Assignment And Quiz

Eco. 0511 Assignment (Natural Resource Utilization in Nigeria) —6/7/2018

Discuss the un-utilized, under-utilized and over-utilized natural resources across the various states in Nigeria.
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Tony Orji

Dr. Tony Orji is the founder and owner of Success Tonics Blog. He is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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  1. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT ECONOMICS

    TOPIC:

    NATURAL RESOURCES UTILIZATION, UNDERUTILIZATION AND MIS UTILIZATION IN THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: ECO 0511
    (PROBLEM AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY:

    DOKUBO JOHNSON MONOVIE
    PG/PGD/17/01047

    LECTURER:
    DR. A. ORJI

    JULY, 2018

    INTRODUCTION
    Nigeria, A nation in West Africa on the gulf of Guinea, bordering Benin in the West, Chad and Cameroon to the east, and Niger in the north formerly a British Colony and protectorate. It became independent in 1960; a republic since 1963, member of the common wealth in 1960 (membership suspended from 1995 to 1999 following human right violations) Eastern Region seceded as the Republic of Biafra for the duration of the severe civil war (1967-1970); ruled by military government from 1966 to 1999. It consists of a belt of tropical rain forest in the south, with Simi-desert in the extreme North and high lands in the east the main export is petroleum.
    Nigerian is often referred to as the “Giant of Africa” owing to its economy and large population of about 195,824 as of Monday, July 2, 2018 based on the latest United Nation estimates, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. The country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by over 500 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba; these ethnic groups speak over 500 different language and are identify with a wide variety of cultures. The official languages is English, Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who like mostly in the southern part of the country and Muslims, who live mostly in the north. A minority of the population practices religions indigenous to Nigeria such as those native of the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities. The capital city is Abuja and its largest city is Lagos it uses Naira as its currency.

    NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    No/S States Natural Resources Resources that are utilized Resources that are under utilized Resources that are miss utilized
    1. Abia Gold, Lead/Zinc, limestone, oil/Gas and salt Oil/Gas, Limestone Lead/zinc, gold Salt
    2. Abuja Cassiterite, clay, dolomite, gold, lead/zinc Clay, lead/zinc marble Gold, domomite; cassierite, tantalite
    3. Adamawa Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin and Magnesite Bentonite Gypsum, kaolin mangnesite
    4. Akwa Ibom Clay, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, oil/gas, salt and uranium Oil/gas, limestone, clay, lead/zinc Uramium, lignite Salt
    5. Anambra Clay, Glass-sand, gypsum, iron-ore, lead/zinc lignite, limestone, phosphate and salt.
    Lead/zinc, limestone, salt, clay Phosphate, gypsum iron-ore, glass-sand
    6. Bauchi Gold, cassiterite (tin ore), columbite gypsum, uranium, coal, limestone, lignite, iron-ore and clay. Lead/zinc, gypsum, clay limestone Uramium, iron-ore, gold, columbite, cassiterite, lignite coal
    7. Bayelsa Clay, gypsum, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, manganese, oil/gas and uranium Oil/Gas, clay Lignite, limestone, uranium, gypsum lead/zinc, manganese Oil/gas, clay
    8. Benue Barite, Clay, cola, gemstone, gypsum, iron-ore, lead/zinc, limestone, marble and alt Gemstone, salt, marble clay, limestone Barite, gypsum, iron-ore coal, lead/zinc
    9. Born Bentonite, clay, diatomite, gypsum, hydrocarbon, kaolin and limestone.
    Clay, limestone Bentonite, diatomite, Hydrocarbon, gypsum, kaolin.

  2. 10. Delta Clay, glass-sand, Gypsum, iron-ore, kaolin lignite, marble and oil/gas Oil/gas, clay, marble Glass sand, Gypsum, iron-ore kaolin. Oil/gas
    11. Ebonyi Gold, lead/zinc and salt Salt/lead/zinc Gold Salt
    12. Edo Bitumen, clay dolomite, phosphate, glass-sand, gold, Gypsum, iron ore, lignite, limestone, marble and oil/gas Clay, oil/gas, iron-ore limestone, bitumen marble Phosphate, dolomite gold, lignite, glass sand, Gypsum Oil/gas, clay
    13. Ekiti Feldspar, granite, kaolin, and syenite. Granite Feldspar, syenite,
    14. Enugu coal, lead/zinc and limestone gemstone and Gypsum Coal, lead/zinc limestone Limestone, lead/zinc Coal
    15. Gombe Genstone and gypsum Genstone Gemstone and gypsum
    16. Imo Gypsum, lead/zinc, lignite limestone, marcasite, oil/gas, phosphate and salt
    Oil/gas, lead/zinc limestone, salt Marcasite, phosphate gypsum, lignite Salt
    17. Cross Rive Barite, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, manganese, oil/gas, salt and uranium Oil/gas, limestone, lead/zinc, salt Barite, uranium maganese, lignite Oil/gas, salt
    18. Jigawa Butyl Butyl
    19. Kaduna Amethyst, aqua marina, asbestos, clay, gemstone gold, graphite, kaolin, hyanite, mica, rock, crystal. Clay, graphite, Amethyst, aqua marina, asbestos, gemstone gold, mica, rock, crystal, hyanite kaolin.
    20. Kano Cassiterite, copper, gemstone, glass- sand, lead/zinc, and tantalite Copper, lead/zinc Copper, cassiterite, Gemstone, Glass-sand and Tantalite
    21. Kastina Kaolin, Marble and salt Salt, Marble Kaolin Salt
    22. Kebbi Gold Gold
    23. Kogi Coal, Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsum, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Marble, Talc and Tantalite. Marble, coal, Iron-ore Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsum, Talc and Tantalite. Iron-ore
    24. Kwara Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Iron-ore, Marble, Mica and Tantalite Marble and iron-ore Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Mica and Tantalite
    25. Lagos Bitumen, oil/gas, clay and glass-sand Oil/gas, Bitumen and clay Glass-sand Oil/Gas
    26. Nasarawa Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, chalcopyrite, clay, columbite, cooking coal, dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gelena, Iron-ore, Limestone, Mica,Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite, Tourmaline, Quartz and Zircon Clay, Cooking coal and limestone Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, chalcopyrite, columbite, dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gelena, Iron-ore, Mica,Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite,
    27. Niger Gold, Lead/Zinc and Talc Lead/Zinc Gold ,Talc
    28. Ogun Bitumen, Clay, Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin, Limestone and Phosphate. Bitumen, Clay and Limestone Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin and Phosphate
    29. Ondo Bitumen, clay, Coal, Dimension stone, Feldspar, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Granite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Limestone and oil/gas Bitumen, Clay, Oil/gas, Limestone and Granite Coal, Gemstone, feldspar, Gypsum,
    Kaolin, Dimension stone
    30. Osun Columbite, Gold, Granite, Talc, Tantalite and Tourmaline Garanite Columbite, Gold, Talc, Tantalite and tourmaline
    31. Oyo Aqua marine, Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gemstone, Gold, Kaolin, Marble, Silimonite,, Talc and Tantalite

    Clay, Marble Gold, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gemstone, Kaolin, Talc, Tantalite, Silimonite and Aqua marine Clay
    32. Plateau Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay, Coal, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lead/ zinc, Marble, Molybdenum, Phrochlore, Salt, Tantalite/ Columbite, Tin and Wolfram Clay, Salt, Iron-ore, Marble, Lead/ Zinc Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Kaolin, Tantalite, Wolfram Molybdenum, Phrochlore, Columbite and Tin, Coal Clay
    33. Rivers Clay, Glass-sand, Lignite, Marble and oil/Gas Oil/ Gas Glass- sand, Lignite and Marble

  3. RSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    TOPIC:
    LIST THE MINERAL RESOURCES IN ALL THE STATES OF THE FEDERATION AND INDICATE WHETHER THEY ARE UTILIZED, UNDERUTILIZED OR MISUTILIZED

    AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE COURSE: ECO 0511 (PROBLEMS AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY
    AGU CHRISTIAN
    LECTURER-IN-CHARGE: DR. TONY ORJI
    JULY, 2018
    INTRODUCTION
    A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic and has an ordered atomic structure.
    Nigeria is among countries in Africa with a wide variety of different natural resources. The country is richly endowed with natural resources ranging from industrial metals to various precious stones such as Barites, Gypsum, Kaolin and Marble. Most of these minerals are yet to be exploited.
    The Nigerian Extractive Industries and Transparency Initiative, NEITI report suggests that there are about 40 different kinds of solid minerals and precious metals buried in Nigerian soil waiting to be exploited. The commercial value of Nigeria’s solid minerals has been estimated to run into hundreds of trillions of dollars, with 70 percent of these buried in the bowels of Northern Nigeria.
    Mining regulation is handled by the Ministry of Solid Minerals Development, which oversees the management of all mineral resources. Mining law is codified in the Federal Minerals and Mining Act of 1999. Historically, Nigeria’s mining industry was monopolized by state-owned public corporations. This led to a decline in productivity in almost all mineral industries.
    Below are the list of mineral resources in Nigeria and their location:

  4. S/N
    STATE
    MINERAL RESOURCES
    Untilized
    Underutilized
    Misutilized
    1
    Abia
    Gold, Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt
    Oil/Gas, Salt
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone,
    Gold
    2
    Adamawa
    Kaolin, Bentonite, Gypsum, Magnesiste

    Kaolin, Bentonite, Gypsum, Magnesiste

    3
    Akwa-Ibom
    Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Uranium(Traced), Salt, Lignite(Traced)
    Clay, Salt
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Uranium, Lignite

    4
    Anambra
    Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Iron-Ore, Lignite(partially investigated), Salt, Glass-Sand, Phosphate, Gypsum, Crude Oil
    Clay, Crude Oil
    Lead/Zinc, Gypsum, Lignite, Glass-Sand, Lignite, Glass-sand, Phosphate, Gypsum

