control
    • Phase out ozone-depleting substances
    • Phase out persistent organic pollutant
    • Use alternative Energy services that are more favourable- solar power, wind power and hydro power
    • Comply with international standards in controlling and monitoring of environment.
    Economic Development This involve achieving a balance in all sectors of the Economy in the process of production of goods and services be it agriculture, finance, manufacturing, health, education, e.t.c The Economic challenge inherent in the Nigeria Economy include issues social such as poverty, low per capital income, inequitable distribution of home, low capital formation, inefficiency in the mobilization of resource, over- dependence on a singular commodity oil-as a major source of income, Unemployment, inflation to mention a few. To tackle some of these challenges, some measures to be taken include:
    – Provision of soft loans to less privileged persons to promote Small and Medium scale Enterprise (SMEs).
    – Address the problem of financing the real sector end mobilization of long term savings for investment.
    – Job training of people in skills relevant to their immediate work environment and rural development should be incorporated.
    – Agriculture and food security policies should be enhanced by strengthening research and development to improve production and enhance exportation thereby boosting income.
    – Strengthen the regulation and supervisory framework of the financial sector .
    – Promotion of indigenous goods and services especially through SMEs.
    Social Development This is set to achieve equity in social issues as education, health politics, social infrastructures, e.t.c It is reaffirmed that Nigeria in order to achieve any meaningful development must take care of social services of basic education, functional health care, employment for youth, clean water, security of life and properties, and access to quality infrastructures. To handle some of these issues, giving the nature of their externality, the reasonability of government cannot be overemphasized. To achieve this social development, the Nigeria government in addition to existing policies can adopt the following.
    – Creation of new employment opportunities for young school learners and rural dwellers.
    – Strengthen institutions of governance at all levels including adequate attention to human right and conflict prevention.
    – Provision of basic social and essential sources education, health, clean water, Maintenance of Existing structures and creation of new ones where they are needed.
    Conclusion
    In a bid to address the challenge of sustainable development globally, and particularly in Nigeria, all available means must be employed to tackle related problems of the environment as well as economic and social issues. This can be achieved by taking a conscious step towards the achievement of the goal of sustainable development given as stated in section 5 above. In addition, the issue of sustainability must be a concern to all parastatals (public and private) and individuals. This will require educating everyone on the need for sustainable development and as a result walk towards its actualization. Besides sanctions for erring persons must be ensured if the success of the process of sustainable development is to be attained Finally, policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of individual countries, which are consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development.

    Reply
    UDUMA IKECHUKWU OBASI 3 weeks ago
    UDUMA IKECHUKWU OBASI
    Economics
    2017/241441
    ikechukwuuduma9@gmail.com

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS( SDGs)
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s form and everywhere..
    It’s possible: through effective and efficient use of nations available resources. This resources magament will bring about increase in the nations productivity, national output ( GDP) and development of all form. Through development poverty will be eradicated
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
    This is possible; through the practice of large scale agriculture with advance maintenance techniques. These techniques will improve agriculture products, reduce cost and ensure food availability.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages.
    This is possible; through revitalization of our nations health sector. This revitalization will come in the form of improved health facilities, payment of medical personnels, public education on health issues etc.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunity for all.
    This is possible; if the government policies on education will be void of any form of tribalism and favoritism. Our government should take education seriously by ensuring proper ministration to it’s matters.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    This is possible; if our government and society will see the need to provide a field of equal opportunity for all gender without any form of favoritism towards any gender.
    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    This is possible; if all and sundry will come to the realization of the importance of water and proper sanitation is to our environment. And taking required steps to ensure it stays in it’s best form.
    Goal 7: build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Innovation and infrastructure is a product of good governance. Thus it is possible if good governance is ensured.
    Goal 8: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
    The pursuit of human rights and equality of all before the law by all nations is the way of making this goal possible
    Goal 9: Make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
    This is possible; through the eradication of discrimination of humans by all nations of the world.

  136. Name: Okeke Mercy Adaugo
    Reg. No.: Okeke Mercy Adaugo
    Dptmt: Economics

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030. These goals are interrelated- that is, it recognises that the action taken in one area or aspect would affect the outcomes in another or others, and also, that development must balance all forms of sustainability.
    Nigeria, if or when in good political and institutional hands can achieve goal 1 to 9 of the SDGs, which are:
    (1) No Poverty : Poverty is here and everywhere a general phenomenon that is inevitable is every nation. So eliminating poverty completely is very impossible. What is possible is reducing it to a certain minimum. Nigeria can achieve this by her government putting in place policies that would bring about more job opportunities, more industries, quality education, youth empowerment programmed, grants and social amenities that would aid or improve the standard of living of the masses and bring many people out of poverty
    (2) Zero Hunger: This can be achieved if Nigerian citizens can go back to farming or agriculture, depend less on imported products and start embracing our locally made or harvested products, then hunger would be out of the picture
    (3) Good Health and Well-being: this can be provided through improvement of healthcare facilities and centres in the country, organizing orientations in communities to enlighten them on what is good and bad for their health.
    (4) Quality Education: People can only be able to afford this if they either have good jobs or are provided free quality education by the government.
    (5) Gender Equality: this has to a great extend been achieved in Nigeria. Most of the things females were forbidden or excluded from doing are now being done by females. Even in political offices.
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation: Getting Clean water in Nigeria depends solely on the particular area. In Lagos, getting clean water is not a problem. Buh places like the rivers, where crude oil is being minned which pollutes their rivers and most other water systems, the Nigerian government has failed in providing them with clean water. Sanitation is the duty of all, not just the government. This , in my own opinion has not been achieved.
    7) Affordable and Clean Energy: Clean energy like solar systems has been hernessed here in Nigeria, but the truth is, the average Nigerian man can barely afford it.
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth:
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

  137. Okeke Jude Chimobi

    2017/249556
    chimobiokeke@gmail.com

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

    1 SDG 1: Reduced Inequalities 4.1569
    2 SDG 2: No Poverty 3.7812
    3 SDG 3: Gender Equality 3.5569
    4 SDG 4: Peace Justice & Strong Institutions 3.0923
    5 SDG 5: Affordable & Clean Energy 2.2784
    6 SDG 6: Quality Education 2.0549
    7 SDG 7: Clean Water & Sanitation 1.8721
    8 SDG 8: Decent Work & Economic Growth 1.7282
    9 SDG 9: Good Health & Well Being 1.6018
    10 SDG 10: Partnerships for the Goals 1.5608
    11 SDG 11: Climate Action 1.3412
    12 SDG 12: Industry Innovation & Infrastructure 1.1950
    13 SDG 13: Responsible Consumption & Production 1.0235
    14 SDG 14: Zero Hunger 0.9412
    15 SDG 15: Life On Land 0.7824
    16 SDG 16: Sustainable Cities & Communities 0.6000
    17 SDG 17: Life Below Water 0.4206

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) brought up by 193 member states held in a UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2000 was actually meant to improve on five areas which I like to call the 5Ps and they are: Planet, People, Peace, Prosperity, and Partnership. Let’s not forget that these SDGs are people-oriented and planet-sensitive. This implies that they are very considerate in putting the different individuals in the various member states into account as well as taking into cognizance their environment or otherwise called planet. They were also of the opinion that these goals could not be achieved if the problem of human rights as well as complex humanitarian issues were not tackled and solved. These goals has said earlier are also not independent of each other and that they need to be implemented or carried out together. This means that the 17 SDGs are meant to be carried out together at the same time; that is when a country is trying to implement the no hunger policy now, she should also take into consideration that as she is trying to address that, she should also address the issue of poverty alongside.

