Assignment And Quiz

Urban Economic Growth (ECN. 261: Question 2)—-Tues.22/8/2017

Clearly discuss the basic reasons and characteristics of Urban Economic Growth.

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Tony Orji

Dr. Tony Orji is the founder and owner of Success Tonics Blog. He is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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  1. NAME; OGBODO CHUKWUEMEKA STEPHEN. REG. NO. 2016/SD/35174
    Question; clearly discus the basic reasons and characteristics of urban economic growth
    Answer
    One cannot dive into the discussion of urban economic growth without having a tipsy or prior-knowledge of what urban economic growth is . in few words we will try to see the definitions of the terms starting from urban down to growth . Urban simply means commercial area while urbanization talks about the movement of people from one place(rural) to another(cities). Economics has to deal with the management of the relative scarce allocation resources to satisfy unlimited human wants, desires and needs economic growth deals with the increase in the productive capacity of a nation. Now the basis reason of urban economic growth are 1.The need for a better life 2.Employment opportunities 3.Migration in search of greener pasture etc. there are also the characteristics or rather ,the things found in the cities which also constitutes urban economic growth. They are 1.Transport and communication network system 2.Increase in per capital income 3.Avalaibility of infrastructural facilities or good network road 4.Highly industrialized or many industrial locations 5.Highly populated 6.easy circulation of currency(money) 7.Abundance of good quality standard of living 8.Presence of social, private and government institutions 9.highly commercialized activities several specialized organizations 10.self or family sufficiency 11.Development of several things 12.Access to and use of technology etc. All these and many more characterizes urban economic growth

  2. NAME: AMADI GLORIA ADAEZE
    REG NO:2016/SD/35589
    Reason of urban economic growth are:
    1. Seeking of better standard of living by people: people especially from rural areas do tend to seek for better life in the urban areas. This better life seeking includes the basic amenities that are in the urban areas.
    2. Seeking for good Job: people from different rural areas do come to urban areas to look for job and at least to earn a better living. The seeking of job is due to the fact that many industries, companies and other job opportunities are located in the urban areas.
    3. For education: people do come to rural areas because of schooling activities.
    The characteristics of Urban Economic Growth are:
    1.High standard of living : there is good standard of living in abundance over the urban areas. This is so because most people there do have money and would like to live in a more comfortable way.
    2.Existence of industries: Many industries are located in urban areas and people tend to move their because of their works and therefore adding to the population In the urban areas.
    3.Much population: There is enough number of people in the urban area and this is seen as the number one characteristics of urban areas. it’s population leads to much consumption in every utility.)
    4.. Good infrastructures: there are good road connection and well built facilities. Because of these infrastructures. People tend to leave rural areas to urban

  3. NAME: Ojile Benjamin Ocheme
    Reg. No: 2016/SD/36676
    Course code: econs 261
    questions: clearly discuss the basic reason and characteristics of urban economic growth
    To start with,it is necessary to defined economic growth. economic growth is the amount of good and service produced per head of the population over a period a time. Or the capacity of an economy to produced good and service compared from period to another. Therefore,the reason for urbanizing economic growth include the following (i)For employment opportunity (ii)for growing industries (iii)for demand of labour by the Private sector (iv) decrease of death rate and growing birth rate (v) social mobility and fortune (vi)for better standard of living (vii)for population pressure. Among the following were the characteristics of urban economy growth.(1) highest growth rate (2) informal settlement (3) city planning focused only on legitimate area (4) increase in unemployment, exploitation, degradation of equality of life. (5) it occurred as a result of rural push.

  4. Urban Economic Growth
    Is the process whereby population move from rural to urban ares enabling cities and towns to grow. These include social and economic advantages such as better Education, Health care, Sanitation, housing, business opportunities and transportation.

    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    * Development of transportation and infrastructure like roads, bridges, school, public hospitals, and school links outer suburbs with the city, slowly expanding the urban areas.
    * Sea change has caused movement from suburbs and outer-city areas towards coastal areas. This has led to a boost in real estate price, high rise development, expansion in the investments into retirement villas
    * Agriculture self-sufficiency the most primitive of organizations in modern society.

    CHARACTERISTIC OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
    * Economic development like land, labour, and capital. Demand and therefore to a relocation of resources land, labour, and capital out of agriculture into manufacturing and services
    * Transportation cause contribution of production and people in a specific location
    * Agriculture and productivity. Like increase in mechanization and industrialization, water, labour etc

    Name=Okoli Doris
    Reg. No. 2016/SD/36221

  5. NAME:UDIDA THERESA ALORYE
    REG NO:2016/SD/36048
    The reasons of urban economic growth are:
    • A lack of employment opportunities in the countryside. Overpopulation and poor crop yields are all push factors – why people leave the countryside.
    • Better paid jobs in the cities, an expected higher standard of living, and more reliable food are all pull factors – why people are attracted to the city.
    • People who migrate to towns and cities tend to be young and so have higher birth rates in that age range.
    The characteristics of urban economic growth are
    • Availability of government institutions: government institution makes people to come and settle in urban areas
    • commercialized activities :many commercialized activities do bring people from rural areas to the urban area to enjoy this commercial activities
    • sufficiency in some family needs: because of works in the urban area there is sufficiency in what people need especially in family: which is a vice versa case in the rural areas

  6. Urban economic growth doesn’t mean that every city’s fate is preordained. When cities do experience dramatic changes in their growth paths, the reason is almost always outside events or technological change. European postwar borders are an example of the way political conditions can shape growth. Technological change, too, can shift cities’ growth paths.
    Transportation is my third principle: accessible, well-connected cities exhibit higher growth. Market access and connectivity may be even more crucial than human capital. The city that succeeds in positioning itself as the meeting place and market center for a wider region has won a tremendously important battle, since transportation and travel hubs have historically emerged as dominant finance and business centers, attracting talent, money, and brains.
    Urban economics is that every industry leaves its imprint on a city—and it isn’t always a good one. Urban economics: though much remains unexplained, good and bad policies do matter. Despite the best efforts of scholars, econometric models rarely succeed in explaining more than half of cities’ variations in growth over time. Many factors are impossible to quantify, such as the ability of a dynamic individual, such as a mayor or an entrepreneur, to make a difference. Local business and political culture surely plays a part in a city’s growth, but we know little about how such cultures form.
    Rapid growth coming from increase of production. an increased output of a nation of goods and services available to satisfy the material wants of the people. Economic growth raises the standard of living.

    NAME; OGBUAGU OGECHI FELIX
    REG NO 2016/SD/36588
    COURSE; EDUCATION ECONOMICS

  7. The reasons why there can be Urban Economic Growth are
    i. Surplus Resources
    ii. Industrialization and Commercialization
    iii. Development of Transport and Communication
    i. Surplus Resources: Cities grow wherever a society, or a group within it, gains controls over resources greater than are necessary for the snare sustenance of life. In ancient.
    ii. Industrialization and Commercialization: The urban growth has also been greatly stimulated by the new techniques of production associated with industrial revolution. The invention of modernity, the development of steam power, and the application of large capital in industrial enterprise led to the establishment of gigantic manufacturing plants which brought about the morality of immobile groups of workers hastening their concentration around a factory area
    iii. Development of Transport and Communication: The development in methods of transportation and communication and the facilities which cities offer for satisfying the desire for communication also explain urban growth industrialization depends upon transportation so that raw materials and manufactured goods can be carried in large volume.

    Onyenachie Chinenye Happiness
    2016/SD/36263

  8. Name: Awoke Blessing
    Reg No: 2016/SD/36225
    The basic reason of urban economics growth are;
    1.Studies both in developed and developing countries find a positive, robust statistical association between productivity outcomes and the size of a city. The studies reviewed by the author suggest that “a city that is 10% larger in population offers wages that are 0.2701% higher.
    2.Taking into consideration two possible sources of bias that more productive cities attract more workers are self selected into bigger cities, this effect shrinks .
    3.For developing countries, the effect is also smaller after controlling for potential bias, but it remains much higher than the effect in developed countries.
    The Characteristics are;
    1.The rate of rise in productivity, i.e of out-put per unit of all inputs, is high, even when we include among input other factors in addition to labour, the major productivity factor and were to the rate is a large multiple of the rate in the past.
    2.The rate of structural transformation of the economy is high.
    3.The spread of modern economics growth, despite its worldwide partial effects, is limited in that the economics performance in countries accounting for t here-quarters of world population skill fails far of modern technology.