    5
    Bauchi
    Amethyst(violet), Gypsum, Lead/Zinc(Traces), Uranium(partially investigated)

    Lead/Zinc ,Gypsum, Uranium, Amethyst

    6
    Bayelsa
    Clay, Limestone, Gypsum(partially invstigated), Uranium(partially invstigated), Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc(Traces)
    Clay
    Gypsum, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite, Limestone, Lead/Zinc

    7
    Benue
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Iron-Ore, Coal, Clay, Marble, Salt, Bartes(traces), Gemstones, Gypsum
    Clay, Marble, Salt
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Iron-Ore, Coal, Gemstones, Gypsum

    8
    Borno
    Diatomite, Clay, Limestone, Hydro-carbon(oil and gas, partially invstigated), Gypsum, Kaolin, Bentonite
    Clay, Hydro-carbon
    Diatomite, Limestone, Gypsum, Kaolin, Bentonite

    9
    Cross-River
    Limestone, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc, Salt, Crude Oil
    Salt, Crude Oil
    Limestone, Manganese, Uranium, Lignite, Lead/Zinc,

    10
    Delta
    Marble, Glass Sand, Gypsum, Lignite, Iron-Ore, Kaolin
    Marble
    Gypsum, Lignite, Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Glass Sand

    11
    Ebonyi
    Lead, Gold shocked, Salt
    Salt
    Lead
    Gold shocked
    12
    Edo
    Marble, Lignite, Clay, Limestone, Iron Ore, Gypsum, Glass-sand, Gold, Dolomite Phosphate, Bitumen, Crude Oil
    Marble, Clay, Crude Oil
    Lignite, Iron Ore, Glass-sand, Limestone Dolomite Phosphate, Bitumen
    Gold
    13
    Ekiti
    Kaolin, Feldspar, Tatium, Granite, Syenite

    Kaolin, Feldspar, Tatium, Granite, Syenite

    14
    Enugu
    Coal, Limestone, Lead/Zinc

    Coal, Limestone, Lead/Zinc

    15
    Gombe
    Gemestone, Gypsum

    Gemestone, Gypsum

    16
    Imo
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Lignite, Phosphate, Marcasite, Gypsum, Salt, Crude Oil

    Lead/Zinc, Limestone

    17
    Jigawa
    Butytes

    Butytes

    18
    Kaduna
    Sapphire, Kaoline, Gold, Clay, Serpentinite, Asbestos, Amethyst, Kyanite, Graphite(partially investigated), Selenite, Mica(Traces), Aquamarine, Ruby, Rock Crystal, Topaz, Flopper, Tourmaline, Gemstone, Tentalime
    Asbestos, Clay, Rock Crystal
    Sapphire, Kaoline, Amethyst, Kyanite, Graphite, Selenite, Mica, Aquamarine, Ruby, Topaz, Flopper, Tourmaline, Gemstone, Tentalime
    Gold
    19
    Kano
    Prrochinre, Cassiterite, Copper, Glass-Sand, Gemstone, Lead/Zinc, Tantalite

    Prrochinre, Cassiterite, Copper, Glass-Sand, Gemstone, Lead/Zinc, Tantalite

  5. 20
    Katsina
    Kaolin, Marble, Salt
    Salt, Marble
    Kaolin

    21
    Kebbi
    Gold

    Gold
    22
    Kogi
    Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Gypsum, Feldspar, Coal, Marble, Dolomite, Talc, Tantalite
    Marble
    Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Gypsum, Feldspar, Coal, Dolomite, Talc, Tantalite

    23
    Kwara
    Gold, Marble, Iron-Ore, Cassiterite, Columbite, Tantalise, Feldspar(Traces), Mica(Traces)
    Marble,
    Iron-Ore, Cassiterite, Columbite, Tantalise, Feldspar, Mica
    Gold
    24
    Lagos
    Glass-sand, Clay, Bitumen, Crude Oil
    Clay, Crude Oil
    Glass-sand, Bitumen

    25
    Nasarawa
    Beryl(Emerald), Aquamarine, Heliodor, Dolomite/Marble, Sapphire, Tourmaline, Quartz, Zircon, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Columbite, Lamanite, Galena, Iron-Ore, Barytes, Feldstar, Limestone, Mica, Cooking coal, Talc, Clay, Salt, Chalcopyrite
    Dolomite/Marble, Cooking Clay, Salt
    Beryl(Emerald), Aquamarine, Heliodor, Sapphire, Tourmaline, Quartz, Zircon, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Columbite, Lamanite, Galena, Iron-Ore, Barytes, Feldstar, Limestone, Mica, Talc, Chalcopyrite

    26
    Niger
    Gold, Talc, Lead/Zinc

    Talc, Lead/Zinc
    Gold
    27
    Ogun
    Phosphate, Clay, Feldspar(traces), Kaolin, Limestone, Gemstone, Bitumen
    Clay
    Phosphate, Feldspar, Kaolin, Limestone, Gemstone, Bitumen

    28
    Ondo
    Bitumen, Kaolin, Gemstone, Gypsum, Feldspar, Granite, Clay, Glass-sand, Dimension stones, Limestone, Coal, Crude Oil
    Crude Oil, Clay
    Bitumen, Kaolin, Gemstone, Gypsum, Feldspar, Granite, Glass-sand, Dimension stones, Limestone, Coal

    29
    Osun
    Talc, Tourmaline, Columbite, Granite

    Talc, Tourmaline, Columbite, Granite

    30
    Oyo
    Kaoline, Marble, Clay, Sillimanite, Talc, Gold, Cassiterite, Aquamarine, Dolomite, Gemstone, Tantalite
    Marble, Clay
    Kaoline, Sillimanite, Talc, Cassiterite, Aquamarine, Gemstone, Tantalite
    Gold
    31
    Plateau
    Emerald, Tin, Marble, Granite, Tantalite/columbite, Lead/Zinc, Barytes, Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Belonite, Cassiterite, Pyrochlore, Clay, Coal, Wolfram, Salt, Bismuth, Fluoride, Molybdenite, Gemstone, Bauxite
    Marble, Clay, Salt
    Emerald, Tin, Granite, Tantalite/columbite, Lead/Zinc, Barytes, Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Belonite, Cassiterite, Pyrochlore, Coal, Wolfram, Bismuth, Fluoride, Molybdenite, Gemstone, Bauxite

    32
    Rivers
    Glass-sand, Clay, Marble, Lignite(traces), Crude Oil
    Clay, Marble,Crude Oil
    Glass-sand, Lignite

  6. 33
    Sokoto
    Kaolin, Gold, Limestone, Phosphate, Gypsum, Silica-sand, Clay, Laterite, Potash, Flakes, Granite, Gold, Salt
    Clay, Salt, Potash
    Kaolin, Limestone, Phosphate, Gypsum, Silica-sand, Clay, Laterite, Flakes, Granite
    Gold
    34
    Taraba
    Kaolin, Lead/Zinc

    Kaolin, Lead/Zinc

    35
    Yobe
    Tintomite, Soda Ash(partially investigated)

    Tintomite, Soda Ash

    36
    Zamfara
    Coal, Cotton, Gold
    Cotton
    Coal
    Gold
    37
    FCT
    Marble, Clay, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Gold(partially investigated), Lead/Zinc(traces), Dolomite
    Marble, Clay
    Tantalite, Cassiterite, Lead/Zinc, Dolomite
    Gold

  7. CONCLUSION
    From the findings, one could say without any equivocation that Nigeria is undoubtedly blessed with abundant mineral resources. But very unfortunately, an overwhelming majority of these resources are not been effectively utilized.
    For instance, it will be surprising to know that Nigeria still import semi-finished drink cans, when the mineral resources used in producing cans (Manganese) is available in great quantity within the country.
    Furthermore, we all know the importance of fertilizer to the growth of the agricultural sector. Interestingly, the basic mineral resources used in manufacturing fertilizer (Gypsum and Selenite) are available in various parts of the country. But today, it is very disheartening to know that a larger percentage of the fertilizers used in Nigeria are being imported at exorbitant prices that are in most cases beyond the reach of many farmers, especially the peasant ones.
    One can go on and on to enumerate the unused mineral resources deposited in Nigeria which when fully utilized could catapult her into the group of the most developed countries in the world and proudly raise her shoulder high as truly the GIANT OF AFRICA.
    As a way of recommendation, Nigeria should urgently adopt the (true) fiscal federalism. The current system where the federal government controls all mineral resources should be immediately eradicated. Some of these resources could be tapped and effectively utilized by the various states if they are given the legal (fiscal) backing to do so.
    Finally, until Nigeria start to think outside the box and divert her attention from crude oil, she may continue to wallow in underdevelopment.

  8. REFERENCES
    Kayode Adeoye (2016): Solid Minerals In Nigeria: An Overview
    Guardian Newspapers
    https://m.guardian.ng/energy/solid-minerals-in-nigeria-an-overview-1/

    Omoh Gabriel (2015): Neglect Of Solid Minerals: Why Nigeria Remains Poor.
    Vanguard Newspapers.
    https://www.vanguard.com/2015/06/neglect-of-solid-minerals-why-nigeria-remains-poor/

    Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia
    Mining Industry of Nigeria
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining_industry_of_Nigeria

  9. 34. Sokoto Clay, Gold, Granite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Laterite, Limestone, Phosphate, potash, Silica sand and Salt.

    Clay, Limestone and salt Gold, Garnite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Laterite, Potash, Phosphate and silica sand
    35. Taraba Lead/Zinc, Kaolin Lead/Zinc Kaolin
    36. Yobe Soda Ash Kaolin
    37. Zamfara Coal, Cotton and Gold Cotton Gold, Coal and Cotton.

    SUGGESTIONS:
    If only the government would take necessary steps to develop this untapped resources through technological factors to make them useful and perform better. With the usefulness of such resources, it definitely will lead to economic growth and development.