    All these goals are meant to be achieved by the year 2030 of which Nigeria which is our case study and of course, our nation has tried up to an extent but still needs to do more if she really wants to develop. Now we are only considering on the first 9 goals that we treated in class.

  138. ANENE VICTORIA CHIOMA
    2017/242435
    ECONOMICS
    Victoria.anene.242435@unn.edu.ng
    Toria20@simplesite.com

    The SDGs consist of 17 global goal with attainment to be achieved in all countries of the world in the year 2023.These said goals show no hope of being achieved within the said timeframe period in Nigeria due to negative effects resulting from bad governance, overpopulation, negative social vices etc.
    Goal1:The first SDG is to end poverty in all forms across the globe. This goal is far from being attained in Nigeria this is as a result of the prevailing uneven distribution of income in the country. The exist a huge gap between the income of the elite and average citizens of the country which as a result widens the gap between the rich and poor making it impossible to put an end to poverty in Nigeria.
    Goal2:End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. This goal can’t be achieved in Nigeria within the said type due to negligence and mismanagement of the Nigerian agricultural sector. Food production is neglected there by left for individuals who produce for subsistence and sell at a very high cost
    Goal3: Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all age. This goal has failed to come into realization cause of the failing system of the Nigerian health sector. The government pay little or no attention to the deteriorating state of the Nigerian health care system
    Goal4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunity for all. Those in the rural areas are left out in this, there’s are no schools which would help aid education for those in the rural parts of the country, there by bringing a difference in the educational attainment of those in the urban areas to those in rural areas
    Goal5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.The girl child should be given the same opportunities available to the boy child, in Nigeria priority is placed on the boy child cause he is supposedly the one who carries on the family legacy.
    Goal6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all The level of water and land pollution in Nigeria is very alarming and this poses a threat to the life’s of the residents of the said area.
    Goal7:Ensure access to affordable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Nigeria is still yet to figure out the best possible way to make this attainable
    Goal8: promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. Nigeria is still far from achieving economic development.
    Goal9:Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable infrastructure and foster innovation. Nigeria it mainly an importing countries and as such fail to encourage infrastructural development and growth

  139. Esokawu Jonathan C. says:

    Name: Esokawu Jonathan C.
    Reg: 2017/249500
    Dept.: Economics
    Email: jesoka18@gmail.com

    The first 9 SDGs include;
    (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure.

    As to wether they are achievable in Nigeria within the given time frame. My answer is a resounding NO. A major reason being that our level of awareness of the existence of this goals and there timeframe is very minimal. In fact it can be argued that majority of students in Universities across Nigeria are unaware of this SDGs. Hence for Nigeria to fulfill the goals of:
    1)No poverty; poor people most be enlightened that they deserve to be comfortable.
    2)Zero Hunger: NGOs, private sector and government must cooperate to counter hunger.
    Goal 3 to 9 can only be achieved by a complete restructuring of the Nigeria and an amendment of her constitution to become all-inclusive. Such that there is No Marginalisation of citizens based on their ethnic affiliation. Only when we achieve this can we make progress in achieving this goals sporadically. Without this we will continue to sabotage our own success.

  140. ogundare Abisola Helen says:

    NAME: OGUNDARE ABISOLA HELEN
    REG NO:2017/249546
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere: This goal is far from being attained in Nigeria this is as a result of the prevailing uneven distribution of income in the country. The exist a huge gap between the income of the elite and average citizens of the country which as a result widens the gap between the rich and poor making it impossible to put an end to poverty in Nigeria.
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable:This goal has been addressed as Nigeria has even gone the length of providing free food for school children though we all know that what brought that up was because of the Covid-19 Pandemic of last year and now, we have not even heard A again of any food being given to school children not to talk of people on the streets.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: This goal is still pending in Nigeria because no proper maintenance or presence of quality medical centres, the ones that happens to be good cuts the poor’s head with charges, thereby leaving lots of people unhealthy. Malnourishment as a result of poverty and hunger also affects the health and well being of the people
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all: Those in the rural areas are left out in this, there’s are no schools which would help aid education for those in the rural parts of the country, there by bringing a difference in the educational attainment of those in the urban areas to those in rural areas
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: The girl child should be given the same opportunities available to the boy child, in Nigeria priority is placed on the boy child cause he is supposedly the one who carries on the family legacy.
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: In Nigeria, majority of the population, especially in the Rural areas, there are little or no access to clean water. Water management systems are dilapidated, sanitation is zero as many gutters are filled up with refuse. It is practically impossible for Nigeria to achieve this by 2030 because of bad and irresponsible government.
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Just like in the case of the goal before this , the fact that the importance of this is not known to the public is going to be a problem. Also the technology needed for production of modern energy is not domestically produced, hence it cannot be affordable.
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services.
    By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: its very possible only if we can work on the corruption that has taken over the land.

  141. Francis Chibuezem David says:

    Name: Francis Chibuezem David
    Reg. No: 2017/241445
    Email- francischibuezem247@gmail.com
    Assignment- Is it possible to achieve the sustainable development goals? And reason
    GOAL 1: No Poverty- No, this is because the government of the country is not transparent, effective and efficient; therefore, they can’t achieve this goal because even when funds are given, they are mismanaged.

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger- Hunger is a close friend to poverty. Zero hunger means providing food not just for a meal but for 3 square meals daily. This can only be achieved in a country that is able to conquer hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being- Yes, this can be achieved if the nation makes it a residential requirements l and enforced such that the work is not left to the government alone but the citizens are participating

    GOAL 4: Quality Education- No, this is because the system has become so corrupt with malpractice during exams and so raising dull students who end up becoming bad lecturers who still push and continue that circle.

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality- Yes, by encouraging more feminine participation in places of power and work or service that were formally seen as for the masculine gender. This will encourage more women to join

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation- Yes, this can be achieved by making a duty for the masses and reserving days for sanitation. This can also be encouraged by awarding best streets, estates, etc and punishing defaulters with fines.

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy- No, the technology of Nigeria is far behind and we need to first of all get it and make it to reach different regions then make it affordable which is impossible given that most equipment and materials are imported.

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth- Yes, this is possible if the agencies responsible for implementing are able to enforce the necessary rules and guides for the running of the economy. This is possible this is economic growth and not development.

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure- Yes, only I the government brings up platforms for exhibition, awards and encouragement of young and growing innovations of youths in the nation. They could also achieve this by protecting domestic industries through tariffs, export grants, e.t.c.

  142. Metu Sandra C says:

    Email address: sandra.metu.249526@unn.edu.ng
    Name: Metu Sandra C
    2017/ 249526

    The Sustainable Development Goals are 17 goals adopted by the United Nations General assembly. So I’ll be analysing it’s in achievement in Nigeria form goal 1 to goal 12.
    ▪️ No Poverty in any form anywhere: The 1st goal hasn’t been achieved in Nigeria due to various reasons like corruption an slack of political will on the part of the government. Nigeria cover took china to become the world’s poverty capital. That’s appalling.