  9. The reasons are:
    1:Increased industrial productive:This is because in urban areas, economic growth increases because of the rate at which goods are produced or work is completed, and with the aid of machine and industrialization, fixing people in the area of specialisation,use of infrastructure and intellectual capital enhance urban economic growth.
    2:Transportation system:In urban areas, because there are good road, railway, modern information system and other digital conveyance, it makes urban economic growth of a given area to grow.Because there are easy movement of goods and services through water, air, land and other means. It enhances economic growth.
    3:Increased agricultural productivity:Due to the link with industrial and scientific advancement, mechanisation in farming increases in the average farm size and increments it yields. Agricultural productivity also enhances economic growth.

  10. Name: Nwite Juliet Mercy
    Reg No: 2016/SD/36226
    reason of urban economic growth?
    1.Big cities in developing countries act as centres of innovation but fail to relocate the production of mature product to secondary specialized cities in the case in advanced economics.
    2.Cities function as small open economics and create urban system’s which impact economic growth and development.
    3.Taking into consideration: Two possible sources of bias that more productive cities attract more worker are self-selected into bigger cities; this effect shrinks.
    4.For developing countries, the effect is also smaller after controlling for potential bias, but it remains much higher than the effective developed countries.
    Characteristics
    1.The rate of structural transformation of the economy is high.
    2.Shifts in several others aspects of economics structure could be added (in the structure of consumption, in the relative share of domestic and foreign supplies etc.
    3.The spread of modern economics growth, despite it’s worldwide partial effects is initiated in that the economics performance in countries accounting for three quarters of world population skill fails far short of the minimum levels feasible with the potential of modern technology.

  11. NAME: UBOGWU SAMUEL
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36449

    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    the reasons for economic growth is as follows:
    (1) informal settlement:
    around the cities in urban areas there are informal settlement, that is illegal settlements where even the planning authorizes don’t know people are.
    (2) city planning :
    there is city planning and due to the areas in urban region are planned in a good way and the area beautified, people tend to move to areas like this so as to gain a better living.if a city is well planned also, there is economic growth.
    (3) industrialization:
    where there is industrialization, there is economic growth. As seen in urban areas today, there is industries in them that contribute to economic growth of the area.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
    1.Transportation system:
    there are good road, railway, modern information system and other digital conveyance, it makes urban economic growth of a given area to grow. Because there are easy movement of goods and services through water, air, land and other means
    2. High Rate Of Development:
    there is developmental increase in the economy of a particular area that economic growth occurs.
    3.Efficiency in production: high rate of production in various area of the urban regions of the country.

  12. NAME: NDUKWE KALU CHIOMA
    REG NO:2016/SD/36609
    DEFINITION URBAN GROWTH:
    urban growth is generally defined as the process whereby population move from rural to urban ares enabling cities and towns to grow. These include social and economic advantages such as better Education, Health care, Sanitation, housing, and business opportunities

    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    (I) social mobility and fortune: there are enough social mobility and other fortunes in the urban areas.
    (ii) Better standard of living: people seek for better standard of living in the urban areas.
    (iii) Population pressure: people tend to be populating the urban areas; thus making it to grow.

    CHARACTERISTIC OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
    the characteristics are as follows:
    * Different development in the economy: there is rapid increase in the economy of a particular area that economic growth occurs.
    High productivity: There is high productivity in different areas like beverage manufacturing and manufacturing of other products in the in many areas of a place that economic growth occurs.
    Transportation system: there are good road, railway, modern information system and other digital conveyance; it makes urban economic growth of a given area to grow. Because there are easy movement of goods and services through water, air, land and other means

  13. NAME:UGWUJA ANNASTESIA CHINASA
    REG NO:2016/SD/36454
    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    THE REASONS ARE
    1. NATURAL RESOURCES
    The discovery of more natural resources like oil or mineral deposits may boost Economic growth as this increases the country’s Production Possibility Curve. It is difficult, if not impossible, to increase the amount of natural resources in a country. Countries must take care to balance the supply and demand of scarce natural resources to avoid depleting them. Improved land management may improve the quality of land and contribute to economic growth.
    2. PHYSICAL CAPITAL
    An increased investment in physical capital such as factories, machinery and roads will lower the cost of economic activity. Better factories and machinery are more productive than physical labor. This can increase output.
    3. POPULATION
    A growth in the labor force means there is a larger population and more manpower. However, this could lead to high unemployment.

  14. Reasons for urban economic growth are as follows:
    1.There is high level of competitive enterprises in the urban areas. This is because people in the urban areas,who are into business try's to meet up to their business rival by so doing it leads to development and growth in the urban areas
    2.People are attracted to urban areas because of the lifestyle in the city. Maybe because of the infrastructures located around such places,make them to move that that urban areas leading the growth of urban areas
    3.There is good road networking and infrastructures like bridges,schools,puplic enterprise,hospitals other and other institution,by this it slowly expands urban areas.
    characteristics of urban areas
    1.urban society is thickly populate because of many people coming from rural area and settle down there for better life.
    2.there is fast means of communication,that is They get aware of what is happening around the world rapidly.
    3.There are different cultural groups in the city.
    Name:Amadi Modestus Ifeanyi
    Reg. No. 2016/SD/36447

  15. NAME: AMALU BLESSING AMAKA
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36407
    Reason of urban economic growth are:
    For education: people do come to rural areas because of schooling activities which they quest for.
    Quest for better standard of living by people: people especially from rural areas do tend to seek for better life in the urban areas. This better life seeking includes the basic amenities that are in thecities.
    Quest for good Job: different rural areas individuals do come to urban areas to look for job and at least to earn a better living. The seeking of job is due to the fact that many industries, companies and other job opportunities are located in the cities.

    The characteristics of Urban Economic Growth are:
    population: urban economics deals with enough number of people in the urban area and this is seen as the number one characteristics of urban areas.
    Good infrastructures: there are good road connection and well built facilities.
    Presence of industries: big industries are situated in urban areas and people tend to move their because of their works and therefore adding to the population In the urban areas and also consume the benefits thereof.

  16. NAME:OGARA RITA ONYEBUCHI
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36303
    THE REASON ARE:
    •Various cities function as small open economics and create urban system’s which also in different ways impact economic growth and development.
    •Enlarged cities in developing countries act as centers of innovation.
    •Effect is smaller after controlling for potential bias, but it remains much higher than the effective for countries that are developed
    Characteristics are :
    •spread of modern economics growth which involves skills and technology in various ramifications.
    •Various economic shift of the area to some certain level etc.
    •structural transformation of the economy.

  17. NAME:OGARA RITA ONYEBUCHI
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36303
    THE REASON ARE:
    -Various cities function as small open economics and create urban system’s which also in different ways impact economic growth and development.
    – Enlarged cities in developing countries act as centers of innovation.
    -effect is smaller after controlling for potential bias, but it remains much higher than the effective for countries that are developed
    Characteristics are :
    -spread of modern economics growth which involves skills and technology in various ramifications.
    -Various economic shift of the area to some certain level etc.
    -structural transformation of the economy.

  18. NAME: IGBAULE EVELYN KADOON
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36022
    THE REASON ARE:
     In developing countries, effect is smaller after controlling for potential bias, but it remains much higher than the effective developed countries.
     Various cities function as small open economics and create urban system’s which also in different ways impact economic growth and development.
     large cities in developing countries act as centers of innovation but fail to relocate the production of mature product to secondary specialized cities in the case in advanced economics.

    Characteristics are :
     There is high rate of structural transformation of the economy.
     There is the spread of modern economics growth which involves skills and technology.
     shift in economy of the area to some certain level etc.

  19. NAME: AMADI GLORIA ADAEZE
    REG NO:2016/SD/36254
    Reason of urban economic growth are:
    1. Seeking of better standard of living by people: people especially from rural areas do tend to seek for better life in the urban areas. This better life seeking includes the basic amenities that are in the urban areas.
    2. Seeking for good Job: people from different rural areas do come to urban areas to look for job and at least to earn a better living. The seeking of job is due to the fact that many industries, companies and other job opportunities are located in the urban areas.
    3. For education: people do come to rural areas because of schooling activities.
    The characteristics of Urban Economic Growth are:
    1.High standard of living : there is good standard of living in abundance over the urban areas. This is so because most people there do have money and would like to live in a more comfortable way.
    2.Existence of industries: Many industries are located in urban areas and people tend to move their because of their works and therefore adding to the population In the urban areas.
    3.Much population: There is enough number of people in the urban area and this is seen as the number one characteristics of urban areas. it’s population leads to much consumption in every utility.)
    4.. Good infrastructures: there are good road connection and well built facilities. Because of these infrastructures. People tend to leave rural areas to urban

  20. Economic growth is the increase in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. It can be measured in normal or real terms, the latter of while is adjusted for inflation. Economic growth is the increase in the inflation –adjusted market valve of the good and services produce by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product or real GDP. Measurement of economic growth uses national income accounting.
    THE BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH.
    (1) Rapid growth coming from increase of production, longs for further economic research for growth and change, which brings further growth
    (2) Growth Research, development is when the rate of production grows; it raises the incomes, which then raises the demand for goods and services.
    (3) Growth Raises incomes Stimulates Markets Raises Demand When incomes rise, the growth for income-elastic industrial products grow faster. This causes the production move from the farm to the factory.
    (4) As people move from rural living to urban living, which brings up urbanization.
    (5) Growth Demand for Industrial Goods rather than Agricultural Breakdown of Traditional Values Industrialization & Urbanization All these characteristics are inter-dependant and self-reinforcing. Growth is an important target, since it enables development. Economic growth can create resources which can reduce poverty. Economic growth raises the standard of living economic growth. .