    CONCLUSION:
    Nature has endowed Nigeria with numerous natural resources. Most of these resources have not yet been tapped or even used for the enrichment and development of Nigeria and her citizens.
    Our dependence on oil has cost us a lot. Although there is now a clarion call to shift our main base to the agricultural resources in Nigeria, government should learn and we as a Nation to use these God given resources not only for selfish purpose but for the good of all.

  10. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT ECONOMICS

    TOPIC:

    NATURAL RESOURCES UTILIZATION, UNDERUTILIZATION AND
    MIS UTILIZATION IN THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL
    FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: ECO 0511
    (PROBLEM AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY:

    JOHN OGOCHUKWU
    PG/PGD/17/00480

    LECTURER:
    DR. A. ORJI

    JULY, 2018

    NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA
    No/S States Natural Resources Resources that are utilized Resources that are under utilized Resources that are miss utilized
    1. Abia Gold, Lead/Zinc, limestone, oil/Gas and salt Oil/Gas, Limestone Lead/zinc, gold Salt
    2. Abuja Cassiterite, clay, dolomite, gold, lead/zinc Clay, lead/zinc marble Gold, domomite; cassierite, tantalite
    3. Adamawa Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin and Magnesite Bentonite Gypsum, kaolin mangnesite
    4. Akwa Ibom Clay, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, oil/gas, salt and uranium Oil/gas, limestone, clay, lead/zinc Uramium, lignite Salt
    5. Anambra Clay, Glass-sand, gypsum, iron-ore, lead/zinc lignite, limestone, phosphate and salt. Lead/zinc, limestone, salt, clay Phosphate, gypsum iron-ore, glass-sand
    6. Bauchi Gold, cassiterite (tin ore), columbite gypsum, uranium, coal, limestone, lignite, iron-ore and clay. Lead/zinc, gypsum, clay limestone Uramium, iron-ore, gold, columbite, cassiterite, lignite coal
    7. Bayelsa Clay, gypsum, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, manganese, oil/gas and uranium Oil/Gas, clay Lignite, limestone, uranium, gypsum lead/zinc, manganese Oil/gas, clay
    8. Benue Barite, Clay, cola, gemstone, gypsum, iron-ore, lead/zinc, limestone, marble and alt Gemstone, salt, marble clay, limestone Barite, gypsum, iron-ore coal, lead/zinc
    9. Born Bentonite, clay, diatomite, gypsum, hydrocarbon, kaolin and limestone. Clay, limestone Bentonite, diatomite, Hydrocarbon, gypsum, kaolin.
    10. Delta Clay, glass-sand, Gypsum, iron-ore, kaolin lignite, marble and oil/gas Oil/gas, clay, marble Glass sand, Gypsum, iron-ore kaolin. Oil/gas
    11. Ebonyi Gold, lead/zinc and salt Salt/lead/zinc Gold Salt
    12. Edo Bitumen, clay dolomite, phosphate, glass-sand, gold, Gypsum, iron ore, lignite, limestone, marble and oil/gas Clay, oil/gas, iron-ore limestone, bitumen marble Phosphate, dolomite gold, lignite, glass sand, Gypsum Oil/gas, clay
    13. Ekiti Feldspar, granite, kaolin, and syenite. Granite Feldspar, syenite,
    14. Enugu coal, lead/zinc and limestone gemstone and Gypsum Coal, lead/zinc limestone Limestone, lead/zinc Coal
    15. Gombe Genstone and gypsum Genstone Gemstone and gypsum
    16. Imo Gypsum, lead/zinc, lignite limestone, marcasite, oil/gas, phosphate and salt.

    Oil/gas, lead/zinc limestone, salt Marcasite, phosphate gypsum, lignite Salt
    17. Cross Rive Barite, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, manganese, oil/gas, salt and uranium Oil/gas, limestone, lead/zinc, salt Barite, uranium maganese, lignite Oil/gas, salt
    18. Jigawa Butyl Butyl
    19. Kaduna Amethyst, aqua marina, asbestos, clay, gemstone gold, graphite, kaolin, hyanite, mica, rock, crystal. Clay, graphite, Amethyst, aqua marina, asbestos, gemstone gold, mica, rock, crystal, hyanite kaolin.
    20. Kano Cassiterite, copper, gemstone, glass- sand, lead/zinc, and tantalite Copper, lead/zinc Copper, cassiterite, Gemstone, Glass-sand and Tantalite
    21. Kastina Kaolin, Marble and salt Salt, Marble Kaolin Salt
    22. Kebbi Gold Gold
    23. Kogi Coal, Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsum, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Marble, Talc and Tantalite.

    Marble, coal, Iron-ore Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsum, Talc and Tantalite. Iron-ore
    24. Kwara Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Iron-ore, Marble, Mica and Tantalite Marble and iron-ore Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Mica and Tantalite
    25. Lagos Bitumen, oil/gas, clay and glass-sand Oil/gas, Bitumen and clay Glass-sand Oil/Gas

  11. 26. Nasarawa Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, chalcopyrite, clay, columbite, cooking coal, dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gelena, Iron-ore, Limestone, Mica,Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite, Tourmaline, Quartz and Zircon

    Clay, Cooking coal and limestone Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, chalcopyrite, columbite, dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gelena, Iron-ore, Mica,Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite,
    27. Niger Gold, Lead/Zinc and Talc Lead/Zinc Gold ,Talc
    28. Ogun Bitumen, Clay, Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin, Limestone and Phosphate. Bitumen, Clay and Limestone Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin and Phosphate
    29. Ondo Bitumen, clay, Coal, Dimension stone, Feldspar, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Granite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Limestone and oil/gas Bitumen, Clay, Oil/gas, Limestone and Granite Coal, Gemstone, feldspar, Gypsum,
    Kaolin, Dimension stone
    30. Osun Columbite, Gold, Granite, Talc, Tantalite and Tourmaline Garanite Columbite, Gold, Talc, Tantalite and tourmaline
    31. Oyo Aqua marine, Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gemstone, Gold, Kaolin, Marble, Silimonite,, Talc and Tantalite

    Clay, Marble Gold, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gemstone, Kaolin, Talc, Tantalite, Silimonite and Aqua marine Clay
    32. Plateau Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay, Coal, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lead/ zinc, Marble, Molybdenum, Phrochlore, Salt, Tantalite/ Columbite, Tin and Wolfram Clay, Salt, Iron-ore, Marble, Lead/ Zinc Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Kaolin, Tantalite, Wolfram Molybdenum, Phrochlore, Columbite and Tin, Coal Clay
    33. Rivers Clay, Glass-sand, Lignite, Marble and oil/Gas Oil/ Gas Glass- sand, Lignite and Marble
    34. Sokoto Clay, Gold, Granite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Laterite, Limestone, Phosphate, potash, Silica sand and Salt.

    Clay, Limestone and salt Gold, Garnite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Laterite, Potash, Phosphate and silica sand
    35. Taraba Lead/Zinc, Kaolin Lead/Zinc Kaolin
    36. Yobe Soda Ash Kaolin
    37. Zamfara Coal, Cotton and Gold Cotton Gold, Coal and Cotton.

    SUGGESTIONS:
    With the usefulness of such resources, it definitely will lead to economic growth and development.

    CONCLUSION:
    Although there is now a clarion call to shift our main base to the agricultural resources in Nigeria.

  12. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT ECONOMICS

    TOPIC:

    NATURAL RESOURCES UTILIZATION, UNDERUTILIZATION AND MIS UTILIZATION IN THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: ECO 0511
    (PROBLEM AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY:

    MOMOH DESTINY IKHIENOSIMHE
    PG/PGD/17/02523

    LECTURER:
    DR. A. ORJI

    JULY, 2018

    INTRODUCTION
    Nigeria, A nation in West Africa on the gulf of Guinea, bordering Benin in the West, Chad and Cameroon to the east, and Niger in the north formerly a British Colony and protectorate. It became independent in 1960; a republic since 1963, member of the common wealth in 1960 (membership suspended from 1995 to 1999 following human right violations) Eastern Region seceded as the Republic of Biafra for the duration of the severe civil war (1967-1970); ruled by military government from 1966 to 1999. It consists of a belt of tropical rain forest in the south, with Simi-desert in the extreme North and high lands in the east the main export is petroleum.
    Nigerian is often referred to as the “Giant of Africa” owing to its economy and large population of about 195,824 as of Monday, July 2, 2018 based on the latest United Nation estimates, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. The country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by over 500 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba; these ethnic groups speak over 500 different language and are identify with a wide variety of cultures. The official languages is English, Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who like mostly in the southern part of the country and Muslims, who live mostly in the north. A minority of the population practices religions indigenous to Nigeria such as those native of the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities. The capital city is Abuja and its largest city is Lagos it uses Naira as its currency.

    NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    No/S States Natural Resources Resources that are utilized Resources that are under utilized Resources that are miss utilized
    1. Abia Gold, Lead/Zinc, limestone, oil/Gas and salt Oil/Gas, Limestone Lead/zinc, gold Salt
    2. Abuja Cassiterite, clay, dolomite, gold, lead/zinc Clay, lead/zinc marble Gold, domomite; cassierite, tantalite
    3. Adamawa Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin and Magnesite Bentonite Gypsum, kaolin mangnesite
    4. Akwa Ibom Clay, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, oil/gas, salt and uranium Oil/gas, limestone, clay, lead/zinc Uramium, lignite Salt
    5. Anambra Clay, Glass-sand, gypsum, iron-ore, lead/zinc lignite, limestone, phosphate and salt.
    Lead/zinc, limestone, salt, clay Phosphate, gypsum iron-ore, glass-sand
    6. Bauchi Gold, cassiterite (tin ore), columbite gypsum, uranium, coal, limestone, lignite, iron-ore and clay. Lead/zinc, gypsum, clay limestone Uramium, iron-ore, gold, columbite, cassiterite, lignite coal
    7. Bayelsa Clay, gypsum, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, manganese, oil/gas and uranium Oil/Gas, clay Lignite, limestone, uranium, gypsum lead/zinc, manganese Oil/gas, clay
    8. Benue Barite, Clay, cola, gemstone, gypsum, iron-ore, lead/zinc, limestone, marble and alt Gemstone, salt, marble clay, limestone Barite, gypsum, iron-ore coal, lead/zinc

  13. 9. Borno Bentonite, clay, diatomite, gypsum, hydrocarbon, kaolin and limestone.
    Clay, limestone Bentonite, diatomite, Hydrocarbon, gypsum, kaolin.
    10. Delta Clay, glass-sand, Gypsum, iron-ore, kaolin lignite, marble and oil/gas Oil/gas, clay, marble Glass sand, Gypsum, iron-ore kaolin. Oil/gas
    11. Ebonyi Gold, lead/zinc and salt Salt/lead/zinc Gold Salt
    12. Edo Bitumen, clay dolomite, phosphate, glass-sand, gold, Gypsum, iron ore, lignite, limestone, marble and oil/gas Clay, oil/gas, iron-ore limestone, bitumen marble Phosphate, dolomite gold, lignite, glass sand, Gypsum Oil/gas, clay
    13. Ekiti Feldspar, granite, kaolin, and syenite. Granite Feldspar, syenite,
    14. Enugu coal, lead/zinc and limestone gemstone and Gypsum Coal, lead/zinc limestone Limestone, lead/zinc Coal
    15. Gombe Genstone and gypsum Genstone Gemstone and gypsum
    16. Imo Gypsum, lead/zinc, lignite limestone, marcasite, oil/gas, phosphate and salt
    Oil/gas, lead/zinc limestone, salt Marcasite, phosphate gypsum, lignite Salt
    17. Cross Rive Barite, lead/zinc, lignite, limestone, manganese, oil/gas, salt and uranium Oil/gas, limestone, lead/zinc, salt Barite, uranium maganese, lignite Oil/gas, salt
    18. Jigawa Butyl Butyl
    19. Kaduna Amethyst, aqua marina, asbestos, clay, gemstone gold, graphite, kaolin, hyanite, mica, rock, crystal. Clay, graphite, Amethyst, aqua marina, asbestos, gemstone gold, mica, rock, crystal, hyanite kaolin.
    20. Kano Cassiterite, copper, gemstone, glass- sand, lead/zinc, and tantalite Copper, lead/zinc Copper, cassiterite, Gemstone, Glass-sand and Tantalite
    21. Kastina Kaolin, Marble and salt Salt, Marble Kaolin Salt
    22. Kebbi Gold Gold
    23. Kogi Coal, Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsum, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Marble, Talc and Tantalite. Marble, coal, Iron-ore Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsum, Talc and Tantalite. Iron-ore
    24. Kwara Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Iron-ore, Marble, Mica and Tantalite Marble and iron-ore Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Mica and Tantalite
    25. Lagos Bitumen, oil/gas, clay and glass-sand Oil/gas, Bitumen and clay Glass-sand Oil/Gas
    26. Nasarawa Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, chalcopyrite, clay, columbite, cooking coal, dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gelena, Iron-ore, Limestone, Mica,Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite, Tourmaline, Quartz and Zircon Clay, Cooking coal and limestone Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, chalcopyrite, columbite, dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gelena, Iron-ore, Mica,Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite,
    27. Niger Gold, Lead/Zinc and Talc Lead/Zinc Gold ,Talc
    28. Ogun Bitumen, Clay, Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin, Limestone and Phosphate. Bitumen, Clay and Limestone Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin and Phosphate
    29. Ondo Bitumen, clay, Coal, Dimension stone, Feldspar, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Granite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Limestone and oil/gas Bitumen, Clay, Oil/gas, Limestone and Granite Coal, Gemstone, feldspar, Gypsum,
    Kaolin, Dimension stone
    30. Osun Columbite, Gold, Granite, Talc, Tantalite and Tourmaline Garanite Columbite, Gold, Talc, Tantalite and tourmaline
    31. Oyo Aqua marine, Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gemstone, Gold, Kaolin, Marble, Silimonite,, Talc and Tantalite

    Clay, Marble Gold, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gemstone, Kaolin, Talc, Tantalite, Silimonite and Aqua marine Clay

  14. 32. Plateau Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay, Coal, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lead/ zinc, Marble, Molybdenum, Phrochlore, Salt, Tantalite/ Columbite, Tin and Wolfram Clay, Salt, Iron-ore, Marble, Lead/ Zinc Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Kaolin, Tantalite, Wolfram Molybdenum, Phrochlore, Columbite and Tin, Coal Clay
    33. Rivers Clay, Glass-sand, Lignite, Marble and oil/Gas Oil/ Gas Glass- sand, Lignite and Marble
    34. Sokoto Clay, Gold, Granite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Laterite, Limestone, Phosphate, potash, Silica sand and Salt.

    Clay, Limestone and salt Gold, Garnite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Laterite, Potash, Phosphate and silica sand
    35. Taraba Lead/Zinc, Kaolin Lead/Zinc Kaolin
    36. Yobe Soda Ash Kaolin
    37. Zamfara Coal, Cotton and Gold Cotton Gold, Coal and Cotton.

    SUGGESTIONS:
    If only the government would take necessary steps to develop this untapped resources through technological factors to make them useful and perform better. With the usefulness of such resources, it definitely will lead to economic growth and development.

    CONCLUSION:
    Nature has endowed Nigeria with numerous natural resources. Most of these resources have not yet been tapped or even used for the enrichment and development of Nigeria and her citizens.
    Our dependence on oil has cost us a lot. Although there is now a clarion call to shift our main base to the agricultural resources in Nigeria, government should learn and we as a Nation to use these God given resources not only for selfish purpose but for the good of all.

  15. THE NIGERIAN STATES AND THEIR MINERAL RESOURCES

    STATES MINERAL RESOURCES FOUND
    1. ABIA – Gold, Salt, Limestone, Lead/Zinc, Oil and Gas.
    2. ADAMAWA – Kaolin, Bentonite, Gypsum, Magnesite, Barytes, Bauxite.
    3. AKWAIBOM – Clay, Limestone, Lead/Zinc, Uranium, Salt, Lignite, Oil and Gas.
    4. ANAMBRA – Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Iron-ore, Lignite, Salt, B glass-sand, Phosphate, Gypsum.
    5. BAUCHI – Amethyst (violent), Gypsum, Lead/Zinc, Uranium.
    6. BAYELSA – Clay, Gypsum, Limestone, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc, Oil and Gas.
    7. BENUE – Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Iron-ore, Coal, Clay, Marble, Bauxite, Salt, Barutes, Gemstone, Gypsum, Oil and Gas.
    8. BORNO – Diatomite, Clay, Limestone, Kaolin, Bentonite, Oil and Gas.
    9. CROSS RIVER – Limestone, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc, Salt, Oil and Gas.
    10. DELTA – Marble, Glass-sand, Clay, Gypsum, Lignite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Oil and Gas.
    11. EBONYI – Lead/Zinc, Gold, Salt.
    12. EDO – Marble, Clay, Limestone, Iron-ore, Gypsum, Glass-sand, Gold, Dolomite, Phosphate, Bitumen, Oil and Gas.
    13. EKITI – Kaolin, Feldspar, Tatium, Granite, Syenites.
    14. ENUGU – Coal, Limestone, Lead/Zinc.
    15. GOMBE – Gemstone, Gypsum.
    16. IMO – Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Lignite, Phosphate, Marcasite, Gypsum, Salt, Oil and Gas.
    17. JIGAWA – Barites
    18. KADUNA-Sapphire, Kaolin, Gold, Clay, Serpentinite, Asbestos, Amethyst, Kyanite, Graphite, Mica, Aquamatine, Ruby, Rock, Crystal, Topaz, Flouspar, Tourmaline, Gemstone, Tantalite.
    19. KANO – Pyrochlore, Cassiterite, Copper, Glass-sand, Gemstone, Lead/Zinc, Tantalites.
    20. KATSINA – Kaolin, Marble, Salt.
    21. KEBBI – Gold.
    22. KOGI – Iron-ore, Kaolin, Gypsum, Feldspar, Coal, Marble, Dolomite, Talc, Tantalite, Limestone, Gemstone, Bitumen.
    23. KWARA – Gold, Marble, Iron-ore, Cassiterine, Columbite, Tantalite, Feldspar, Mica.
    24. LAGOS – Glass-sand, Clay, Bitumen, Sand, Tar, Oil and Gas.
    25. NASARAWA – Bery(Emerald,Acquamarine and Hellodor), Dolomite/Marble, Sapphire, Tourmaline, Quartz, Amethst(Garnet, Topaz), Zircon, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Columbite, Ilmenite, Galena, Iron-ore, Barites, Feldspar, Limestone, Mica, Cooking coal, Talc, Clay, Salt, Chalcopyrite.
    26. NIGER – Gold, Lead/Zinc, Iron-ore.
    27. OGUN – Phosphate, Clay, Feldspar.
    28. ONDO – Bitumen, Kaolin, Gemstone, Gypsum, Feldspar, Granite, Clay, Grass-sand, Dimension stone, Coal, Bauxite, Oil and Gas.
    29. OSUN – Gold, Talc, Tantalite, Tourmalite, Columbite, Granite.
    30. OYO – Kaolin, Marble, Clay, Sillimalite, Talc, Gold, cassiterine, Acquamarine, Dolomite, Gemstone, Tantalite.
    31. PLATEAU – Emerald, Tin, Marble, Granite, Tantalite, Columbite, Lead/Zinc, Barytes, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Cassiterite, Gold, Dolomite, Bentonites, Phsochlore, Clay, Coal, Wolram, Salt, Bismuth, Fluoride, Molybdenite, Gemstone, Bauxite.
    32. RIVERS – Glass-sand, Clay, Marble, Lignite, Oil and Gas.
    33. SOKOTO-Kaolin, Gold, Limestone, Phosphate, Gypsum, Silica-sand, Clay, Laterite, Potash, Flake, Granite, Gold, Salt.
    34. TARABA – Kaolin, Lead/Zinc.
    35. YOBE – Diatomite, Soda, Ash and Tintomite.
    36. ZAMFARA – Gold, Coal.
    37. ABUJA – Marble, Clay, Tantalite.