    ▪️ Zero Hunger , food security, improved nutrition: over the years efforts has been taken to achieve this goal but it still well in it’s way.
    ▪️ Good Health and Well-being : this goal has been stalled because our primary health care the foundation of good and functioning health system is underdeveloped.
    ▪️ Inclusive and Quality Education for all: it has been proven that people who are educated are more likely to escape poverty. So for Nigeria to cut down on poverty education must be prioritized. I don’t see the feasibility of it achievement in 2030 buy purposeful effort can make it achieveable at a time close to 2030.
    ▪️ Gender Equality, : more work needs to be done as during the covid-19 pandemic it became more obvious how much we need this.. this is achieveable in 2030 if only we can rid ourselves all our ingrained gender stereotype and enate laws that are for gender equality.
    ▪️ Clean Water and Sanitation, : water a basic necessity for life hasn’t been provided for all Nigerians as at 2021… many Nigerians provide their own water and the ones that can’t are left. This is achieveable in 2030 if we all work together fervently.
    ▪️ Affordable, Reliable and Sustainable Energy,: many people in the rural areas in Nigeria don’t have access to affordable, reliable energy. This goal is not achievable by 2030 because it is connected with other goals like ending poverty.
    ▪️ Decent Work and Economic Growth :Our economy is great distress and so many people have been thrown out of jobs and business have folded up. This people are then absolved in the illegal informal sector. Cyber crime is also very high in Nigeria. This goal is not be fully achieveable by 2030 but we can start laying the process for achievement.
    ▪️ Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure : we still have a long way to go starting with the government been supportive to firms and individuals. The achievement of this goal by 2030 is not feasible.We must achieve this goals in an integrated mannner because they’re all interrelated.

  143. Ali Chukwuemeka Japhet says:

    ALI CHUKWUEMEKA JAPHET
    2017/242427

    The first nine out of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals includes:
    (1) No Poverty , (2) Zero Hunger , (3) Good Health and Well-being , (4)
    Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth , (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure.

    These goals are quite achievable in Nigeria if followed up with commitment from the government and it’s citizenry.

    1. We can end poverty by developing the human capital of the nation through education and exposure to technological skills that will enable them add value and as well earn sumptously thereby ending poverty.

    2. Zero hunger can be achieved by engaging in mechanised agricultural system, granting loans to the poor farmers, providing agricultural processing facilities to preserve foods when in excess.

    3. Good Health and Well-being will be achieved by providing health infrastructures at subsidies rates.

    4. Quality Education can be achieved by recruiting qualified teachers and as well fund education massively.

    5. Gender Equality Equality can be achieved by providing equal position for women and men in all sector and as well re-orientation of people on the uniqueness of women in the society.

    6. Clean Water and Sanitation can also be achieved by proper regulation by the government. They can also ensure that drinking water are certified before being allowed for public consumption.

    7. Affordable and Clean Energy through investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. 

    8. Decent Work and Economic Growth: This can be achieved by decreasing the interest rate so as to enable investment.

    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure can be achieved through provision of infrastructures, export-promotion. policies and through protection of infant industries against external bodies.

  144. Ali Chukwuemeka Japhet says:

    Name: ALI CHUKWUEMEKA JAPHET

    Reg. No: 2017/242427

    The first nine out of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals includes:

    (1) No Poverty
    (2) Zero Hunger
    (3) Good Health and Well-being
    (4)Quality Education
    (5) Gender Equality
    (6) Clean Water and Sanitation
    (7) Affordable and Clean Energy
    (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth
    (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure.

    These goals are quite achievable in Nigeria if followed up with commitment from the government and it’s citizenry.

    1. We can end poverty by developing the human capital of the nation through education and exposure to technological skills that will enable them add value and as well earn sumptously thereby ending poverty.

    2. Zero hunger can be achieved by engaging in mechanised agricultural system, granting loans to the poor farmers, providing agricultural processing facilities to preserve foods when in excess.

    3. Good Health and Well-being will be achieved by providing health infrastructures at subsidies rates.

    4. Quality Education can be achieved by recruiting qualified teachers and as well fund education massively.

    5. Gender Equality Equality can be achieved by providing equal position for women and men in all sector and as well re-orientation of people on the uniqueness of women in the society.

    6. Clean Water and Sanitation can also be achieved by proper regulation by the government. They can also ensure that drinking water are certified before being allowed for public consumption.

    7. Affordable and Clean Energy through investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. 

    8. Decent Work and Economic Growth: This can be achieved by decreasing the interest rate so as to enable investment.

    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure can be achieved through provision of infrastructures, export-promotion. policies and through protection of infant industries against external bodies.

  145. Uwode Joy Ogheneyonle says:

    NAME: Uwode Joy Ogheneyonle
    REG NO: 2017/241451
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    EMAIL: yonlejoyuwode@gmail.com

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are people centered as well as planet sensitive. They are universal as they apply to all countries while recognizing the different realities as well as capabilities. Most importantly, they recognize that we can’t reach our development goals without addressing human rights and complex humanitarian issues. These SDGs are stated thus:

    1. End poverty: This is the move to ameliorate poverty in all its forms everywhere. This wouldn’t be attainable in Nigeria since a very large number of it’s citizens are living below $1 per day.

    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not attainable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.

    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: We can’t ensure healthy lives if we don’t exterminate poverty because most unhealthy persons in the country are poverty-stricken.

    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since poverty is widespread, education for all is not attainable.

    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Since gender disparity exists between the males and their female counterparts, then this goal wouldn’t be achieved.

    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: This is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. They litter the water bodies and this makes water toxic for use. Hence adequate sensitization is required to right this wrong.

    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Since we lack adequate monitoring of electricity generation and distribution, a sustained and accessible energy for all is not attainable. Hence there is need to revitalize the electricity sector.

    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: Since at least 70% of the country’s population is unemployed, underemployed or working poor efforts to curb the rage of unemployment is required to boost economic growth and bring about full employment.

    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: Since Nigeria lags behind in terms of infrastructure, there is need to build up structures that would foster innovation in the country as well as support innovative minds.

  146. Ezeke nnenna says:

    Ezeke Evarista Nnenna
    2017/249506

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    The General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The new Agenda emphasizes a holistic approach to achieving sustainable development for all, which is an urgent call for action by all countries both developed and developing in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
    Now looking at the first 9 Goals;
    1: End poverty in all its form everywhere:
    The war on poverty in Nigeria did not start today, a lot of policies has been introduced by many government in different years to eradicate or even reduce poverty in Nigeria but due to corruption in Nigeria so many of this polices did not even see the light of the day.
    2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture:
    This is a function of the first goal. Only poverty subjects one to hunger. Hence, eliminating poverty is a direct solution to the problem of hunger.
    3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages:
    This goal has experienced appreciable improvement over the years and given the timeframe, a lot can still be done. The focus should be in terms of infrastructures, the medical and surgical equipments and quality of healthcare services rendered. With improvements in these areas both by the government and private entities, These goal could be achieved within the time frame.
    4. Quality education:
    This goal can be achieved if the government can take education serious and provide the equipments and infrastructures needed and also update curriculum of institutions to meet world standard.
    5: Achieve Gender equality and empower all women and girls:
    Goal 5 can not be achieved fully because of the cultural believes of the people as it will take a long way in enlightening people about their belief and culture. It is believed that there are certain things a woman can/can not do especially like places in the north.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all:
    Accessibility to clean water is one index used to determine how poor a person is. Given the poverty level, lots of people in the country still struggle with getting clean drinking water. Also, people with no homes or live in slums would care less about sanitation. So achieving this goal to a large extent depends on eradicating poverty but this goal will not been left alone to the government because it is the responsibility of everybody to keep their environment clean.
    7: Ensure access to affordable reliable sustainable and modern energy for all: This goal is far from achievable in Nigeria. One major reason is corruption. There is little or no concern on the part of the government and even after handing over to private enterprise, it became worse. The power sector needs huge investment also to revitalize it and until the government decides to provide the necessary fund for the sector, there may be no reasonable progress.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all:
    This cannot be achieved because the companies that are suppose to create employment are leaving and the insecurity and other negative things happening in Nigeria are also discouraging new companies to invest in Nigeria.
    9: Build resilient Infrastructure, Promote Inclusive and sustainable Industrialization and Foster Innovations:
    This goal can be achieved if the government of Nigeria set it mind on ensure a proper implementation of it policies and proper supervision of agencies and contractors who will be in charge of these project, then I think this Goal can be achieved before it time frame.