    NAME: OMEJE EUNICE NKECHI
    REG NO;2016/SD/36200
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

  21. NAME; OKWORI GODWIN
    REG. NO; 2016/SD/36589.
    Economic growth is an increase in a country’s productive capacity, as measured by comparing gross national product [GN P] in a year with the GNP in the previous year. It occurs whenever there is a quantitative increase in a country’s input and output over a period of time.
    THE BASIC REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH ARE;
    1.Lack of employment opportunity in the country side. Over population and poor crop yields are all push factors-why people leave the country side. Many Nigerian live in urban area today leaves the rural area due to poor agricultural yielding and its negligence.
    2.Better paid job in the cities. An expected higher standard of living, and more reliable food are all pull factor why people are attracted to the city. In Nigeria today, many people want to have a job in a city that attract more paid in order to sustain their life better.
    3.Better medical conditions compared to the country side mean more successful birth and a better life expectancy. In the urban area, medical facilities are available compare to rural area and that entails more population in the urban areas.
    CHARATERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    1.Urban economic growth is regarded as an index of economic development.
    2.Transportation cause concentration of production and people in a specific location.
    3Input like skilled labour, repair services etc from which profit is eared by producer.
    4.charaterised by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.

  22. NAME; ABUH DENNIS REG.NO; 2016/SD/36587 Clearly discuss the reasons and characteristic of urban economic growth
    1. increase in industial productivity
    2. transportation system development
    3. increase in agricultural explanations
    increase in the industrial productivity; this is made possible by water,fossil fuel,industry,increase industrial mechanisations and specialization of labour broad development of infrastructure capable of supporting industrial productions,including physical,electro-dgital and intellectual capital.
    2.transportation system development; this involve water ways.this has led to the emergence of coastal and inland port.
    3. increase in agricultural productivity; this link to industrial,transportatiion and other scientific advances.over the years this has been persistence decline in the numbers of concoittant increase in the average farm size and incremental gains in yields.ll of this gives rise to an intriguing simultaneous equation. That is urbanization equals to F( agricultural productivity, technology transfer,transportation e.t.c)

  23. NWIBO BONIFACE
    REG NO 2016/SD/36364
    EDU ECONS.
    ANSWER
    The reasons for urban economic growth includes:
    INDUSTRIALIZATION:Urban growth is stimulated by the new techniques of production associated with industrial revolution. The invention of modernity, the development of steam power,and the application of large capital in industrial enterprise led to the establishment of gigantic manufacturing plant which brought about the morality of immobile groups of workers hastening their concentration around a factory area.
    DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION :The development of transport and communication facilities which offers for satisfying the desire for communication also explain urban growth industrialization depends upon transportation so that raw materials and manufactured goods can be carried in large volume.
    GOOD INFRASTRUCTURES:Infrastructural facilities such as good road, electricity pipe borne water are build in the urban areas and this tend to enhance the urban economic growth.
    SURPLUS RESOURSES :Cities grow whereever a society or even a group within it, gains controls over resources greater than a necessary for the snare sustenance of life.
    INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY :Due to the link with industrial and scientific advancement, mechanization of farming increases in average farm size and increments it yield.
    The characteristics of urban economic growth includes :
    Transportation system :There are good road, railway, modern information system and other digital conveyence ,it makes urban economic growth of a given area to grow.
    High rate of development :This is the existence of developmental increase in the economy of a particular area that economic growth occur.
    Efficiency in production :High rate of production in various areas of the urban regions of the country.

  24. NAME: NWOKEDI UKAMAKA CHINEDU
    REG: 2016/SD/36593
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE{EDU/ECONS}
    TOPIC: THREE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    ECONOMIC POLICY:
    1. Economics policy was mainly implemented in urban area, many people may see urban area as the engine for urban area as economics success, 750 biggest cities born on planet account for 57% of today’s GDP. This policy is often tried to urban policy, urban problem and urban policy lies into urban economics. This amount the majority of the population migrating to cities where global urban growth is taking place. Because of
    Agglomeration, many unemployed youth will like to migrate to urban area to be able to earn their living.
    2. HOUSING AND PUBLIC POLICY:
    Building is a unique type of commodity because housing is immobile, when household chooses a dwelling it is choosing a location the residential preferences of workers appear to be the dividing forces behind this move towards decentralization according to Glaeser and Kahn. That is firm have located in a suburb in large part because that where workers choose to live. In addition better access to truck routes from suburban location encourages manufacturing firm to locate in suburbs.
    3. DECENTRALIZATION: decentralization appears to be some worthless pronounced among cites that are more than 200years old and some worth more pronounced among those less than 60years old, cities with younger suburbs are associated with more decentralization of employment. These are caused by in accelerating the communication of ideas. Idea –intensive or service based industries such as commercial banking are more likely to locate in the central cites, while manufacturing firms that are more physical infrastructure are more likely to locate in the suburb. It amount fall in housing prices in urban area and rise in city centre increases. The standard of living, increase in income or population has amounted the urban sprawl as the excessive spatial growth in urban area due increase in income.

  25. NAME:CHUKWUMA NGOZIKA RUTH
    REG: 2016/SD/36330
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE{EDU/ECONS}
    TOPIC: THREE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    1. TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMICS:
    Urban transportation is theme of urban economics because it affects land -use patterns as transportation affect the relative accessibili8ty of sites. Issues that tie transportation to urban economics include the deficit that most transit authorities has, and the efficiency questions about proposed transportation developments such as light-rail.
    ECONOMIC POLICY:
    2. Economics policy implemented in urban area, many people many people see urban area as the engine for urban area as an engine for economics success, 750 biggest cities bon planet account t for 57% of today’s GDP. This policy is often tried to urban policy, urban problem and urban policy lies into urban economics. This amount the majority of the population migrating to cities where global urban growth is taking place.
    Agglomeration, many unemployed youth will like to migrate to urban area to be able to earn their living.
    3. HOUSING AND PUBLIC POLICY:
    Building is a unique type of commodity because housing is immobile, when household chooses a dwelling it is choosing a location the residential preferences of workers appear to be the dividing forces behind this move towards decentralization according to Glasers and Kahn. That is firm have located in a suburb in large part because that where workers choose to live in addition better access to trucks routes from suburban location encourages manufacturing firm.

  26. Urban economics is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance. More narrowly, it is a branch of microeconomics that studies urban spatial structure and the location of households and firms
    Economic growth deals with increase in the level of output, but economic development is related to increase in output coupled with improvement in social and political welfare of people within a country. Therefore, economic development encompasses both growth and welfare values.
    Dependency theorists argue that poor countries have sometimes experienced economic growth with little or no economic development initiatives; for instance, in cases where they have functioned mainly as resource-providers to wealthy industrialized countries. There is an opposing argument, however, that growth causes development because some of the increase in income gets spent on human development such as education and health.
    According to Ranis et al., economic growth and development is a two-way relationship. According to them, the first chain consists of economic growth benefiting human development, since economic growth is likely to lead families and individuals to use their heightened incomes to increase expenditures, which in turn furthers human development. At the same time, with the increased consumption and spending, health, education, and infrastructure systems grow and contribute to economic growth.

    NAME:ASOGWA VICTORIA NNEDINSO
    2016/SD/36302
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

  27. Name:Justice Ozioma Gospel. Reg.no:2016/SD/36198. REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH INCLUDES: Agglomeration which is the clustering of industries and firms close to one another in urban areas enhances the economic growth in the urban areas because location of industries close together gives them the opportunity to use the same infrastructure and raw matrial which will lead to increase in output,creates employment and maximizes profit.Secondly government policies like improving the quality of lavour force,increases wages/salaries of workers,educational and financial reforms that will encourage efficiency and low export duties can lead to urban economic growth.Lastly,rapid growth of urban areas is as a result of two population growth factors:natural increase in population and migration to urban areas which necessitates increase in labour force and enhance urban economic growth.