    COMMENT: From the above, it has shown that Nigeria is among countries in Africa with a wider variety of different natural resources. The country is richly endowed with natural resources ranging from industrial metals to various precious stones such as Barites, Gypsum, Kaolin and Marble. Most of these minerals are yet to be exploited. Statistically, the level of exploitation of these minerals is very low in relation to the extent of deposit found in the country hence unutilised.

  16. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    TOPIC:
    NATURAL RESOURCES UTILIZATION, UNDERUTILIZATION AND MISUTILIZATION IN THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: ECO 0511 (PROBLEM AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY:
    SORONNADI JOSHUA CHISOM
    PG/PGD/17/

    APPLICATION NUMBER: UNN/PG/2017-18/000596

    LECTURER:
    DR. A. ORJI

    JULY 2018

    INTRODUCTION
    Nigeria, giant of Africa, has forged ahead as a united entity despite having about 250 ethnic groups, having got independence on October 1, 1960, today, it has 36 states and a federal capital territory, Abuja. Lagos, the former capital remains the country’s commercial nerve-centre. Port Harcourt City, and indeed, most of the south-south states, serves as the oil and gas hub of the country.
    Despite political and religious differences among its people, Nigeria remains a land of opportunities. Its Natural Resources include petroleum, natural gas, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, hydropower and arable land. However oil and gas account for more than 90% of the country’s foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture, the petrochemicals, power, rail transportation, refineries, infrastructures, manufacturing etc. have huge investment opportunities for the country.
    A warm people, Nigerians – 156 million by 2006 census – occupy a total area of 910,768 square kilometers. The main ethnic groups are Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba but the official and rainfall. Major Religions are Christianity, Islam and indigenous belief.
    Nigeria has huge market, and is a heaven for investments.

    NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA STATING HOW THE RESOURCES ARE BEING UTILIZED
    No/s
    States
    Natural Resources
    Resources That Are Utilized
    Resources That Are Under-utilized
    Resources That Are Mis-utilized

    1.
    Abia
    Gold, Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas & Salt
    Oil/ Gas, Limestone
    Lead/Zinc, Gold
    Salt.

    2.
    Abuja
    Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gold, Lead/Zinc, Marble, & Tantalite
    Clay, Lead/Zinc, Marble
    Gold, Dolomite, Cassiterite, Tantalite

    3.
    Adamawa
    Bentonite, Gypsium, Koalin & Mangnesite
    Bentonite
    Gypsium , Kaolin, Mangnesite

    4.
    Akwa Ibom
    Clay, Lead/ Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt & Uranium
    Oil/Gas, Limestone, Clay, Lead/ Clay
    Uranium, Lignite
    Salt

    5.
    Anambra
    Clay, Glass-sand , Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Phosphate, & Salt, Oil & Gas
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Salt, Clay
    Phosphate, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Glass-sand

    6.
    Bauchi
    Gold, Cassiterite (tine ore), Columbite, Gypsium , Wolfram, Coal, Limestone, Lignite, Iron-ore & Clay
    Lead/Zinc, Gypsium, Clay, Limestone
    Uranium, Iron-ore, Gold, Columbite, Cassiterite, Lignite, Coal

    No/s
    States
    Natural Resources
    Resources That Are Utilized
    Resources That Are Under-utilized
    Resources That Are Mis-utilized

    7.
    Bayelsa
    Clay, Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Manganese, Oil/Gas & Uranium
    Oil/Gas, Clay
    Lignite, Limestone, Uranium, Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Manganese
    Oil/Gas, Clay

    8.
    Benue
    Barite, Clay, Coal, Gemstone, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Marble & Salt
    Gemstone, Salt, Marble, Clay, Limestone
    Barite, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Coal, Lead/ Zinc

    9.
    Borno
    Bentonite, Clay, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydrocarbon, Kaolin & Limestone
    Clay, Limestone
    Bentomite, Diatomite, Hydrocarbon, Gypsium, Kaolin

  17. 10.
    Delta
    Clay, Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lignite, Marble, Oil & Gas
    Oil/Gas, Clay, Marble
    Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin
    Oil/Gas

    11.
    Ebonyi
    Gold, Lead/ Zinc & Salt
    Salt, Lead/ Zinc
    Gold
    Salt

    12.
    Edo
    Bitumen, Clay, Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lignite, Limestone, Marble & Oil/ Gas
    Clay, Oil/ Gas, Iron-ore, Limestone, Bitumen, Marble
    Phosphate, Dolomite, Gold, Lignite, Glass-sand, Gypsium
    Oil / Gas, Clay

    13.
    Ekiti
    Feldspar, Granite, Kaolin, Syenite & Tatium
    Granite
    Feldspar, Syenite

    No/s
    States
    Natural Resources
    Resources That Are Utilized
    Resources That Are Under-utilized
    Resources That Are Mis-utilized

    14.

    Enugu
    Coal, Lead/ Zinc & Limestone
    Coal, Lead/ Zinc, Limestone
    Limestone, Lead/ Zinc
    Coal

    15.
    Gombe
    Gemstone & Gypsium
    Gemstone
    Gemstone, Gypsium

    16.
    Imo
    Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Marcasite, Oil/Gas, Phosphate & Salt
    Oil/Gas, Lead/Zinc, Limestone
    Marcasite, Phosphate, Gypsium, Lignite
    Salt

    17.
    Cross River
    Barite, Lead/ Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Manganese, Oil/Gas, Salt & Uranium
    Oil/Gas, Limestone, Lead/Zinc, Salt
    Barite, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite
    Oil/Gas, Salt

    18.
    Jigawa
    Butyles

    Butyles

    19.
    Kaduna
    Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Clay, Flosper, Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyanite, Mica, Rock, Crystal, Ruby, Sapphires, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime, Topaz & Tourmaline
    Clay, Graphite
    Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Gemstone, Gold, Mica, Rock, Crystal, Hyanite, Kaolin

    20.
    Kano
    Cassiterite, Copper, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Lead/Zinc, Pyrochinre & Tantalite
    Copper, Lead/Zinc
    Copper, Cassiterite, Gemstone, Glass-sand & Tantalite

    21.
    Katsina
    Kaolin, Marble & Salt
    Salt, Marble
    Kaolin
    Salt

    No/s
    States
    Natural Resources
    Resources That Are Utilized
    Resources That Are Under-utilized
    Resources That Are Mis-utilized

    22.
    Kebbi
    Gold

    Gold

    23.
    Kogi
    Cole, Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Marble, Talc & Tantalite
    Marble, Coal, Iron-ore
    Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsium, Talc and Tantalite
    Iron-ore

    24.
    Kwara
    Cassiterite,
    Columbite,
    Feldspar,
    Gold, Iron-ore, Marble, Mica & Tantalite
    Marble & Iron-ore
    Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Mica & Tantalite

    25.
    Lagos
    Bitumen, Clay & Glass-sand, Oil/Gas
    Oil/Gas, Bitumen & Clay
    Glass-sand

  18. 26.
    Nassarawa
    Amethyst, (Topaz Garnet), Barytex, Barite, Cassirite, Chalcopyrite, Clay, Columbite, Cooking Coal, Dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Galena,
    Iron-ore, Limestone, Mica, Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite, Quartz & Zireon
    Clay, Cooking Coal & Limestone
    Amethyst, Baryte, Cassiterite, Chalcopyrite, Columbite, Dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Galena, Iron-ore, Mica, Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite

    27.
    Niger
    Gold, Lead/ Zinc & Talc
    Lead/Zinc
    Gold, Talc

    28.
    Ogun
    Bitumen, Clay, Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin, Limestone & Phosphate
    Bitumen, Clay & Limestone
    Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin & Phosphate

    No/s
    States
    Natural Resources
    Resources That Are Utilized
    Resources That Are Under-utilized
    Resources That Are Mis-utilized

    29.
    Ondo
    Bitumen, Clay, Coal, Dimension Stones, Feldspar, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Limestone & Oil/Gas
    Bitumen, Clay & Limestone, Oil/Gas, Granite
    Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin, Coal, Gypsium, Dimension Stone.