  147. Nkwocha ikechukwu bonaventure says:

    Name: Nkwocha Ikechukwu Bonaventure
    Reg. no: 2017/249530
    Dept: Economics major
    INTRODUCTION
    In September 25 to 27, meeting at United Nations Headquarters in New York as the organization celebrated its seventieth anniversary, decide to adopt a new 17 global sustainable development goals. The goals are comprehensive far-reaching and people centered set of universal and transformative goals and targets. In this discussion, we will look into number 1 to 9 to know I its achievable in Nigeria within the time frame allotted and if not why and yes how.

    Main argument:
    Goal 1: End poverty in all forms everywhere.
    The idea behind this goal is by 2030 eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than 1.25 dollars. Now to Nigeria as our case of discussion, The measurement with 1.25 dollars that is 500 naria in Nigeria and we double it to be 100 naria, it still cannot provide someone with three times balanced meal. Poverty in Nigeria cannot be eradicated by 2030 why? Because looking the economic environment, political practices and social relationship poverty is still going to with us by 2030, mind you from the political line which is providing the right environment for economic growth especially SMEs that incorporates the less mass of Nigerian.
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    The second goal is based on, By 2030 end all forms of malnutrition, hunger and access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants and sufficient food all year around. This goal is not achievable to the core, why? In Nigeria our agricultural sector is dropping down and the level of food insecurity will require more than the time frame and partnership by the government and private sector will helps.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for at all ages.
    Goal 3 is by 2030 reduce the global maternal mortality ratio less than 70 per 100,000 live births. In Nigeria no within the time frame, why? The level of poverty in Nigeria makes it obvious that the poor is not asking about mortality ratio and this makes them to have more children.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    Here by 2030 is to ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes. The achievement of this in Nigeria is not achievable to core within the time frame and the current level of achievement is not even up to 40% mind you more than 2million child is out of school and again primary and secondary school in the Nigeria is not completely free plus the poor infrastructural facilities. In the Nigeria the wealth( inclusive of the political class ) that consumes the service provided by the education sector is small and this goes a long way to prolong the achievement.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    To end all forms of discrimination, by 2030 against all women and girls everywhere. In Nigeria our ways of life that is culture don’t really give women the opportunity but with civilization and globalization its am important thing to carry out to also sustain growth and Nigeria can achieve this but not to the core within the time frame. And very important our women need to rise and speak for themselves.
    Goal 6; Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    By 2030 to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.
    In Nigeria the water management is not well managed, mind you the wealthy (political) in Nigeria is just for it’s own self interest and the health of the poor masses is not taking care of. So within the time frame the goal cannot be achieved.
    Goal 7: Ensure access to afford, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
    To achieve universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy service.
    Nigeria can achieve this to an extend within the time frame of 2030 with more active government with a budget that is well executed.
    Goal 8: Promote sustainability. Inclusive and sustainable economic growth. Full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 percent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries.
    Within the time frame this goal is not achievable in Nigeria, why? The particular goal is 90% duty of the government with private sector partnership and most importantly the political activities in the country.
    By 2023 we will go to elect new leader but the question is WHO?
    Goal 9; Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Developed quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.
    In Nigeria the current trend on infrastructure is about forsaking old one and no maintenance culture, so for now Nigeria is going any way near reliable and sustainable infrastructure and its greatly affects the economic growth.
    IN CONCLUSION: Nigeria have a long way to go but we need to ask questions about our political processes because its affects economic performance greatly.
    The citizens that are well to do should stand up because Nigeria is ours and no other pla

  148. MBAH CHIEBONAM says:

    NAME: MBAH CHIEBONAM
    REG NO: 2017/249525
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    IS THE FIRST 9 SDGs GOALS ACHIEVABLE IN NIGERIA.?
    Having known the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. We are focusing on the first 9 goals.
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
    Goal 1 is obviously not achievable even in the next 50years due a lot of issues going on in Nigeria such as corruption; the government is highly corrupt, instead of embarking on projects that will enhance the eradication of poverty, they loot resources for the own selfish interest. They get richer at the expense of the poor masses thereby ending poverty is not possible from my view point.
    Goal 2 is achievable because most persons in the country are entrepreneurs at least an average Nigerian can fend for his/her meal once a day even though many don’t admit this fact.
    Goal 3 is achievable given the time bound because the improvement in health services both at the national and at the local/primary level is commendable and have led to reduced mortality cases accessible drugs for cures to various ailments.
    Goal 4 is not attainable reason been that Nigeria government does not valve education. Most of our leaders are not uneducated so they cannot make education their priority. Secondly if poverty is not taken care of, it will be difficult to attain education.
    Goal 5 this could be achieved in other developed countries that support feminism but using Nigeria a case study, it is not possible besides the president of our dear nation said that the place of a woman is the kitchen. So how will this goal be achieved when the place of the female gender has been limited.
    Goal 6 is possible if the government takes the rural area as a priority, because in the various ancient localities, the colonial governments that followed had a system of functional water management and well managed waste practices and disposals. The government in partnership with the SDGs program can continue from what have been put in place and advance it. The problem is that with the level of water scarcity, refuse dumps all around, industrial spillages etc. one should have a doubt of the attaining this before 2030.
    Goal 7 is attainable if government can take over the ownership of power supply company from the private individuals so as to make it a public good which will be more welfare oriented rather than profit oriented because of privatization and by doing, move towards the attainment of this goal.
    Goal 8 can be achieved when proper work and occupation are made so that the per income of an individual can increase there by leading to economic growth.
    Goal 9 can be achieved by setting standards and promote regulations that ensures companies and industries project are being managed. These are the duties and responsibilities of the government. It is not achievable in 9 years due to the fact that most industries are centered in the cities neglecting the rural areas which would make the rural areas less innovative.