  28. Omeje Blessing Nkechinyere
    Reg no:2016/SD/36356

    Question: clearly discuss the basic reason and characteristics of urban economic growth.
    Reasons are;
    1 Hill change help expand a city it lures people towards the hills nearby the city for a more peacefully environment such as blue mounting.
    2 sea change has caused movement from suburbs and outer city areas towards coastal areas.
    3 Life style features such as location near water like a harbour, national park, golf course or upper class facilities are attraction for people to move towards urban area.
    4 Development of transport and infrastructure, like roads, bridges schools public hospitals and schools links outer suburbs with the city.
    Characteristics are;
    1 Population growth: this means that the rapid growth of urban areas is the result of two population growth factors, natural and migration population.
    2 Industrialization establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious surfaces rapidly.
    3 lack of affordable housing is a term used to describe dwelling units whose total housing cost are deemed "affordable" to those that have a media household income.
    4 Transportation: it routes open the across of city to the country side and responsible for development.

  29. Name; Onah lovelyn Chinenye Reg. no.2016/SD/36536
    Question; clearly discuss the basic reasons and characteristics of urban economic growth?
    For a start we need am pleased to at least define urban growth in one single sentence. Urban growth is defined as the rate at which the population of an urban area increases.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN GROWTH INCLUDES :
    • Migration of rural people to urban areas.
    • Employment opportunities in urban centers.
    • Transport and communication facilities.
    • Educational facilities.
    • Increase in the standard of living.
    BASIC REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    1. Economic Development; this has to do with how the development economy or economic development shapes our cultural heritages and influences us as well
    2. Industrialization and Density; the issue of industry or industrial base is one of the basic reason why there urban economic growth.
    3. Primary production and urban growth: primary production has to with agriculture,fishing,forestry and mining.

  30. The three reasons are as follows;
    1:Increased industrial productivity:this has to a great extent contribute to the economic development of the urban areas.this include water and fuel powered industry, increased mechanization and industrialization, specialization of labour, the broad development of infrastructure capable of supporting industrial production including physical, electrodigital and intellectual capital.
    2: Transportation system development: this involves water ways ,railways ,road network system, modern information system, brand band system ,and other digital conveyances.
    3: increased agricultural productivity: this is linked to industrial transportation and other scientific advance.there has been persistent decline in the number of farm a concomitant increase in average farm sizes and incremental gains it yields.

    NAME:CHUKWU CHRISTIAN OCHI
    REG. NO:2016/SD/36139

  31. Name: Odoh Doris Ogechukwu
    Reg. no:2016/SD/36109

    Urban economics seeks is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing and local government finance. more narrowly, it is a branch of microeconomics that studies urban spatial structure and the the location of households and firms (Quigley 2008).
    The following are some basic reasons for urban economic growth;
    1.Industrialization: establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious surfaces rapidly. Industry requires providing housing facilities to it's workers in a large a rear that generally becomes larger than the industry itself.
    2. Land hunger attitude:- many institutions and even individual desire for the ownership of land. As a result the city grows outward leaving the underdeveloped land with the city.
    3.Population growth: Rapid growth of urban areas is the result of two growth factors (a) natural increase in population (b)migration to urban areas.
    4.Economic growth: Expansion to economic base (such as higher per capital income, increase in number of working persons) city creates demand for new housing or more housing space for individuals. This also encourages many developers for rapid construction of new houses and other urban infrastructures .
    5.public regulation:Generally outside the main city is lesser controlled and loosely regulated. As a result, many developers and individuals find these places more suitable for new construction.
    6.Transportation:Transportation routes open the access of city to the country side and responsible for linear branch development. The construction of express ways and higher ways cause both congestion in the city and rapid outgrowth (Harvey and Clark 1965).
    7. Credit and capital market: credit and loan facility, low interest rate etc.are also responsible for rapid urban growth in advance. In this sense people can buy more home before achieving the financial capability. Therefore, the growth will occur in advance than actually supposed to be.

  32. NAME: CHUKWUEMEKA AMARACHI
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2016/SD/35412
    Are there Significant Relationship between Urban Economics and other Social Sciences?
    The answer is yes,
    1. Anthropology being the study of people past, and present with a focus of understanding human culture relates with urban economic in the sense that each discuss man as central viable tools which enhances development.
    2. Demography focuses on population structure and characteristics i.e. migration and emigration. In demography, we learnt about rate of current and future population growth on a national, regional and local levels, which urban economics tries to emphasis.
    3. Education: Urban economic borrowed some link in education in that through education, we learnt educational equipments services and resources which would enable us to assess our potentials for specific models of socio-economic growth.
    4. Political science: In political science, the administrative system gain will go a far way to educate us on legislations affecting major functions of the humans settlement and pattern of administrative organization.
    5. Psychology: The study of human behaviour, enable man to tolerate and accept human beings as asocial fellow who can adopt to change, resistance to induced change and environmental pressure as urban development can be achieved through a preferred mode of behaviour which is generally accepted.
    6. Sociology: In sociology we learnt social organizational structure and the way of life of major population groups i.e. how they relate to the use of space and physical equipments – which urban economics manages to address.
    7. Psychiatry: Finally psychiatry tends to emphasis on basic personality structure and human needs. These needs are the social amenities like water, electricity, industries, good roads etc which are the major characteristic of developmental area in urban economics.

  33. NAME: CHUKWUEMEKA AMARACHI
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2016/SD/35412

    Why study development/what is the real meaning of development? ECO 261
    2a. Why Study Development
    Why study development are:
    1. We study development to increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods such as foods, shelter, wealth and protection.
    2. To raise the level of living including higher income, provision of more jobs, better education and greater attention to cultural and in humanistic values.
    3. To expand the range of economic and social choice of individual and nations by freeing them from the bondage of servitude and dependence.
    2b. What is the real meaning of development?
    Meaning and Definition of Development
    U.N publication (1963:1) defines development as “the process of allowing and encouraging people to meet their own aspiration. Montgometry and Siphon (1960) see development as “an aspect of change that is desirable, broadly predicted or at least influenced by government actions. Weedier (1962:99) states that development is never complete, it is relative, more or less of it being possible.
    Development is a state of mind, and tendency, a direction. Rather than a fixed goal, it is a rate of change in particular direction”.
    He further states that development is a process of modernity and particularly in the direction of nation building and socio-economic progress (Olewe, 2001).
    Development is a tri-dimensional concept. It has a utilitarian or consummatory dimension, which connotes increase in the quantity of usable items available to man in society. It also has behavioural or rational dimension, which defines the nature of the relationship among men in society and among societies.
    Thirdly, there is an institutional or structural dimension which defines the institutional and legal framework circumscribes the behaviours of men and streamlines their relationships while they individually and collectively seek to gain greater access to material things of value in society.
    According to Rodney (1969) development is a multisided or many-sided process. At the individual levels, it implies increased skills and capacity, greater freedom of action, creativity, self discipline, responsibility and greater material and psychological well being. At the societal level development implies (1) Increase capacity to regulate internal an external relations (b) self sufficient in food production (3) Increase in ability to guard national independence (4) high level of employment (5) self reliance (6) equalization (7) Independent control of the economy (8) education (9) ability to solve internal problem.
    Tadaro (1985:105) also views development as a multidimensional process involving the re-organization and reorientation of the entire economic and social system. This involves in addition, the improvement of income and output, it also involves radical changes in institutional, social, administrative structure as well as unpopular attitudes, customs and beliefs.
    Development therefore, according to the Tadoro is both “a physical reality as well as a state of mind, which the society has gone through some forms or processes.

  34. NAME: CHUKWUEMEKA AMARACHI
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2016/SD/35412

    3. Clearly discuss the basic reasons and characteristics of urban economics ECO
    The rate at which the population of urban area increases is known as urban growth. The reason for urban economic growth are as follows:
    1. Migration: People in rural area migrate to urban area to search for jobs, trade, and adventure thereby causing urban economic growth.
    2. Social amenities/facilities: Life in the urban areas are usually more attractive than in rural area. Urban area have some social amenities such as electricity, pipe-borne water, hospital, good means of transportation and communication which attract people to the urban area.
    3. Educational facilities: People migrate to urban centres to study in educational institutions that are better equipped than the ones in rural areas.
    4. Employment opportunities: People migrate to urban centres to look for better job opportunities that is attractive which will improve their standard of living.
    5. Religious or political crises: People migrate to urban area in order to escape from religion or political crises or persecutions. This factors could be internal or external migration. To avoid areas of religious and political turbulence they migrate to relatively quite place.
    6. Commerce: Urban areas are known to have a lot of commercial activities, this enables people to engage in trading or purchase a variety of their requirements, with ease.
    Characteristics of urban economic growth are: ECO 261
    1. Economic development: The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development. Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources land, labour and capital out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    2. Industrialization and density: An urban settlement is characterized by manufacturing services and high density of population.
    3. Presence of primary production: There is also the presence of raw materials i.e. from agriculture, fishing, forestry or mining which helps in further processing of goods.
    4. Secondary activities: In the urban areas, there is many industries which helps in the production of goods and services.
    5. High level of tertiary production: The urban areas are made of people with high manpower skills for efficiency and effective production.