    30.
    Osun
    Columbite, Gold, Granite, Talc, Tantalite & Tourmaline
    Garanite
    Columbite, Gold, Talc, Tantalite & Tourmaline

    31.
    Oyo
    Aqua marine, Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gemstone, Gold, Kaolin, Marble, Silimonite, Talc & Tantalite
    Clay, Marble
    Gold, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gemstone, Kaolin, Talc, Tantalite, Silimonite & Aqua Marine
    Clay

    32.
    Plateau
    Barite, Bauxite, Betonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay, Coal, Emeral, Flouride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Molybdenite, Phrochlore, Salt, Tantalite, Columbite, Tin & Wolfram
    Clay, Salt, Iron-ore, Marble, Lead/Zinc
    Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Emeral, Flouride, Gemstone, Granite, Kaolin, Tantalite, Wolfram, Molybdenite, Phrochlore, Columbite, Tin, Coal
    Clay

    No/s
    States
    Natural Resources
    Resources That Are Utilized
    Resources That Are Under-utilized
    Resources That Are Mis-utilized

    33.
    Rivers State
    Clay, Glass-sand, Lignite, Marble & Oil/ Gas
    Oil/Gas
    Glass-sand, Lignite & Marble

    34.
    Sokoto
    Clay, Flakes, Gold, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Laterite, Limestone, Phosphate, Potash, Silica, Sand & Salt
    Clay, Limestone & Salt
    Gold, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Laterite, Potash, Phosphate, Silica, Sand

    35.
    Taraba
    Lead/Zinc, Kaolin
    Lead/Zinc
    Kaolin

    36.
    Yobe
    Soda Ash & Tintomite

    Tintomite

    37.
    Zamfara
    Coal, Cotton & Gold
    Cotton
    Gold, Coal & Cotton

  19. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    TOPIC

    NATURAL RESOURCES UTILIZATION, UNDER UTILIZATION AND MISUTILIZATION IN THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE:
    ECO 0511
    (PROBLEM AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY
    DIYOKE EKENEDILINNA. EMMANUEL

    LECTURER: DR. TONY ORJI

    JULY, 2018

  20. INTRODUCTION
    The evolution of human society has rested on the sustained interaction between man and his natural environment. This interaction largely depends on man’s ability to harness natural resources in the quest for meeting his survival and developmental needs. Adesopo and Asaju (2004) defined natural resources as those things available to man as “gifts of nature” which are either renewable or non-renewable, such as mineral, water, and agricultural, forest and atmospheric resources. The pivotal role of natural resources in socio-economic development process has long been established by scholars. For example, Romer (1996) and Wright (1990) separately aver that the origins of rapid industrial and economic expansion in the United States of America (USA) over 1879-1940 were strongly linked to the exploitation of abundant non-reproducible natural resources, particularly energy and mineral resources. In supporting this, Barlowe (1978) described natural resources as productive assets which support economic development and sustain human populations.

  21. Thus Nigeria is a country blessed with different types of Natural resources, both mineral and agriculture, ranging from Crude oil, gas, iron ore to Cocoa, Timber, precious metals various stones to industrial such as Barites, Gypsum, Kaolin, Marble and so on. These natural resources exist in multitude in different location across Nigeria, which as a result boosted the economy and the development rate of Nigeria. Most of these are yet to be exploited. Statistically, the level of exploitation of these minerals is very low in relation to the extent of deposit found in the country. One of the objectives of the new National Policy on Solid Minerals is to ensure the orderly development of the mineral resources of the country.

  22. Here is a list of the Natural resources in Nigeria and where they can be found.
    S/N STATES NATURAL RESOURCES RESOURCES THAT ARE UTILIZED RESOURCES THAT ARE UNDERUTILIZED RESOURCES THAT ARE MISSUTILIZED
    1. Abia Gold, Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt Gold, Lead/Zinc Salt
    2. Abuja Cassiterite,Clay ,Dolomite,Gold, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Tantalite Clay, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gold, Tantalite
    3. Adamawa Bentonite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Magnesite Bentonite Kaolin, Gypsium, Magnesite
    4. Akwa Ibom Clay, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt, Uranium Oil/Gas, Lead/Zinc and clay Uranium, Lignite Salt
    5. Anambra Clay, Glass-Sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lead/Zinc, Lignite,
    Limestone, Phosphate & Salt Lead/Zinc,
    Limestone, salt and clay Phosphate, Gypsium, Glass-Sand, Iron-ore
    6. Bauchi Gold, Cassiterite (tine ore), Columbite, Gypsium, Wolfram, Coal, Limestone, Lignite, Iron-ore & Clay Iron-ore & Clay,
    Limestone, Gypsium Gold, Cassiterite (tine ore), Columbite

  23. 7. Bayelsa Clay, Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Maganese, Oil/Gas & Uranium Oil/Gas and Clay Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Maganese Uranium
    8. Benue Barite, Clay, Coal, Gemstone, Gypsium, Iron-Ore,
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Marble, Salt Gemstone,
    Salt
    Marble, Clay and Limestone
    Barite, Gypsium, Coal,Iron-Ore, Lead/Zinc

    9. Borno Bentonite, Clay, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydro-carbon,
    Kaolin & Limestone Clay & Limestone Bentonite, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydro-carbon,
    Kaolin
    10 Cross River Barite, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Manganese,
    Oil/Gas, Salt & Uranium Oil/Gas,
    Limestone,
    Lead/Zinc and
    Salt
    Barite,
    Manganese, Uranium
    Oil/Gas,
    Salt

    11 Delta Clay, Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lignite, Marble & Oil/Gas & Oil/Gas
    Clay, Marble &
    Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Oil/Gas
    12 Ebonyi Gold, Lead/Zinc & Salt Salt , Lead/Zinc Gold Salt

  24. 13 Edo Bitumen, Clay Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold,
    Gypsium,Iron-ore, Lignite, Limestone, Marble& Oil/Gas Limestone, Marble& Oil/Gas, Iron-ore and Clay Bitumen, Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold,
    Gypsium,Iron-ore, Lignite Clay and Oil/Gas
    14 Ekiti Feldspar, Granite, Kaolin, Syenite& Tatium Granite Feldspar and
    Syenite

    15 Enugu Coal, Lead/Zinc & Limestone Coal, Lead/Zinc & Limestone Lead/Zinc & Limestone coal
    16 Gombe Gemstone and Gypsium Gemstone Gemstone and Gypsium
    17 Imo Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Marcasite,
    Oil/Gas, Phosphate & Salt Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas Marcasite, Phosphate & Lignite Salt
    18 Jigawa Butyles Butyles
    19 Kaduna Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Clay, Flosper,
    Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyanite, Mica, Rock
    Crystal, Ruby, Sapphire, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime,
    Topaz and Tourmaline Graphite and Clay Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyanite, Mica, Rock
    Crystal, Ruby, Sapphire, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime,
    Topaz, Tourmaline
    20 Kano Gassiterite, Copper, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Lead/Zinc,
    Pyrochinre, Tantalite Copper, Lead/Zinc Copper, Gemstone, Glass-sand,
    Pyrochinre, Tantalite
    21 Katsina Kaolin, Marble, Salt Marble, Salt Kaolin Salt
    22 Kebbi Gold Gold
    23 Kogi Cole, Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin,
    Marble, Talc & Tantalite Marble,
    Iron-ore
    Dolomite, Feldspar,
    Talc & Tantalite
    Iron-ore

    24 Kwara Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Iron-ore, Marble,
    Mica & Tantalite Iron-ore, Marble Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold,
    Mica & Tantalite

    25 Lagos Bitumen, Oil/Gas Clay & Glass-sand Clay & Glass-sand Glass-sand Oil/Gas
    26 Nasarawa Amethyst (Topaz Garnet), Barytex, Barite, Cassirite,
    Chalcopyrite, Clay, Columbite, Coking Coal,
    Dolomite/Marble, Feldspar, Galena, Iron-ore, Limstone,
    Clay, Coking Coal, Limstone Amethyst (Topaz Garnet), Barytex, Barite, Cassirite,
    Chalcopyrite, Clay, Columbite,
    Dolomite/Marble, Feldspar, Galena, Iron-ore
    27 Niger Gold, Lead/Zinc& Talc Lead/Zinc Gold & Talc
    28 Ogun Bitumen, Clay, Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin,Limestone &
    Phosphate Bitumen, Clay,
    Limestone
    Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin &
    Phosphate
    29 Ondo Bitumen, Clay, Coal, Dimension Stones, Feldspar,
    Gemstone, Glass-Sand, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin,
    Limestone, Oil/Gas Bitumen, Clay, Granite,
    Limestone & Oil/Gas Coal, Dimension Stones, Feldspar,
    Gemstone, Glass-Sand, Gypsium, Kaolin
    30 Osun Columbite,Gold, Granite,Talc,
    Tantalite,Tourmaline Granite Columbite,Gold,Talc,
    Tantalite,Tourmaline

  25. 31 Oyo Aqua Marine, Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gemstone,
    Gold, Kaolin, Marble, Silimonite, Talc & Tantalite Marble, Clay Aqua Marine, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gemstone,
    Gold, Kaolin, Silimonite, Talc & Tantalite Clay
    32 Plateau Barite, Bauxite, Betonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay,
    Coal, Emeral, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore,
    Kaolin, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Molybdenite, Phrochlore, Salt,
    Tantalite/Columbite, Tin & Wolfram Salt, Clay, Lead/Zinc, Marble Barite, Bauxite, Betonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite,
    Coal, Emeral, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite,
    Kaolin, Molybdenite, Phrochlore,
    Tantalite/Columbite, Tin & Wolfram Clay
    33 Rivers Clay, Glass-Sand, Lignite, Marble & Oil/Gas Oil/Gas Clay, Glass-Sand, Lignite, Marble
    34 Sokoto Clay, Flakes, Gold, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Laterite,
    Limestone, Phosphate, Potash, Silica Sand & Salt Clay, Limestone and salt Gold, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Laterite, Phosphate, Potash, Silica Sand
    35 Taraba Lead/Zinc and kaolin Lead/Zinc kaolin
    36 Yobe Soda Ash & Tintomite Tintomite
    37 Zamfara Coal, Cotton & Gold Cotton Coal, Cotton & Gold

    There are tremendous opportunities for investments in the solid mineral sector of the Nigerian economy. Giving raise for investors (both local and foreign) to participate in the exploitation of the vast mineral resources in Nigeria is granted by the Federal Ministry of Solid Minerals Development.