  149. MADUAGUM MADONNA CHIOMA says:

    NAME: MADUAGUM MADONNA CHIOMA
    REG. NO:2017/241456
    EMAIL: cmaduagum@gmail.com
    1. No Poverty: Nigeria is currently the poverty capital of the world and chances that it would remain so by 2030 is very likely as government policies are not favourable to the economic growth and development of the nation. Investors are being driven out due to these poor policies and businesses which should be are being monopolized by businesses and private corporations favoured by the government making the cost of basic items expensive for the average person to purchase.
    2. Zero Hunger: Nigeria’s agricultural sector is still heavily dependent on small-scale farmers who use crude tools instead of advanced machineries so food production is slow and proper food storage against food shortage is poor .This also affects fishermen as the waters are being polluted making the waters inhabitable for fishes, plus deforestation and bush burning which affects livestock. Also, the agricultural sector is neglected in favour of the oil and gas sector.
    3. Good Health and Well-being: This goal also seems unlikely to be achieved by 2030 because the Nigerian health care sector is lacking in basic infrastructure, the staff are often underpaid or underemployed in their positions hence their nonchalance towards their work plus hospital bills are most times too high for the average person so they self medicate or do not go to the hospital at all for proper treatment. Infant and maternal mortality rate is very high, harmful and illicit drugs are now very accessible, road accidents are on the increase, etc.
    4. Quality Education: The government schools which are supposedly free are lacking in basic infrastructure and the staff some times aren’t qualified, plus their poor attitude towards their job due to being underpaid or owed by the government for a long while. Some religions and cultures also are against their children especially the females acquiring an education, that is, western education. Finding a school that offers Quality education on the other hand is quite expensive because they are mostly private schools although they have all the right infrastructure, the average working class is most times unable to afford it.
    5. Gender Equality: Discrimination amongst women is very evident in all parts and tribes of Nigeria, in education, politics, job applications and positions with power women are most times treated like second class citizens who should be submissive at all times and not compete in high ranking positions with men. The mentality is common among most Nigerian men despite raising awareness and mass education. The chances that equality would be achievable in nine years times is not very likely.
    6. Clean Water and Sanitation: Clean Water is not accessible to all in Nigeria. States have water depots ran by the government which are not effective or operational in providing clean water using enugu for example where water bills are paid every month but the water taps only run for maybe four days in a month. The waste management is also not efficient in their work, plus people’s poor attitude at handling wastes, open defecation, the high price of hygienic products like sanitary pads making it difficult for the poor to access.
    7. Affordable and Clean Energy: Electricity bills have doubled and so has the price of petroleum. Other nations are researching and discovering better sources of energy than burning of fossil fuel which is harmful to the environment but Nigeria is still very much dependent on petroleum.
    8. Decent Work and Economic Growth: Most Nigerians are exploited in their work place ,working overtime and being underpaid but can’t quit because they need a source of income. This goal covers equal pay for work of equal value, job opportunities for people with disabilities and increase in economic growth but due to the bad policies monitoring the economy made by the government to favour people in power and businesses which back them up or from which they gain some profit, this is also unlikely by 2030.
    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: This includes providing infrastructure which promotes economic development which Nigerian lacks in almost every sector, Promoting industrialization by supporting local producers and placing tariff on foreign goods which are also produced locally, supporting domestic technology and research, granting incentives and loans to promote growth in the industrial sector but unfortunately, the government and people awarded contracts to develop the industrial sector are corrupt and would only allocate a small fraction of the funds provided hence causing stagnation in development with little or no consequences for doing so.
    In other words, none of these goals are likely to have been achieved in Nigeria by 2030.

  150. EZE UDOKA CHIDIEBUBE says:

    N
    Name:Eze Udoka Chidiebube
    Reg no:2017/242428
    Dept:Economics
    Goal 1:NO POVERTY.
    Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty dropped by more than half between 1990 and 2015, too many are still struggling for the most basic human needs.
    Goal 2:ZERO HUNGER.
    The number of undernourished people has dropped by almost half in the past two decades because of rapid economic growth and increased agricultural productivity. Many developing countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet their nutritional needs. Central and East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have all made huge progress in eradicating extreme hunger.nowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the Sdgs.
    Goal 3:GOOD HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
    We have made great progress against several leading causes of death and disease. Life expectancy has increased dramatically; infant and maternal mortality rates have declined, we’ve turned the tide on HIV and malaria deaths have halved.Good health is essential to sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda reflects the complexity and interconnectedness of the two. It takes into account widening economic and social inequalities, rapid urbanization, threats to the climate and the environment, the continuing burden of HIV and other infectious diseases, and emerging challenges such as noncommunicable diseases.
    Goal 4:QUALITY EDUCATION
    Since 2000, there has been enormous progress in achieving the target of universal primary education. The total enrollment rate in developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015, and the worldwide number of children out of school has dropped by almost half. There has also been a dramatic increase in literacy rates, and many more girls are in school than ever bePoThese are all remarkable successes.
    Goal 5:GENDER EQUALITY
    Ending all discrimination against women and girls is not only a basic human right, it’s crucial for sustainable future; it’s proven that empowering women and girls helps economic growth and development.UNDP has made gender equality central to its work and we’ve seen remarkable progress in the past 20 years. There are more girls in school now compared to 15 years ago, and most regions have reached gender parity in primary education.
    Goal 6:CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION
    Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people, an alarming figure that is projected to rise as temperatures do. Although 2.1 billion people have improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling drinking water supplies are affecting every continent.
    Goal 7:AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY.
    Between 2000 and 2018, the number of people with electricity increased from 78 to 90 percent, and the numbers without electricity dipped to 789 million.Yet as the population continues to grow, so will the demand for cheap energy, and an economy reliant on fossil fuels is creating drastic changes to our climate.
    Goal 8:DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTh
    Over the past 25 years the number of workers living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, despite the lasting impact of the 2008 economic crisis and global recession. In developing countries, the middle class now makes up more than 34 percent of total employment – a number that has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015.
    Goal 9:INDUSTRY,INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE.
     Investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development. With over half the world population now living in cities, mass transport and renewable energy are becoming ever more important, as are the growth of new industries and information and communication technologies.

  151. Udeh Rita Ezinne says:

    Udeh Rita Ezinne
    2017/249578

    The First Nine (9) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are stated thus:
    1. End poverty: This is to end poverty in all its forms everywhere. This is attainable if the resources available in the country will be use effectively and efficiently.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture: This is not achievable since poverty is not yet eradicated, hence we need to eradicate poverty in order to end the raging hunger in the country.
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages: This is possible given the time frame if our health sector will be reformed. This will come in the form of improved health facilities, payment of medical personnels, public education on health issues etc.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all: Education is paramount at basic levels at least universal basic education. Since the level of poverty is still high equitable education for all will not be achievable given the time frame.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: This is achievable; if our government and society will see the need to provide a field of equal opportunity for all gender without any form of favoritism towards any gender.
    6. Ensure available and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Thus is not possible since Nigerians do not participate in community sanitation and cleaning. It can only be achieved everyone will come to the realization of the importance of water and proper sanitation is to our environment.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all: Given the time frame this Goal is not achievable Since we lack adequate monitoring of electricity generation and distribution. Hence there is need to revitalize the electricity sector.
    8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all: this Goal is still not achievable giveb the time frame because most people are still unemployed.
    9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation: this goal is not achievable given the time frame Since Nigeria lags behind in terms of infrastructure. In other for it to be achieved there will be need to build up structures that would foster innovation in the country.

  152. Ahamefula miracle chisom says:

    Name: Ahamefula miracle chisom
    Reg no:2017/249478
    Dept:Economics
    Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    Is this goal ambitious? Yes. But it can be achieved. By dedicating ourselves to a human-centric, rights-based approach across all the other 16 sustainable development goals will not only end poverty but also bring dramatic improvements in quality of life, the environment and governance for everyone. – Alexandra Lopoukhine, Community Lead, Civil Society and Innovation
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    Hunger can be eliminated within this lifetime, if we create better opportunities for farmers and focus on the needs of undernourished groups. Sustainability means using fewer natural resources to produce food and reducing food waste and loss. Improved nutrition means reducing both hunger and obesity through improved education, and access and availability of quality foods.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    Innovation in terms of delivery models and technology mean is bringing the goal of healthy living for all within sight. Business models based on public-private cooperation unlock crucial investment without the need for massive infrastructure investment; meanwhile, telemedicine, precision medicine and other advances are bringing dramatic improvements in terms of effectiveness and cost.
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    Technology can help us to fundamentally transform education delivery and, with the right mix of policies and incentives, we can scale up early success stories. But we need to move beyond “first study, then work” to a model based on lifelong learning. Content and quality, too, must change, with the emphasis on critical thinking, collaboration and flexibility alongside “hard skills”. Business must play a critical role in the constant skilling, reskilling and upskilling of employees and broader communities.
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    We will not achieve any of our goals if girls and women are not equal partners to boys and men. We have made tremendous strides in awareness of the gender gap – from schools to boardrooms – it’s time to translate these movements and campaigns into action. Workplaces, governments and healthcare and education systems must be designed to provide a level playing field. Practices that have worked already must be adapted more broadly.
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Let’s tackle wastewater, especially in towns and cities. This is a good way in, as 80% of it is currently not treated. Accelerating technology, partnership models and financing mechanisms to scale wastewater treatment solutions can create “new” reuseable sources of water for industry and agriculture and free up lots more fresh water for humans and nature.
    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Evolution of distributed energy technology, maturity of financial tools and a greater awareness across stakeholders offer a new opportunity for solving the global issue of energy access. With technology largely available, the critical factors to overcome are the financial challenge – by making long-term investment projects both bankable and scalable – and the capability constraints. Enabling those will allow energy systems to reach their goal of affordability and sustainability today.
    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Well-functioning and transparent institutions that effectively protect property rights, reduce red tape, combat corruption and keep nepotism in check are essential. Getting this right will create a stable and predictable business environment, which will, in turn, fuel investment, create jobs and facilitate the production of higher value goods and services in an economy.
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Through a resilient, trusted digital infrastructure we have a unique opportunity to add 2 billion people to the innovation process. Let’s enable collaborative innovation processes focused on eliminating waste of resources instead of replacing labour with technology.