  35. REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    1: Population growth :in resent time ,the movement of people from urban to rural areas within the country[migration] is most significant. Although very significant comparing the movement of people within the country, international migration is also increasing.
    2:Economic growth: Expansion of economic base such as higher per capital income,increase in number survious of working person thereby creating demand for new housing or more housing space for individuals.
    3: industrialization: this implies that establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious saviors’ surface rapidly.
    4: Development and property tax: generally the cost involved in development community infrastructure and public services are higher in the country side rather than the core city .
    Characteristics of urban economic growth
    1: it increases industrial productivity
    2: transportation system development.
    3:it increases agricultural productivity.EZE CHIDIEBERE RITA;REG:2016/SD/36444

  36. Fagbemi Tope Vincent
    2014/sd/34196
    Rapid growth coming from increase of production, longs for further economic research for growth and change, which brings further growth. Shown underneath. 1. Growth Research + Development When the rate of production grows it raises the incomes, which then raises the demand for goods and services. <this makes markets grow and develop further. Seen below. 2. Growth Raises incomes Stimulates Markets Raises Demand When incomes rise, the growth for income-elastic industrial products grow faster. Therefore the demand for inelastic agricultural goods rise as well. This causes the production move from the farm to the factory. As people move from rural living to urban living, which brings up urbanisation. Causing breakdown of Traditional Values. 3. Growth Demand for Industrial Goods rather than Agricultural Breakdown of Traditional Values Industrialization & Urbanization All these characteristics are inter-dependant and self-reinforcing. Growth is an important target, since it enables development. Economic growth can create resources witch can reduce poverty. Economic growth raises the standard of living. All the facts above show us the characteristics of economic growth.

  37. EDUCATION/ECONOMICS

    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    1: Population growth :in resent time ,the movement of people from urban to rural areas within the country[migration] is most significant. Although very significant comparing the movement of people within the country, international migration is also increasing.
    2:Economic growth: Expansion of economic base such as higher per capital income,increase in number survious of working person thereby creating demand for new housing or more housing space for individuals.
    3: industrialization: this implies that establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious saviors’ surface rapidly.
    4: Development and property tax: generally the cost involved in development community infrastructure and public services are higher in the country side rather than the core city .
    Characteristics of urban economic growth
    1: it increases industrial productivity
    2: transportation system developmen

  38. EDUCATION/ECONOMICS

    Rapid growth coming from increase of production, longs for further economic research for growth and change, which brings further growth. Shown underneath. 1. Growth Research + Development When the rate of production grows it raises the incomes, which then raises the demand for goods and services. <this makes markets grow and develop further. Seen below. 2. Growth Raises incomes Stimulates Markets Raises Demand When incomes rise, the growth for income-elastic industrial products grow faster. Therefore the demand for inelastic agricultural goods rise as well. This causes the production move from the farm to the factory. As people move from rural living to urban living, which brings up urbanisation. Causing breakdown of Traditional Values. 3. Growth Demand for Industrial Goods rather than Agricultural Breakdown of Traditional Values Industrialization & Urbanization All these characteristics are inter-dependant and self-reinforcing. Growth is an important target, since it enables development. Economic growth can create resources witch can reduce poverty. Economic growth raises the standard of living. All the facts above show us the characteristics of economic growth.

  39. ONALO UFEDO EUNICE
    REG. NO: 2016/SD/36095
    REASONS FOR URBANISATION
    1. Sea change: Sea change has caused movement from suburbs and outer city areas towards coastal areas. This has led to a boost in real estate price, high-rise development, expansion in the tourism industry, and investments into retirement villas.
    2. Hill change: Hill change helps expand a city. It lures people towards the hills near by the city for more peaceful environment such as the Blue Mountains, or Adelaide Hills.
    3. Boom areas: Boom areas are where there is an increase in mining centers and industrial development.
    4. Raise in property and real estate in prime locations force some people to move out of the area into less expensive.
    5. Ugly ducklings, meaning the more run down buildings, after renovation, look more appealing, bridging more people towards those areas.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF AN URBAN AREA
    1. Urban society is thickly populated because of many people coming from rural areas and settle down there for better life.
    2. They are different cultural groups in the city: that is mixed culture people in the city are of different ethnic groups and culture.
    3. In the urban areas people are not much gracious to the guest because of their busy life.
    4. Urban people have formal ways of displaying their social lives.
    5. There are differences in dressing codes or outfits by the general public.

  40. CONCEPT OF URBAN GROWTH
    Urban growth is defined as the rate at which the population of an urban area increases. This result from urbanization which is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. Urban growth may lead to an increase in economic development of a country.

    CONCEPT OF ECONOMICS
    Urban economics is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance. More narrowly, it is a branch of microeconomics that studies urban spatial structure and the location of households and firms (Quigley 2008).
    THE BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    1. Market forces in the development of cities
    Market forces in the development of cities relates to how the location decision of firms and households causes the development of cities. The nature and behavior of markets depends somewhat on their locations therefore market performance partly depends on geography.(McCann 2001:1). If a firm locates in a geographically isolated region, their market performance will be different than a firm located in a concentrated region. The location decisions of both firms and households create cities that differ in size and economic structure. When industries cluster, like in the Silicon Valley in California, they create urban areas with dominant firms and distinct economies.
    2. Land use
    Looking at land use within metropolitan areas, the urban economist seeks to analyze the spatial organization of activities within cities. In attempts to explain observed patterns of land use, the urban economist examines the intra-city location choices of firms and households. Considering the spatial organization of activities within cities, urban economics addresses questions in terms of what determines the price of land and why those prices vary across space, the economic forces that caused the spread of employment from the central core of cities outward, identifying land-use controls, such as zoning, and interpreting how such controls affect the urban economy (O'Sullivan 2003:14).

    3. Economic policy
    Economic policy is often implemented at the urban level thus economic policy is often tied to urban policy (McCann 2001:3). Urban problems and public policy tie into urban economics as the theme relates urban problems, such as poverty or crime, to economics by seeking to answer questions with economic guidance. For example, does the tendency for the poor to live close to one another make them even poorer? (O'Sullivan 2003:15).

    4. Transportation and economics
    Urban transportation is a theme of urban economics because it affects land-use patterns as transportation affects the relative accessibility of different sites. Issues that tie urban transportation to urban economics include the deficit that most transit authorities have, and efficiency questions about proposed transportation developments such as light-rail (O'Sullivan 2003:14). Megaprojects such as this have been shown to be synonymous with unexpected costs and questionable benefits.[1]

    5. Housing and public policy
    Housing and public policy relate to urban economics as housing is a unique type of commodity. Because housing is immobile, when a household chooses a dwelling, it is also choosing a location. Urban economists analyze the location choices of households in conjunction with the market effects of housing policies (O'Sullivan 2003:15). In analyzing housing policies, we make use of market structures e.g., perfect market structure. There are however problems encountered in making this analysis such as funding, uncertainty, space, etc.

    6. Government expenditures and taxes
    The final theme of local government expenditures and taxes relates to urban economics as it analyzes the efficiency of the fragmented local governments presiding in metropolitan areas (O'Sullivan 2003:15).

  41. Urban economics seeks is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing and local government finance. more narrowly, it is a branch of microeconomics that studies urban spatial structure and the the location of households and firms (Quigley 2008).
    The following are some basic reasons for urban economic growth;
    1.Industrialization: establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious surfaces rapidly. Industry requires providing housing facilities to it's workers in a large a rear that generally becomes larger than the industry itself.
    2. Land hunger attitude:- many institutions and even individual desire for the ownership of land. As a result the city grows outward leaving the underdeveloped land with the city.
    3.Population growth: Rapid growth of urban areas is the result of two growth factors (a) natural increase in population (b)migration to urban areas.
    4.Economic growth: Expansion to economic base (such as higher per capital income, increase in number of working persons) city creates demand for new housing or more housing space for individuals. This also encourages many developers for rapid construction of new houses and other urban infrastructures .
    5.public regulation:Generally outside the main city is lesser controlled and loosely regulated. As a result, many developers and individuals find these places more suitable for new construction.
    6.Transportation:Transportation routes open the access of city to the country side and responsible for linear branch development. The construction of express ways and higher ways cause both congestion in the city and rapid outgrowth (Harvey and Clark 1965).
    7. Credit and capital market: credit and loan facility, low interest rate etc.are also responsible for rapid urban growth in advance. In this sense people can buy more home before achieving the financial capability. Therefore, the growth will occur in advance than actually supposed to be.
    Urban transportation is a theme of urban economics because it affects land-use patterns as transportation affects the relative accessibility of different sites. Issues that tie urban transportation to urban economics include the deficit that most transit authorities have, and efficiency questions about proposed transportation developments such as light-rail. Megaprojects such as this have been shown to be synonymous with unexpected costs and questionable benefits.