  26. The profile of solid mineral deposits in Nigeria
    Taking that Nigeria oil reserves are 23 Billion barrels; the gas reserves are 160 Trillion cubic meters.
    Coal
    Nigerian coal is one of the most bituminous in the world owing to its low sulphur and ash content and therefore the most environment-friendly. There are nearly 3 billion tonnes of indicated reserves in 17 identified coal fields and over 600 million tonnes of proven reserves.
    Talc
    Over 40 million tonnes deposits of talc have been identified in Niger , Osun, Kogi, Ogun and Kaduna states. The Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)'s 3,000 tonnes per annum catalytic Talc plant in Niger state is the only talc plant in the country. The talc industry represents one of the most versatile sectors of the industrial minerals of the world. The exploitation of the vast deposits would therefore satisfy local demand and that for export.
    Gypsum
    Gypsum is an important input for the production of cement. It is also used for the production of Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) and classroom chalks. A strategy for large-scale mining of gypsum is urgently required to sustain the existing plants and meet the future expansion. Currently, cement production is put at 8 million tonnes per annum while the national requirement is 9.6 million tonnes. About one billion tonnes of gypsum deposits are spread over many states in Nigeria.
    Iron
    There are over 3 billion metric tonnes of iron ore in deposits found in Kogi, Enugu and Niger States as well as the Federal Capital Territory . Iron Ore is being mined at Itakpe in Kogi State and is already being beneficiated, up to 67 per cent of iron. The Aladja and Ajaokuta Steel complexes are ready for consumer of billets and other iron products for down-stream industries.
    Lead/Zinc
    An estimated 10 million tonnes of lead/zinc veins are spread over eight states of Nigeria . Proven reserves in three prospects in the east-central area are 5 million tonnes. Joint venture partners are

  27. encouraged to develop and exploit the various lead/zinc deposits all over the country.
    Bentonite/Baryte
    These are the main constituents of the mud used in the drilling of all types of oil wells. The Nigerian baryte has specific gravity of about 4.3. Over 7.5 million tonnes of baryte have been identified in Taraba and Bauchi States. Large bentonite reserves of 700 million tonnes are available in many states of the federation ready for massive development and exploitation.
    Gold
    There are proven reserves of both alluvial and primary gold in the schist belt of Nigeria located in the south-western part of the country. The deposits are mainly alluvial and are currently being exploited on a small scale. Private investors are invited to stake concessions on these primary deposits.
    Bitume
    The occurrence of bitumen deposits in Nigeria is indicated at about 42 billion tonnes; almost twice the amount of existing reserves of crude petroleum. Analytical results suggest that this potential resource can be used directly as an asphalt binder. Most bitumen used for road construction in Nigeria is currently imported.
    Rock/Salt
    The national annual demand for table salt, caustic soda, chlorine, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide exceeds one million tonnes. A colossal amount of money is expended annually to import these chemicals by chemical and processing companies including tanneries and those in food and beverages, paper and pulp, bottling and oil sector. There are salt springs at Awe ( Plateau State ), Abakaliki and Uburu ( Ebonyi State ), while rock salt is available in Benue State . A total reserve of 1.5 million tonnes has been indicated, and further investigations are now being carried out by Government.
    Gemstones
    Gemstones mining has boomed in various parts of Plateau, Kaduna and Bauchi states for years. Some of these gemstones include sapphire, ruby, aquamarine, emerald, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, amethyst; zircon, and flourspar which are among the world's best. Good prospects exist in this area for viable investments.
    Kaolin
    An estimated reserve of 3 billion tonnes of good kaolinitic clay has been identified in many localities in Nigeria.

  28. CONCLUSION
    Nigeria is a country blessed with different types of Natural resources, both mineral and agriculture. These natural resources exist in multitude in different location across Nigeria but the problem is that most of these resources are not been used properly and some are been misused, some by government some by private sectors and thus causing some states in Nigeria to be under developed. This also has crippled the Nigerian economy because revenues are not always generated enough to go round the states. Nevertheless, One of the objectives of the new National Policy on Solid Minerals is to ensure the orderly development of the mineral resources of the country.

    REFERENCES

    Adesoji A.A and Sotubo O.D (2013). Non-Oil Exports in the Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Study of Agricultural and Mineral Resources. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3 (2):403-418. Aluko, S. (1971): Industrialisation in Nigeria. Quarterly Journal of Administration, IX (2).

    Adesopo, A.A and Asaju, A. S. (2004). Natural Resource Distribution, Agitation for Resource Control Right and the Practice of Federalism in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 15(4): 277-289.

    Bridge. G. (2008). Economic Geography Natural Resources, In:
    International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (eds). Kitchen and Nigeria Natural Resource Charter (2014): Summary of the 2014 Benchmarking Report.

    Okeke, C.N. (2008). Geology and Mineral Resources: Blessing or Curse? The International Lawyer, 42 (1); 193-210.

  29. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    TOPIC:
    THE UTILIZATION, UNDERUTILIZATION AND MIS UTILIZATION OF THE NATUARAL RESOURCES IN ALL THE STATES IN NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: ECO 0511 (PROBLEMS AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY:
    EZEOBATA, CHIDIMMA CYNTHIA
    PG/PGD/17/02184

    LECTURER:
    DR. A. ORJI

    JULY, 2018

    Nigeria is one of those countries in Africa that is well endowed with natural resources, but most of them are under-utilized. Most of the mineral resources needed as raw-materials for the production of goods in Nigeria, which can be exploited in Nigeria, are imported from other countries.
    Below is the list of the 36 states plus the Federal capital Territory and the natural resources endowed in them.
    S/N STATES MINERAL DEPOSITS STATUS
    1 Abia Gold, Lead/zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas & Salt Oil/gas fully utilized, others are underutilized.
    2 Abuja Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gold, Lead/zinc, Marble & Tantalite All are underutilized except Gold which is mis utilized
    3 Adamawa Bentonite, Gypsium, Kaolin & Magnesite. All are underutilized
    4 Akwaibom Clay, Lead/zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Oil/Gas, salt and Uranium Oil/Gas fully utilized, others are under utilized
    5 Anambra Clay, Glass-sand, Gypsium, iron-ore, lead/Zinc, lignite, Limestone, phosphate and Salt. All are underutilized
    6 Bauchi Gold, Cassiterite (tin ore), Columbite, Gypsium, Wolfram, Coal, Limestone, Lignite, Iron-ore and Clay All are underutilized except Gold which is mis utilized
    7 Bayelsa Clay, Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Manganese, Oil/Gas & Uranium Oil/Gas is fully utilized, others are underutilized
    8 Benue Barite, Clay, Coal, Gemstone, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lead/zinc, Limestone, Marble & Salt. All are underutilized
    9 Borno Bentonite, Clay, Diatomite, Gypsium, hydro-carbon, Kaolin and Limestone. All are underutilized
    10 Cross River Barite, Lead/zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Manganese, Oil/Gas, Salt and Uranium. Oil/Gas is fully utilized, others are underutilized
    11 Delta Clay, Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lignite, Marble and Oil/Gas Oil/gas is fully utilized, others are underutilized
    12 Ebonyi Gold, Lead/zinc and salt Gold is mis utilized, others are underutilized
    13 Edo Bitumen, Clay, Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lignite, Limestone, Marble and Oil/Gas Oil/Gas is fully utilized, Gold is mis utilized, others are underutilized.
    14 Ekiti Feldspar, Granite, Kaolin, Syenite and Tatium All are underutilized
    15 Enugu Coal, Lead/zinc and Limestone All are underutilized
    16 Gombe Gemstone and Gypsium Both are underutilized
    17 Imo Gypsium, Lead/zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Marcasite, Phosphate and Salt Oil/Gas is fully utilized, others are underutilized
    18 Jigawa Butyles Underutilized
    19 Kaduna Amethyst, Aquamarine, Asbestos, Clay, Flosper, Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyalite, Mica, Rock, Crystal, Ruby, Sapphire, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime, Topaz and Tourmaline Gold is mis utilized, others are underutilized
    20 Kano Gassiterite, Copper, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Lead/zinc, Pyrochinre and Tantalite All are underutilized
    21 Katsina Kaolin, Marble and Salt All are underutilized

  30. 22 Kebbi Gold Mis utilized
    23 Kogi Cole, Dolomite, feldspar, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Marble, Talc and Tantalite All are underutilized
    24 Kwara Cassiterite, Columbite, Feldspar, Gold, Iron-ore, Marble, Mica and Tantalite All are underutilized except Gold which is mis utilized
    25 Lagos Bitumen, Clay and Glass-sand All are underutilized
    26 Nasarawa Amethyst (Topaz Garnet), Barytex, Barite, Cassirite, Chalcopyrite, Clay, Columbite, Cooking coal, Dolomite/Marble, Feldspar, Galena, Iron-ore, Limestone, Mica, Salt, Sapphire, Talc, Tantalite, Tourmaline, Quartz and Zireon. All are underutilized
    27 Niger Gold, Lead/zinc and Talc Gold is mis utilized, others are underutilized
    28 Ogun Bitumen, Clay, Feldspar, Gemstone, Kaolin, Limestone and Phosphate All are underutilized
    29 Ondo Bitumen, Clay, Coal, Dimension stones, Feldspar, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Granite, Gypsium, kaolin, Limestone and Oil/Gas All are underutilized except Oil/Gas which is fully utilized
    30 Osun Columbite, Gold, Granite, Talc, Tantalite and Tourmaline All are underutilized except Gold which is mis utilized
    31 Oyo Aquamarine, Cassiterite, Clay, Dolomite, Gemstone, Gold, Kaolin, Marble, Sillimanite, Talc and Tantalite All are underutilized except Gold which is mis utilized
    32 Plateau Barite, Bauxite, Bentonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay, Coal, Emerald, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lead/zinc, Marble, Molybdenite, Pyrochlore, Salt, Tantalite/Columbite, Tin and Wolfram All are underutilized
    33 Rivers Clay, Glass-sand, Lignite, Marble and Oil/Gas All are underutilized except Oil/Gas which is fully Utilized
    34 Sokoto Clay, Flakes, Gold, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Laterite, Limestone, Phosphate, Potash, Silica, Sand and Salt All are underutilized except Gold which is mis utilized
    35 Taraba Lead/zinc Underutilized
    36 Yobe Soda Ash and Tintomite Underutilized
    37 Zamfara Coal, Cotton and Gold Gold is mis utilized, others are underutilized.