  153. Egbo Chinemelum Chinonso says:

    Egbo Chinemelum Chinonso
    2017/249493
    egboemecs@gmail.com

    GOAL 1: No Poverty.

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger.

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being.

    GOAL 4: Quality Education.

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality.

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation.

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy.

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth.

    GOAL 9: Industry Innovation and Infrastructure

    In my view, most of the goals listed above have not been achieved, like goal 1- goal 4.
    Since goal 1 which is end poverty has not been been achieved because plenty people are living below $1, then goal 2 which is end hunger can’t be achieved. Apart from poverty in why goal 2 can’t be achieved, the government don’t face the agricultural sector. For goal 3, it can’t be achieved without goal 2 being achieved and for goal 4, it can’t be achieved without goal 1 being achieved because while the NGOs help some children with education, they can’t help everyone of them and those ones that don’t have help will need money to pay for education and when you are poor, how can you pay.
    For Goal 5, it is on its way to being achieved in the sense that woman are now being recognised and can participate in some things like most jobs are for both men and women and not only the former.
    For goal 6 & 7, it is not achievable before 2030, this is because like for goal 7 which is affordable energy, the government doesn’t even have enough energy for the country but they still sell it to other countries and this is because of corruption.
    Goal 8 is also not achievable because plenty people are still unemployed till today ie the unemployment rate is as high 30%.
    For Goal 9, it is also not achievable because the government doesn’t care about the infrastructure in the country or innovation, their problem is to see how much money they can get.

  154. Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom says:

    Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom
    2017/249592
    The first nine development goals can not be achievable because of the level of corrupt practices in Nigeria

  155. Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom says:

    Uta-Daniel Nneoma Blossom
    2017/249592
    Economics

    GOAL 1: No Poverty :
    The gap between the rich and the poor continues to widen and as a result poverty can not be eradicated as the rich gets richer bad the poor poorer but this can be corrected through appropriate taxing

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger:
    Hunger can not be eradicated because government does not invest enough in the agricultural sector of the economy either that or the funds allocated to the sector is pocketed by corrupt officials

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being:
    This can not be achievable also by the lack of investment in the sector and corrupt practices

    GOAL 4: Quality Education:
    *Same explanation as 2&3*

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality:
    This is as a result of the backwards thinking nature of men that disregards the participations of women in the economy. This can be corrected through seminars and proper grooming

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

  156. Nnadi Olivia ijeoma. Education economics. 2016/232856 says:

    The SDGs are attainable with the right set if people with a democrat government in place, using Nigeria as a case study, I will be analysing the first nine goals.

    Goal 1 – End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere – This goal is attainable in Nigeria if the government makes and follows economic policies meant to Foster growth and development in the country. Creating infrastructure and maintaining them. Encouraging small scale business and giving out loans with little interest rate.

    Goal 2 – End hungry, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture – This goal just like the first goal is attainable if the government is ready to invest adequately in the agricultural sector.

    Goal 3 – Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages – This goal is attainable if the health sector is giving adequate resources and finance to work with.

    Goal 4 – Ensure inclusive and equitable equality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all – This goal is attainable if the government gives adequate resources and finance to the educational sector. Ensure compulsory free basic education. And includes vocational training as a compulsory subject in secondary schools.

    Goal 5 – Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls – This goal is unattainable in Nigeria where the male gender from birth are giving supremacy and extra privileges. Nigeria as a whole runs with a man supremacy factor, the society doesn’t encourage gender equality.

    Goal 6 – Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all – This goal is unattainable in Nigeria, the government hasn’t made easy flowing drainage systems. Most drainage are flooded with dirt, and his has gotten no positive reaction from the government. Even the citizenry are not helping issues, as drainage systems like gutter are used as waste him alternative.

    Goal 7 – Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all – This goal isn’t attainable in Nigeria, the energy sector is been used for politics, as funds assigned to this sector is been embezzled by those in charge.

    Goal 8 – Promote sustain ant, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all – This goal isn’t attainable in Nigeria with the recent increase in our level of inflation. Small scale business are not encourage to continue in business, there’s inadequate power supply, little access to low interest loan and high migration from the rural to the urban sector.

    Goal 9 – Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation – This goal is very attainable in Nigeria if the government choose to be democratic. The goal lies totally in the hands of the government

  157. MGBADA OGOCHUKWU EMELDA says:

    NAME MGBADA OGOCHUKWU EMELDA
    REG NO: 2017/245040
    DEPARTMENT ECONOMICS
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the world’s shared plan to end extreme poverty, reduce inequality, and protect the planet by 2030.
    Adopted by 193 countries in 2015, the SDGs emerged from the most inclusive and comprehensive negotiations in UN history and have inspired people from across sectors, geographies, and cultures. Achieving the goals by 2030 will require heroic and imaginative effort, determination to learn about what works, and agility to adapt to new information and changing trends.
    The UN Foundation focuses on ideas and initiatives that generate larger impact, advance the SDG imperative to “leave no one behind,” and are backed by evidence, practical commitments, and action.
    • SDG 1: No Poverty.
    • SDG 2: Zero Hunger.
    • SDG 3: Good Health & Well-being.
    • SDG 4: Quality Education.
    • SDG 5: Gender Equality.
    • SDG 6: Clean Water & Sanitation.
    • SDG 7: Affordable & Clean Energy.
    • SDG 8: Decent Work & Economic Growth.
    • SDG 9 seeks to build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation. This SDG encompasses three important aspects of sustainable development: infrastructure, industrialisation and innovation.
    Is this sustainable development achievable in nigeria
    Yes this goals are achievable in nigeria
    Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses on the key issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5), and the enabling environment of peace and security (SDG-16), and partnerships (SDG-17). This focus is based on Nigeria’s current development priorities and the development objectives of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration. This VNR is being developed while facing huge challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic testing Nigeria’s public health systems, and of the collapse in oil prices, for an economy still getting 86% of public revenue from oil and gas.
    Nigeria’s 2017 VNR outlined the institutional dimensions for creating an enabling policy environment for the implementation of the SDGs through its Economic and Recovery Growth Plan (ERGP) (2017-2020). The ERGP’s focus on economic, social and environmental dimensions of development makes it consistent with the aspirations of the SDGs.
    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria has some poor health outcomes, such as high rates of maternal mortality, there have been improvements in the under-five mortality rates (from 157 to 132). COVID-19 has challenged our public health 2 | Page system. A key lesson in protecting the public in times of such pandemics is hygiene and the need to prioritize universal access to clean water and soap. Nigeria’s current access to basic drinking water stands at 64%. There must be more investment in public health and to ensure the most vulnerable are reached through universal access to essential services.
    SDG4-Education: A key challenge confronting the country has to do with Out-of- School-Children, a demographic challenge that relates to an interplay between employment (SDG-8), education (SDG-4), poverty (SDG-1) and the digital economy (SDG-17). With a population of approximately 200 million people, regional disparities are significant, with 78% of South Western children able to read full or part sentences, while only 17% of North Eastern children can. With only 1.6% of GDP devoted to education, the country needs to increase the resources to provide quality education.
    SDG8-Inclusive Economy: In terms of inclusive economy (SDG-8), Nigeria’s informal economy is one of the largest on the continent – estimated at 53% of the Labour force and accounting for 65% of GDP. It is estimated that 75% of all new jobs are informal. Youth have a combined unemployment and under-employment rate of 55.4% or 24.5 million1. This is the youth bulge that needs to be building the required skills to move into secure and less precarious forms of employment. Ensuring youth are well-educated and able to transition to productive employment through the digital economy can help reduce poverty (SDG-1) and help diversify growth beyond dependence on oil and gas. The Generation Unlimited intervention, which targets employment for 20 million youth is another good example. The banking sector can play an important role in supporting the country’s efforts to leverage greater private sector-led growth by providing access to finance, particularly for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, the Nigerian government can dramatically shift to digitization and strengthening its transition to e-government to facilitate its social protection to the poor and vulnerable population.
    Alignment of national planning to SDGs: Good strides have been made in the domestication process of the SDGs in Nigeria. First, there is an ongoing realignment of the National Statistical System (NSS) with the requirements and Indicators of the SDGs. Second, Nigeria has developed its home-grown ‘Integrated Sustainable Development Goals (iSDG Model) – an analytical framework for assessing how policy making can better address the indivisible nature of the SDGs. Third, the Nigeria’s 2020 VNR report has drawn on past evaluations across the Seven priority SDGs and has an ongoing evaluation of the country’s performance in SDG 3&4. This attempt to systematically use evaluations is an innovation in the VNR context. Nigeria should strengthen the evidencebased planning and accountability mechanisms at State level for accelerating the SDG decade of action. The post-ERGP National Development Plan (2021-2030) will be pivotal in advancing the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria.