  42. Cities have been around for thousands of years. Have you thought about how cities were formed? After the Neolithic Revolution, people shifted from a nomadic lifestyle of hunting and gathering to a lifestyle of farming and settlement. Oftentimes, people gathered around water sources, such as rivers and lakes, and built non-nomadic or permanent settlements. Gradually, these settlements expanded, and small cities formed. Densely populated settlements emerged, along with the specialization and division of labor among people living in the city. Trade, bartering, or other forms of economic exchange also took place. Architecture, centralized administrations, and political structures also all became part of a city. A city is complex and encompasses all these different meanings. Two hundred years ago, the only city that had more than one million people was Beijing, China. But today, there are more than 500 cities with over a million people. This was due to the Industrial Revolution, which contributed to the development of faster means of transportation and communication methods. This ability for people, resources, and information to move around rapidly allows cities to exist.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    What constitutes growth may be considered a matter of degree and will always be somewhat subjective under many definitions of the term. Ewing has also argued that suburban development does not, per se constitute sprawl depending on the form it takes, although Gordon & Richardson have argued that the term is sometimes used synonymously with suburbanization in a pejorative way. The following characteristics are often associated with growth:
    Job growth and spatial mismatch
    Job sprawl is another land use symptom of urban sprawl and car-dependent communities. It is defined as low-density, geographically spread-out patterns of employment, where the majority of jobs in a given metropolitan area are located outside of the main city's central business district (CBD), and increasingly in the suburban periphery.
    Housing subdivisions
    Housing subdivisions are large tracts of land consisting entirely of newly built residences. New Urbanist architectural firm Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company claim that housing subdivisions "are sometimes called villages, towns, and neighbourhoods by their developers, which is misleading since those terms denote places that are not exclusively residential. They are also referred to as developments.
    Lawn
    Because the advent of sprawl meant more land for lower costs, home owners had more land at their disposal, and the development of the residential lawn after the Second World War became commonplace in suburbs, notably, but not exclusively in North America.
    Conversion of agricultural land to urban use
    Land for sprawl is often taken from fertile agricultural lands, which are often located immediately surrounding cities; the extent of modern sprawl has consumed a large amount of the most productive agricultural land, as well as forest, desert and other wilderness areas.

  43. Urban Economic growth is the increase in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. It can be measured in normal or real terms, the latter of while is adjusted for inflation. Economic growth is the increase in the inflation –adjusted market valve of the good and services produce by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product or real GDP. Measurement of economic growth uses national income accounting.
    THE BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH.
    (1) Rapid growth coming from increase of production, longs for further economic research for growth and change, which brings further growth
    (2) Growth Research, development is when the rate of production grows; it raises the incomes, which then raises the demand for goods and services.
    (3) Growth Raises incomes Stimulates Markets Raises Demand When incomes rise, the growth for income-elastic industrial products grow faster. This causes the production move from the farm to the factory.
    (4) As people move from rural living to urban living, which brings up urbanization.
    (5) Growth Demand for Industrial Goods rather than Agricultural Breakdown of Traditional Values Industrialization & Urbanization All these characteristics are inter-dependant and self-reinforcing. Growth is an important target, since it enables development. Economic growth can create resources which can reduce poverty. Economic growth raises the standard of living economic growth. .

  44. ENEMADUKU ADUKU
    2014/SD/33464
    ASSIGNMENT 11
    BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The Reasons for urban Economic growth are quite similar with those of sprawl. In most of the instances they cannot be discriminated since urban growth and sprawl are highly interlinked. However, it is important to realize that urban growth may be observed without the occurrence of sprawl. The reasons are
    The first and foremost reason of urban growth is increase in urban population. Rapid growth of urban areas is the result of two population growth factors: (1) natural increase in population, and (2) migration to urban areas. Natural population growth results from excess of births over deaths. Migration is defined as the long-term relocation of an individual, household or group to a new location outside the community of origin. In the recent time, the movement of people from rural to urban areas within the country (internal migration) is most significant.
    Industrialisation
    Establishment of new industries in countryside increases impervious surfaces rapidly. Industry requires providing housing facilities to its workers in a large area that generally becomes larger than the industry itself.. Single-storey, low-density industrial parks surrounded by large parking lots are one of the main reasons of sprawl.
    Development and Property Tax
    Generally, the costs involved in development of community-infrastructure and public services are higher in the countryside rather than the core city .The maintenance costs of public services are also higher in the countryside.
    Therefore, the development and property tax should be higher at the periphery of the city.
    Living and Property Cost
    Generally living cost and property cost is higher in the main city area than the countryside. This encourages countryside development. Harvey and Clark (1965) say ‘at the time of sprawl occurred, the cost was not prohibitive to the settler, (rather) it provided a housing opportunity economically satisfactory relative to other alternatives’.
    Credit and Capital Market
    Credit and loan facility, low interest rate, etc. are also responsible for rapid urban growth in advance. In this sense, people can buy homes before achieving the financial capability.
    Various characteristics of urban growth or urbanization
    Economic Development
    The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development. Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    Industrialization and Density
    An urban settlement is not just characterized by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.
    Secondary activities and urban growth:
    The most conspicuous examples of urbanization directly as a result of secondary activity are Durgapur, Bhilai and Rourkela. Jamshedpur also had its beginnings as an industrial township in 1912. There is no doubt that secondary urbanization has made a strong impression on the Indian landscape.
    Primary production and urban growth:
    Primary production has to do with agriculture, fishing, forestry and mining. It is well-known that, particularly since AD 1850, a large number of mining towns have emerged in India. The entire coal region of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa has a number of, mining towns; the chief among which are Jharia, Ranigani, Keonjhar and Asansol. Unlike mining, fishing and forestry have not generated many urban places in India.

  45. AMEH GABRIEL-2014/SD/33987
    ASSIGNMENT 11
    BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The Reasons for urban Economic growth are quite similar with those of sprawl. In most of the instances they cannot be discriminated since urban growth and sprawl are highly interlinked. However, it is important to realize that urban growth may be observed without the occurrence of sprawl. The reasons are;
    The first and foremost reason of urban growth is increase in urban population as a result of rural to Urban Migration,
    NATURAL POPULATION GROWTH
    Natural population growth results from excess of births over deaths. Migration is defined as the long-term relocation of an individual, household or group to a new location outside the community of origin. In the recent time, the movement of people from rural to urban areas within the country (internal migration) is most significant.
    INCREASE IN INDUSTRIES.
    Establishment of new industries in countryside increases impervious surfaces rapidly. Industry requires providing housing facilities to its workers in a large area that generally becomes larger than the industry itself. The transition process from agricultural to industrial employment demands more urban housing. Single-storey, low-density industrial parks surrounded by large parking lots are one of the main reasons of sprawl.
    INFLATED INFRASTRUCTURE AND PUBLIC SERVICE COSTS
    Sprawl is usually accepted as being inordinately costly to its occupants and to society (Harvey and Clark 1965). Sprawl is blamed due to its environmental cost and economic cost (Buiton 1994). Cities have experienced an increase in demand for public services and for the maintenance and improvement of urban infrastructures (Barnes et al. 2001) such as fire-service stations, police stations, schools, hospitals, roads, water mains, and sewers in the countryside.
    LARGE LOT SIZE
    Large lot (or plot) size is another reason of sprawl. Large-lot residents utilise a portion of their land for construction purposes leaving other portions as non-developed Although this problem is mainly associated with developed countries; however, also in the developing countries, residents in the countryside generally prefer to have a large individual lot.

    Features of urban growth or urbanization
    Development
    The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development. Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    Industrialization
    An urban settlement is not just characterized by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.
    Economic Activities
    The most conspicuous examples of urbanization directly as a result of secondary activity are Durgapur, Bhilai and Rourkela. Jamshedpur also had its beginnings as an industrial township in 1912. There is no doubt that secondary urbanization has made a strong impression on the Indian landscape.