    NOTE: Nigeria is among the richest countries in natural resources. It ranks 4th in Africa and the 6th in the world, but it is poorer than some of the countries which are not endowed with any natural resources. Except Oil/gas which if fully utilized in Nigeria, every other natural endowment is underutilized or mis utilized. Talc for instance which is deposited in over 5 states in the country has only one Talc plant in Niger state. Gold is mis utilized where they are deposited because they are often mined illegally. With the high dependence on Oil/Gas and the global reduction in oil prices, Nigeria has seen the need for diversification. If Nigeria diversifies and exploits fully even half of the resources found in her country, economic growth will increase geometrically.

  31. UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    TOPIC

    NATURAL RESOURCES UTILIZATION, UNDER UTILIZATION AND MISUTILIZATION IN THE 36 STATES OF NIGERIA

    AN ASSIGNMENT WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE:
    ECO 0511
    (PROBLEM AND POLICIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT)

    BY
    OFFOR CHRISTIANA EBERE

    LECTURER: DR. TONY ORJI

    AUGUST, 2018

  32. INTRODUCTION
    Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind, and the law of the marker, the God, in expansion of growth and development is when it is being utilized in good action of management.

    Nigeria is among countries in Africa with a wide variety in natural resources both minerals and agriculture. The country is richly endowed with natural resources ranging from industrial metals to various precious stones such as Barites, Gypsum, Kaolin and marble gold etc. Most of these natural resources has not been properly balanced in growth due to miss management, lack of skills, poor technology and corruption. These has given birth to poor generation of revenue and poor accumulation of capital, therefore making the vision of the new national policy on solid minerals, on ensuring the orderly development of the mineral resources of the country impossible. It also crippled the growth and development of Nigeria economy.

    CPI on line encyclopedia, published August 2016 science and technology articles.

    Here is a list of the Natural resources in Nigeria and where they can be found.
    S/N STATES NATURAL RESOURCES RESOURCES THAT ARE UTILIZED RESOURCES THAT ARE UNDERUTILIZED RESOURCES THAT ARE MISSUTILIZED
    1. Abia Gold, Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt Gold, Lead/Zinc Salt
    2. Abuja Cassiterite,Clay ,Dolomite,Gold, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Tantalite Clay, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Cassiterite, Dolomite, Gold, Tantalite
    3. Adamawa Bentonite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Magnesite Bentonite Kaolin, Gypsium, Magnesite
    4. Akwa Ibom Clay, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Oil/Gas, Salt, Uranium Oil/Gas, Lead/Zinc and clay Uranium, Lignite Salt
    5. Anambra Clay, Glass-Sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lead/Zinc, Lignite,
    Limestone, Phosphate & Salt Lead/Zinc,
    Limestone, salt and clay Phosphate, Gypsium, Glass-Sand, Iron-ore
    6. Bauchi Gold, Cassiterite (tine ore), Columbite, Gypsium, Wolfram, Coal, Limestone, Lignite, Iron-ore & Clay Iron-ore & Clay,
    Limestone, Gypsium Gold, Cassiterite (tine ore), Columbite
    7. Bayelsa Clay, Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Maganese, Oil/Gas & Uranium Oil/Gas and Clay Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Maganese Uranium
    8. Benue Barite, Clay, Coal, Gemstone, Gypsium, Iron-Ore,
    Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Marble, Salt Gemstone,
    Salt
    Marble, Clay and Limestone
    Barite, Gypsium, Coal,Iron-Ore, Lead/Zinc

    9. Borno Bentonite, Clay, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydro-carbon,
    Kaolin & Limestone Clay & Limestone Bentonite, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydro-carbon,
    Kaolin

  33. 9. Borno Bentonite, Clay, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydro-carbon,
    Kaolin & Limestone Clay & Limestone Bentonite, Diatomite, Gypsium, Hydro-carbon,
    Kaolin
    10 Cross River Barite, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Manganese,
    Oil/Gas, Salt & Uranium Oil/Gas,
    Limestone,
    Lead/Zinc and
    Salt
    Barite,
    Manganese, Uranium
    Oil/Gas,
    Salt

    11 Delta Clay, Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lignite, Marble & Oil/Gas & Oil/Gas
    Clay, Marble &
    Glass-sand, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Oil/Gas
    12 Ebonyi Gold, Lead/Zinc & Salt Salt , Lead/Zinc Gold Salt
    13 Edo Bitumen, Clay Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold,
    Gypsium,Iron-ore, Lignite, Limestone, Marble& Oil/Gas Limestone, Marble& Oil/Gas, Iron-ore and Clay Bitumen, Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold,
    Gypsium,Iron-ore, Lignite Clay and Oil/Gas
    14 Ekiti Feldspar, Granite, Kaolin, Syenite& Tatium Granite Feldspar and
    Syenite

    15 Enugu Coal, Lead/Zinc & Limestone Coal, Lead/Zinc & Limestone Lead/Zinc & Limestone coal
    16 Gombe Gemstone and Gypsium Gemstone Gemstone and Gypsium
    17 Imo Gypsium, Lead/Zinc, Lignite, Limestone, Marcasite,
    Oil/Gas, Phosphate & Salt Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Oil/Gas Marcasite, Phosphate & Lignite Salt
    18 Jigawa Butyles Butyles
    19 Kaduna Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Clay, Flosper,
    Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyanite, Mica, Rock
    Crystal, Ruby, Sapphire, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime,
    Topaz and Tourmaline Graphite and Clay Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyanite, Mica, Rock
    Crystal, Ruby, Sapphire, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime,
    Topaz, Tourmaline
    20 Kano Gassiterite, Copper, Gemstone, Glass-sand, Lead/Zinc,
    Pyrochinre, Tantalite Copper, Lead/Zinc Copper, Gemstone, Glass-sand,
    Pyrochinre, Tantalite
    21 Katsina Kaolin, Marble, Salt Marble, Salt Kaolin Salt
    22 Kebbi Gold Gold
    23 Kogi Cole, Dolomite, Feldspar, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Kaolin,
    Marble, Talc & Tantalite Marble,
    Iron-ore
    Dolomite, Feldspar,
    Talc & Tantalite
    Iron-ore

  34. Coal
    Nigerian coal is one of the most bituminous in the world owing to its low sulphur and ash content and therefore the most environment-friendly. There are nearly 3 billion tonnes of indicated reserves in 17 identified coal fields and over 600 million tonnes of proven reserves.
    Talc
    Over 40 million tonnes deposits of talc have been identified in Niger , Osun, Kogi, Ogun and Kaduna states. The Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)'s 3,000 tonnes per annum catalytic Talc plant in Niger state is the only talc plant in the country. The talc industry represents one of the most versatile sectors of the industrial minerals of the world. The exploitation of the vast deposits would therefore satisfy local demand and that for export.
    Gypsum
    Gypsum is an important input for the production of cement. It is also used for the production of Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) and classroom chalks. A strategy for large-scale mining of gypsum is urgently required to sustain the existing plants and meet the future expansion. Currently, cement production is put at 8 million tonnes per annum while the national requirement is 9.6 million tonnes. About one billion tonnes of gypsum deposits are spread over many states in Nigeria.
    Iron
    There are over 3 billion metric tonnes of iron ore in deposits found in Kogi, Enugu and Niger States as well as the Federal Capital Territory . Iron Ore is being mined at Itakpe in Kogi State and is already being beneficiated, up to 67 per cent of iron. The Aladja and Ajaokuta Steel complexes are ready for consumer of billets and other iron products for down-stream industries.
    Lead/Zinc
    An estimated 10 million tonnes of lead/zinc veins are spread over eight states of Nigeria . Proven reserves in three prospects in the east-central area are 5 million tonnes. Joint venture partners are encouraged to develop and exploit the various lead/zinc deposits all over the country.
    Bentonite/Baryte
    These are the main constituents of the mud used in the drilling of all types of oil wells. The Nigerian baryte has specific gravity of about 4.3. Over 7.5 million tonnes of baryte have been identified in Taraba and Bauchi States. Large bentonite reserves of 700 million tonnes are available in many states of the federation ready for massive development and exploitation.
    Gold
    There are proven reserves of both alluvial and primary gold in the schist belt of Nigeria located in the south-western part of the country. The deposits are mainly alluvial and are currently being exploited on a small scale. Private investors are invited to stake concessions on these primary deposits.
    Bitume
    The occurrence of bitumen deposits in Nigeria is indicated at about 42 billion tonnes; almost twice the amount of existing reserves of crude petroleum. Analytical results suggest that this potential resource can be used directly as an asphalt binder. Most bitumen used for road construction in Nigeria is currently imported.
    Rock/Salt
    The national annual demand for table salt, caustic soda, chlorine, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide exceeds one million tonnes. A colossal amount of money is expended annually to import these chemicals by chemical and processing companies including tanneries and those in food and beverages, paper and pulp, bottling and oil sector. There are salt springs at Awe ( Plateau State ), Abakaliki and Uburu ( Ebonyi State ), while rock salt is available in Benue State . A total reserve of 1.5 million tonnes has been indicated, and further investigations are now being carried out by Government.
    Gemstones
    Gemstones mining has boomed in various parts of Plateau, Kaduna and Bauchi states for years. Some of these gemstones include sapphire, ruby, aquamarine, emerald, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, amethyst; zircon, and flourspar which are among the world's best. Good prospects exist in this area for viable investments.
    Kaolin
    An estimated reserve of 3 billion tonnes of good kaolinitic clay has been identified in many localities in Nigeria.

  35. CONCLUSION
    Nigerian economic growth and development requires a higher gross national product and faster growth rate. If Nigerian natural resources growth is driven by a smaller minority of richness. It will make little or no impact on the growth of Nigeria economy because poverty and inequality will likely worsen.

    If strong implementation utilization takes place, there will be a new dimension of technical progress, capital accumulation etc. Therefore will lead to a tremendous opportunities for investments in the solid mineral sector of Nigerian economy. Then the fruits of economic growth would be achieved.

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