  158. The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    1: No Poverty

    2: Zero Hunger

    3: Good Health and Well-being

    4: Quality Education

    5: Gender Equality

    6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    10: Reduced Inequality

    11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    13: Climate Action

    14: Life Below Water

    15: Life on Land

    16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    In my opinion I believe that the first 9 goals can be a thing of reality in Nigeria by 2030. We already know that the majority of issues we experience in Nigeria is as a result of bad governance.

    I believe that Nigeria as a nation has the resources it takes to achieve these goals but the people in charge of allocating these resources do not want this to happen. Until we solve the issue of bad governance and corruption, these goals will never be achieved.

    When we have the right people in power who really are concerned about the people’s welfare, making the people’s needs their priority, all these goals will definitely be achieved.

  159. Okwuchie Amos says:

    OKWUCHIE AMOS
    2017/249562
    ECONOMICS
    okwuchieamos@gmail.com

    Goal 1. End poverty in all it forms everywhere. This goal is achievable if the gap between the rich and poor are made narrow. This can be done by promoting the welfare of the poor through giving to them empowerment to enhance their development.
    Goal 2. End hunger and achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. This can be achieved if the country change her pattern of production to tilt towards agriculture.

    Goal 3.Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages. This is achievable, but the government should buckle up in order achieve this goal, hospital should be built in the rural area.

    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all. This is achievable but we should work towards building more structure in schools, training and employing more qualified teachers.

    Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower women and girls. This is mostly likely to be achieved because in contemporary time equality are maintained among men and women. They are now going to school more than boys or men.

    Goal 6 Ensure availability of sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. This is achievable by sensitization of the people on the need to keep their sorouding clean.

    Goal 7 Endure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. The government should achieve this through embarking on funding the establishment of alternative sources of energy.

    Goal 8. Promote sustained inclusive and sustainable economics growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. This goal is achievable, if government can invest more on the informal sector to boost economy.

    Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization t o foster innovation. This is achievable but government through the ministry incharge

  160. Arinze miracle ozioma says:

    Arinze miracle ozioma
    2017/241428
    ozioma.arinze.241428@unn.edu.ng
    The sustainable development goals are dependent on each other. They are centered on human welfare and can be achieved if strategic planning and policies are put in place.

    Goal 1 : end poverty in all its form everywhere –
    This goal is geared towards ending poverty. This means that nobody will leave below the poverty line if this goal is achieved. This goal can be achieved in Nigeria if government can build more industries are built which will create more employment for the labour force and also make available more empowerment schemes which will help those who want to be self employed.

    Goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    Policies such as operation feed the nation which was never implemented should be reviewed and the necessary institutions needed to achieve this policy should be put in place. Also they should provide farmers with mechanical tools which will increase the farm yeild or proceeds.
    Goal 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    This can be achieved if the already existing hospitals can be equiped with the necessary equipment needed for treatment and more experienced doctors are trained. Also there should be free or subsidized medical treatment for the poor masses who cannot afford to pay for their medical expenses. Insurance schemes can also be setup for the invalids.

    Goal 4: ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all
    Basic education should be made free for all children. This means that both primary and secondary education should be free for all
    This will enable both the rich and the poor to attain education. Scholarship schemes should also be made available to train the less privileged in various tertiary institutions of their choice.

    Goal 5: achieve gender equality and empower women and girls-
    The male superiority sentiment should be discarded. Women should should be allowed to go to school and also hold strategic leadership positions in the country and even in diaspora. Empowerment schemes should be made available for women and women.

    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Clean and neat water should be made available to everyone in the society. Necessary institutions for the management of the water and circulation. Functional sanitation agencies should also be put in place for sanitation.

    Goal 7: affordable and clean energy-
    Electricity is one of the factors that has been impeding the growth of most industries in the country. If enough electricity can be generated and the masses can easily access then there will me increase in development.

    Goal 8: decent work and economic growth.
    This goal can be achieved if at least 90% of the labour force will be given suitable job opportunity given their necessary qualifications. This will increase general production and increase economic growth and development.

    Goal 9: build resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainability in industrialization to Foster innovation:
    This goal can be achieved in Nigeria. This is when investment in necessary infrastructure that Foster economic growth and development are made especially in rural areas.

  161. Bright Anayo says:

    Name: Anayo Bright Udochukwu
    Reg Number: 2017/249482
    Department: Economics

    The decision to launch a process to develop a set of sustainable development goals was by United Nations Member States at United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro in june 2012. However, there have being a debate which its focus is to re-examine whether the first nine Sustainable Development Goals can be achieved in Nigeria within the alloted time.

    Foremost, it is good to understand growth and development is a gradual procedure. At same the sustainable development goals cannot be achieve within the alloted period of time. Hence, considering the factors base on each goals:

    End poverty: Poverty is not only not being able to cater for food, sheather, and cloth. Thus, it is also of the mind. A scenario where individuals cannot mediate on the measure so as to reduce their bottleneck rather they are religion fanatic.

    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition: Until Nigerians see agriculture as a new oil, this goal cannot be achieve.

    Ensure healthy and promote well being: This goal is not achieveable until the government pit more interest on housing. A case study was taken to examine the well being of previous housing projects undertaken during early independence, the findings was that all those projects has aged.

    Ensure inclusive and equitable education: When the mentality about the girl child is for kitchen and other room, such goals cannot be achieve in Nigeria. Also, when the representative are feeling to behave like gods.

    Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls: Over some years there has being a significant improve but that does not remove minus the fact equality can achieve within the allocated time. And so on with other sustainable development goals; when the leaders and led think averse to a serious problem for greater humanity

  162. Nweke Ngozi Veronica 2017/242946 says:

    The sustainable development goals adopted by UN members in 2015, is one that fosters increase in standard of living among member countries and improve human welfare for all citizens in the country. By 2030 which is the year set for the achievement of the 17 developmental goals, Nigeria is likely not to achieve all 17 of them by that year.
    When it comes to the goals of no poverty, zero hunger, quality education Nigeria is far from achieving this because her population is increasing by the day and the economy is not prepared to accommodate the number. Day by day the naira is depreciating, inflation keeps increasing, there are no jobs, poor educational facilities and neglect of the educational sector by the government in her budget allocation. That of gender equality and reducing inequality will not be attainable. I will blame the mindset of the African man that has really dug deep into people that man should always be the head regardless of the gathering, be it in office section or committees.
    Decent work and economic Growth and industry, innovation and infrastructure are goals that are not attainable due to poor infrastructure and neglect of the industrial sector in Nigeria.

  163. Igboka Chizoba Edna (2017/249512) says:

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.
    The SDGs include:
    Goal 1: End poverty in all it’s forms everywhere
    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, promote sustainable Agriculture.
    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life- long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7: affordable and clean energy-
    Electricity is one of the factors that has been impeding the growth of most industries in the country. If enough electricity can be generated and the masses can easily access then there will me increase in development.

    Goal 8: decent work and economic growth.
    This goal can be achieved if at least 90% of the labour force will be given suitable job opportunity given their necessary qualifications. This will increase general production and increase economic growth and development.

    Goal 9: build resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainability in industrialization to Foster innovation:
    This goal can be achieved in Nigeria. This is when investment in necessary infrastructure that Foster economic growth and development are made especially in rural areas.

  164. Asika joy ogechukwu
    2017/242025
    Economics dept

    The SDGs build on decades of work by countries and the UN, including the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
    In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.
    Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.
    The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Plan of Implementation, adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in South Africa in 2002, reaffirmed the global community’s commitments to poverty eradication and the environment, and built on Agenda 21 and the Millennium Declaration by including more emphasis on multilateral partnerships.
    At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 2012, Member States adopted the outcome document “The Future We Want” in which they decided, inter alia, to launch a process to develop a set of SDGs to build upon the MDGs and to establish the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. The Rio +20 outcome also contained other measures for implementing sustainable development, including mandates for future programmes of work in development financing, small island developing states and more.
    In 2013, the General Assembly set up a 30-member Open Working Group to develop a proposal on the SDGs.
    In January 2015, the General Assembly began the negotiation process on the post-2015 development agenda. The process culminated in the subsequent adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, with 17 SDGs at its core, at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015.
    2015 was a landmark year for multilateralism and international policy shaping, with the adoption of several major agreements:
    Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015)
    Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development (July 2015)
    Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its 17 SDGs was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in New York in September 2015.
    Paris Agreement on Climate Change (December 2015)
    Now, the annual High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development serves as the central UN platform for the follow-up and review of the SDGs.
    Today, the Division for Sustainable Development Goals (DSDG) in the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) provides substantive support and capacity-building for the SDGs and their related thematic issues, including water, energy, climate, oceans, urbanization, transport, science and technology, the Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR), partnerships and Small Island Developing States. DSDG plays a key role in the evaluation of UN systemwide implementation of the 2030 Agenda and on advocacy and outreach activities relating to the SDGs. In order to make the 2030 Agenda a reality, broad ownership of the SDGs must translate into a strong commitment by all stakeholders to implement the global goals. DSDG aims to help facilitate this engagement.
    Goal 1 : end poverty in all its form everywhere –
    This goal is geared towards ending poverty. This means that nobody will leave below the poverty line if this goal is achieved. This goal can be achieved in Nigeria if government can build more industries are built which will create more employment for the labour force and also make available more empowerment schemes which will help those who want to be self employed.
    Goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
    Policies such as operation feed the nation which was never implemented should be reviewed and the necessary institutions needed to achieve this policy should be put in place. Also they should provide farmers with mechanical tools which will increase the farm yeild or proceeds.
    Goal 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages
    This can be achieved if the already existing hospitals can be equiped with the necessary equipment needed for treatment and more experienced doctors are trained. Also there should be free or subsidized medical treatment for the poor masses who cannot afford to pay for their medical expenses. Insurance schemes can also be setup for the invalids.
    Goal 4: ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life long learning opportunities for all
    Basic education should be made free for all children. This means that both primary and secondary education should be free for all
    This will enable both the rich and the poor to attain education. Scholarship schemes should also be made available to train the less privileged in various tertiary institutions of their choice.
    Goal 5: achieve gender equality and empower women and girls-
    The male superiority sentiment should be discarded. Women should should be allowed to go to school and also hold strategic leadership positions in the country and even in diaspora. Empowerment schemes should be made available for women and women.
    Goal 6: ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Clean and neat water should be made available to everyone in the society. Necessary institutions for the management of the water and circulation. Functional sanitation agencies should also be put in place for sanitation.Goal 7: affordable and clean energy-
    Electricity is one of the factors that has been impeding the growth of most industries in the country. If enough electricity can be generated and the masses can easily access then there will me increase in development.
    Goal 8: decent work and economic growth.
    This goal can be achieved if at least 90% of the labour force will be given suitable job opportunity given their necessary qualifications. This will increase general production and increase economic growth and development.
    Goal 9: build resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainability in industrialization to Foster innovation:
    This goal can be achieved in Nigeria. This is when investment in necessary infrastructure that Foster economic growth and development are made especially in rural areas.

  165. Eke promise chinaza
    2017/241531
    Economic Education
    Development Economic
    Eco 362

    Sustainable Development Goals and Nigeria is about how Nigeria is implementing the Sustainable Development Goals within the thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen global goals designed as a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Each of the 17 goals is expected to be achieved by 2030 in every country around the world.

    Nigeria is a member of the United Nations. Nigeria is known as the “Most populous nation in Africa and the Seventh most populous in the world. Nigeria gained her independence on 1st of October,1960. In 2012, Nigeria contributed the fifth largest number of peacekeepers to United Nations peacekeeping operations.

    The SDGs or the Project 2030 is a global call to put an end to poverty, secure the planet and ensure that everyone enjoys peace and prosperity by 2030. It was adopted by 193 countries with Nigeria as one of its country members. The SDGs are set of seventeen interconnected goals which have targets with at least one or two indicators for each targets. The implementation of “Global Goals” for all kicked off in January, 2015. Its objectives are to ensure social inclusion, protect the environment and foster economic growth. Governments, private sector, research, academia and CSOs receive support from the UN as the SDGs encourage partnerships. It ensures the right choices are adopted now to improve life for future generations in a sustainable way. The SDGs are blueprints for the world to experience peace and prosperity at the fullest by 2030.

    According to the agreement of Nigerian with the United Nations, aims to align its development priorities in partnership with CSOs and the private sector to achieve the SDGs together. The Agenda 2030, is designed to build sustainable world around the five P’s, namely; People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace, and Partnerships, which span across the 17 SDGs. In 2017, Nigeria was among 44 member countries of the United Nations that presented its Voluntary National Review (VNR) on the implementation of the 2030 agenda and the SDGs at HLPF.

  166. Chisom Okagbue says:

    Okagbue Chisom E
    2017/249552
    Economics
    Eco 362
    Nigeria’s 2020 Voluntary National Review (VNR) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focuses on the key issues of poverty (SDG-1) and an inclusive economy (SDG-8), health and wellbeing (SDG-3), Education (SDG-4), Gender equality (SDG-5).
    SDG3-Health and Wellbeing: While Nigeria h