  46. Nwoko Veronica – 2014/SD/33446
    ASSIGNMENT 11
    The reasons for Urban Economic Growth are;
    Country-Living Desire
    Residents of countryside are often former urbanites who desire the solitude and perceived amenities of country-living as rural retreats.
    Government Developmental Policies
    Restrictive land-use policies in one political jurisdiction may lead development to ‘jump’ to one that is favourably disposed toward development or is less able to prevent or control it (Barnes et al. 2001).
    Nucleus Family
    Commonly, percapita consumption of carpet area in nucleus family is higher than the joint family. For example, a common dining space is shared by all the family members in a joint family. Transition from joint family to nucleus family also creates demand of new housing for individuals.term relocation of an individual, household or group to a new location outside the community of origin. In the recent time, the movement of people from rural to urban areas within the country (internal migration) is most significant.
    Industrialisation
    Establishment of new industries in countryside increases impervious surfaces rapidly. Industry requires providing housing facilities to its workers in a large area that generally becomes larger than the industry itself. The transition process from agricultural to industrial employment demands more urban housing. Single-storey, low-density industrial parks surrounded by large parking lots are one of the main reasons of sprawl.
    Characteristics of urban Economic growth or urbanization
    Housing Investment
    Often urbanites purchase second homes in the countryside as future investments (Barnes et al. 2001). This encourages the developers for construction at the countryside in advance. These homes often left vacant but the government is forced to maintain urban facilities and services in a low-density area. Low interest rate and high housing demand make the countryside-housing investment more attractive.
    Impacts on Wildlife and Ecosystem
    In areas where sprawl is not controlled, the concentration of human presence in residential and industrial settings may lead to an alteration of ecosystems patterns and processes (Grimm et al. 2000). Development associated with sprawl not only decreases the amount of forest area (Macie and Moll 1989; MacDonald and Rudel 2005), farmland (Harvey and Clark 1965).
    Impacts on Public and Social Health
    One of the original motivations for migration to the suburbs was access to nature. People generally prefer to live with trees, birds, and flowers; and these are more accessible in the suburbs than in denser urban areas. Moreover, contact with nature may offer benefits beyond the purely aesthetic; it may benefit both mental and physical health. In addition, the sense of escaping from the turmoil of urban life to the suburbs, the feeling of peaceful refuge, may be soothing and restorative to some people. However, sprawl is generally blamed for its negative impacts on public health (refer Frumkin 2002; Savitch 2003; Yanos 2007; Sturm and Cohen 2004).
    Development and Property Tax
    Generally, the costs involved in development of community-infrastructure and public services are higher in the countryside rather than the core city The maintenance costs of public services are also higher in the countryside. Therefore, the development and property tax should be higher at the periphery of the city. However, generally these taxes are independent of location and even in many instances these taxes are lower in the periphery comparing the core city. The problem is that local tax systems usually require developers to pay only a fraction of the community-infrastructure and public-service costs associated with their projects, which makes development look artificially cheap and encourages urban expansion (Brueckner and Kim 2003).

  47. Rapid growth coming from increase of production, longs for further economic research for growth and change, which brings further growth. Growth Research, development is when the rate of production grows; it raises the incomes, which then raises the demand for goods and services. This makes markets grow and develop further. Growth Raises incomes Stimulates Markets Raises Demand When incomes rise, the growth for income-elastic industrial products grow faster.
    Much urban economic analysis relies on a particular model of urban spatial structure/ the mono centric city model pioneered in the igbos by willian Alonso, ricllard muth, edmin mill.
    While most other form of neoclassical economics do not allow for spatial relationship between individuals organization. Urban economics focuses on these spatial relationships to understand the economic motivations underlying the formation functioning and development of city. Taking to consideration two source of bias that more productive cities attract more workers and that more productive worker are self selected into bigger cities? This affect shrinks.
    Big cities in developing countries act as centers of innovation but fail to products to secondary. Specialized cites as is the case in advanced economies.
    The economic gains from urbanization should be embraced rather than resisted. Cities offer but productivity and longer term benefits in the form of more worker learner.

    NAME: EZEMA LAWRETTA OZOEMENA
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36396
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

  48. NAME: UGWU, LOVINA NKEIRUKA
    REG. NO: 2013/SD/32794
    YEAR OF STUDY: 5/5
    COURSE TITLE & CODE: URBAN AND REGIONAL ECONOMICS (ECO 261)
    CLEAR DISCUSS THE BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The basic reasons of urban economic growth are as follows:
    First and foremost I have to start with the definition of economic growth before proceeding to the reasons and characteristics of urban economic growth.
    Economic growth is defined as an increase in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. It can be measured in nominal or real terms, the latter of which is adjusted for inflation.
    Traditionally, aggregate economic growth is measured in terms of Gross National Product (GNP), although alternative metrics are sometime used. In the simplest term it is referred to as an increase in aggregate productivity.
    The basic reasons of urban economic growth are as follows:
    1. Higher per capital income: This is one of the basic reasons for urban economic growth because when income per capital is higher it encourages many developers for rapid construction of new houses. Rapid development of housing and other urban infrastructure often produces a variety of discontinuous uncorrelated developments.
    2. Increase in number of working persons: This is because when there is increase in the number of working population or persons it will lead to growth in economy of part or nation because the worker gets money in how he will invest the on some economic activities that will about growth of economy.
    3. Industrialization: The establishment increase of new industries in country side increases impervious surfaces rapidly. This is because industry requires providing housing facilities to its workers in a large area that generally becomes larger then industry itself. The transition process from agricultural to industrial employment demands more urban housing.
    4. Credit and capital market: Credit and loan facility, low interest rate, etc are also responsible for rapid urban growth in advance. In this sense, people can buy homes before achieving the financial capability. Therefore, the growth will occur in advance then actually supposed to be.
    5. Housing investment: Purchasing of second homes in the country side as future investments. The homes often left vacant but the government is force to maintain urban facilities and services in a low-density area. Low interest rate and high housing demand make the country side-housing investment more attractive.
    6. High level of competitive enterprises: As there is competition(s) among enterprises all the owners of the businesses will be trying to invest more in his/her business to ensure continuity of the business and this will lead to the an increase in urban economic growth.
    7. Technology: The level of technology in an area (urban) determines how the particular place will grow economically and otherwise. When the level of technology is high it will lead to increase in the urban economic growth and vice versa.
    Characteristics of urban economic growth
    1. Economic growth results in the shift in demand and there to the reallocation of resources-land, labour and capital out agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    2. There is already availability of inputs like skilled labour repair services, etc. from which profit is earned by producer.
    3. There is increase in the standard of living of the people.
    4. Dense population; this means that since there is economic growth in such area, the attention of the people will be drawn and it bring about rapid increase in the population of the residence.
    5. There is efficiency in production, this means efficiency in production process because of the availability of infrastructure materials and industries.
    6. It brings about employment opportunities as a result of industries and other employable organizations. To mention but a few.

  49. Ezeme Ann. U
    2014/sd/33550
    The following are characteristics of urban economic growth
    High rates of growth per capita output and population.
    Historically the now developed countries experienced annual growth rates over the past 200 years averaged almost 2% for per capita output and 1% for population. Thus, it would take roughly 36 years for the per capita output to double. note that East Asia & Pacific was growing at a rate above 5% for the entire period. If the region continue to grows at a rate of at least 5% per year then the per capita ouput will double every 14.2 years!
    High rates of increase in total factor of productivity (TFP); the ouput per unit of all inputs.
    We could visualize this as given the same resources the PPF shifts outward.
    Historically, technology progress, including the upgrading of existing physical (K) and human resources (H) accounts for most the measured increased in per capita GNP. Also see Harrod-Domar Growth Model.

    High rates of structural transformation of the economy.
    Shifts from agriculture to manufacturing and then from manufacturing to services. Note that as the country becomes more economically developed, the contribution of services to GDP also increases. Although South Korea and Germany had industry sector that contributed 43% and 55% of their respective GDPs in 1998.
    The agricultural labor force in US, Japan, Germany, Belgium, and UK experienced a drop of 40 to 50 points in 100 years. In 1990, High-Income countries had only 6% of total work force in agriculture. The figure for Low-income countries for th

  50. Obijaka Uche Chidiogo
    2014/sd/33746
    Rationality – usually implies the substitution of modern methods of thinking, acting, production, distributing, and consuming for age-old, traditional practices. Policies must be logically rooted as deeply as possible in knowledge of relevant facts.
    Economic planning – the search for coordinated ways of allocation of scarce resources to accelerate economic growth. This may include export promotion, directed credits or subsidies, and selective promotion (strategic trade theory by Thurow). However, other successful countries like Hong Kong has relatively little market intervention, thus intervention is not a necessary condition to growth.
    Social and economic equality: The promotion of social and economic equality in status, opportunity, wealth, incomes and levels of living. This could be done through promoting universal primary education, paying special attention to the education of and access to health care for female children, promoting technocrats who are free from corruption, and guaranteeing equality of opportunity for all citizens. Note that promotion of education and access to health care especially for female children promote the accumulation of human capital. Children of educated mothers also stand a better chance of accumulating human capital and access better health care.

  51. Ozoaniako Loveth. O
    2014/sd/33787
    Improved institutions and attitudes : increase labor efficiency and diligence (through training, use of technology, and rewards), promote effective competition, social and economic mobility (to prevent elitism so that capable individuals have better incentive to contribute productively to economic activities), and individual enterprise. Abolish outmoded land tenure systems that usually prevent tenure farmers from making a decent living. According tothe Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1.35% of landowners in Latin America hold 71.6% of the entire area of land under cultivation. Attitudes may also need to be adjusted to ideals of efficiency, diligence, orderliness, punctuality, fugality (savings and investment are important components of growth; see Harrod-Domar Model and Rostow's Stages of Growth), rationality, change orientation, integrity, self-reliance, co-operation, and willingness to take long view (crucial for long term investment and preservation of our environment). These attitude adjustments by themselves may not lead to growth but would facilitate trade and set-up pre-conditions for economic growth.

  52. UGWUEZE JOSEPH IGWEBUIKE
    2014>SD>33796
    EDU/ECONOMICS
    4>5

    VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN GROWTH OR URBANIZATION:
    A. Economic Development
    • The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development.
    • Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    B. Industrialization and Density
    • An urban settlement is not just characterized by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.
    • Also, there are ready availability of inputs like skilled labor, repair services etc. from which profit is earned by producer. People like to live near places of work.
    • Economies of scale and cost of transportation cause concentration of production and people in a specific location.
    • Industrialization leads to urbanization but not vice versa.
    • The bigger cities have one advantage. Most businesses are subject to fluctuations. In big cities, one may switch from one employer to another in case of need or any other reason since there is a wide choice. In that way, a wage laborer is better off in migrating to a big city rather than a small city, where (big city) he is likely to be more fully employed. All these factors increase the density of population in the cities.

  53. Clear discuss the basic reason and characteristics of urban economics growth

    Urban economics growth ensured:
    Effective and co-ordinate ensured planning and managing our economic growth and successful integration of resources economics development planned.
    Integrating the agenda in planned and developmental strategies across all level of government from national to the local government.
    Mobilizing all resources towards achieving the goals ensured that the goals are well publicized in order for citizens to take own ship and ensure participation.
    Progress in an economy or the qualitative measure of these economics development usually refers to the adoption of new technologies transition from agriculture based toy industry based economy and generally improvement in living stands.
    Literacy: the increase inequality of human resources development that will play essential role in improving the lives of individuals by enabling economic security and good health and enrich societies by building human capital.
    Life expectancy: the increase in managing infections disease, maintain roads, and other facilities, agriculture produce for a good standard of living.

    NAME: NWAGBALAHIA MARY
    REG NO: 2016/SD/36395
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

  54. NAME: GABRIEL MARTHA
    REG NO: 2014/SD/33642
    YEAR: 4/5
    the reason for urban economic growth are as follows having the definition to be that economic growth is the amount of goods and services produced per head of the population over a period a time.it can also be seen as the capacity of an economy to produced good and service compared from period to another. (i)For employment opportunity;
    (i) population pressure.: the high number of people in the urban environment is a great reason for the urban economic soul.
    ( ii) Decrease of death rate and growing birth rate: good hospitals in the urban areas and good and healthy lifes makes it possible for people to live long and thus make more people to be in the urban area causing its growth
    (iii) Social mobility and fortune: because of the social mobility and good fortunes, people migrate to urban areas adding to its growth.
    (iv) For better standard of living : people seek for better standard of living and therefore moves to the urban area for what they seek and there fore adding to the economic growth
    (v) For growing industries: there are many industries in urban areas and still are growing ones there too and this makes increases urban growth rapidly.
    The characteristics of urban economy growth are as follows
    (1) City planning focused only on legitimate area :there is the focusing of city planning in either a state capital or developing area.
    (2) It occurred as a result of rural push: people migrate from rural to urban areas and this makes urban development growth possible
    (3) Increase in unemployment, exploitation, degradation of equality of life: there is increase ion unemployment rate as almost every youth come from rural areas to urban areas in search of a greener pasture.
    (4) High population growth rate : there is the high growth of population because of the way people migrate to the areas.

  55. EZE DORATHY NNEKA
    REG NO 2014/SD/33645

    COURSE TITLE & CODE: URBAN AND REGIONAL ECONOMICS (ECO 261)
    CLEAR DISCUSS THE BASIC REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Urban growth is defined as the rate at which the population of an urban area increases. This result from urbanization which is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. Urban growth may lead to an increase in economic development of a country. Urban growth is also referred as the expansion of a metropolitan or suburban area into the surrounding environment. It can be considered as an indicator of the state of a country’s economic condition as the effect of urban growth directly impacts the country’s economic development. The more the urban area grows, the more employment it generates and in this way economic growth also takes place.
    Various characteristics of urban growth or urbanization:
    1. Economic Development
    The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development.
    Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    2. Industrialization and Density
    An urban settlement is not just characterized by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.
    3. Industrialization leads to urbanization but not vice versa.
    The bigger cities have one advantage. Most businesses are subject to fluctuations. In big cities, one may switch from one employer to another in case of need or any other reason since there is a wide choice. In that way, a wage laborer is better off in migrating to a big city rather than a small city, where (big city) he is likely to be more fully employed. All these factors increase the density of population in the cities.
    Hence, the level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development, as economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.

  56. NAME: ASADU UCHECHUKWU .M.
    REG NO: 2014/SD/34013
    YEAR: 4/5
    Growth In Urban Economic Is the process whereby population move from rural to urban ares enabling cities and towns to grow. These include social and economic advantages such as better Education, Health care, Sanitation, housing and business opportunities.

    REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH :
    The reasons are as follows:
    * Sea change has caused movement from suburbs and outer-city areas towards coastal areas. This has led to a boost in real estate price, high rise development, expansion in the investments into retirement villas
    * Agriculture self-sufficiency the most primitive of organizations in modern society.
    * Development of transportation and infrastructure like roads, bridges, school, public hospitals, and school links outer suburbs with the city, slowly expanding the urban areas.

    CHARACTERISTIC OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The characteristics are as follows:
    * Transportation cause contribution of production and people in a specific location
    * Agriculture and productivity. Like increase in mechanization and industrialization, water, labour etc
    * Economic development like land, labour, and capital. Demand and therefore to a relocation of resources land, labour, and capital out of agriculture into manufacturing and services

  57. Ugwu Chinasa Cecilia
    2016/SD/36061
    REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The level of urban growth is regarded as an index of economic development . Therefore economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resource-land, labour and capital out of agriculture into manufacturing and services. This simply means the migration of rural people to the urban areas.
    Urban growth leads to employment opportunities: In big cities, one may switch from one employer to another in case of need or any other reason since there is a wide choice. In that way, a wage labourer is better off in migrating to a big city rather than a small city, where he is likely to be more fully employed.

    Ugwu Chinasa Cecilia
    2016/SD/36061
    REASONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The level of urban growth is regarded as an index of economic development . Therefore economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resource-land, labour and capital out of agriculture into manufacturing and services. This simply means the migration of rural people to the urban areas.
    Urban growth leads to employment opportunities: In big cities, one may switch from one employer to another in case of need or any other reason since there is a wide choice. In that way, a wage labourer is better off in migrating to a big city rather than a small city, where he is likely to be more fully employed.

  58. Akpa Ogbonnaya
    2014/sd/34209
    The following are reasons and some characteristics of urban economic growth While urbanisation per se is not causally related to economic growth, there is evidence that the form that urbanisation takes – the degree of urban concentration – has a strong causal effect on growth (Henderson 2000, Henderson 2003). Primacy, (the portion of the urban population living in the largest city), or urban concentration, (the proportion of urban dwellers living in large cities), have been found to have an important impact on economic growth. Very small and very large cities tend to have lower economic growth rates than average sized cities in the OECD (OECD 2009). A high degree of urban concentration is more important in the early stages of development, since this allows the economy to save on economic infrastructure and managerial resources, which may be in short supply (Henderson 2003).

  59. EUgwu Benedette. C
    2014/sd/34208
    Characteristics of urban economic growth.
    Improved institutions and attitudes : increase labor efficiency and diligence (through training, use of technology, and rewards), promote effective competition, social and economic mobility (to prevent elitism so that capable individuals have better incentive to contribute productively to economic activities), and individual enterprise. Abolish outmoded land tenure systems that usually prevent tenure farmers from making a decent living. According tothe Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1.35% of landowners in Latin America hold 71.6% of the entire area of land under cultivation. Attitudes may also need to be adjusted to ideals of efficiency, diligence, orderliness, punctuality, fugality (savings and investment are important components of growth; see Harrod-Domar Model and Rostow's Stages of Growth), rationality, change orientation, integrity, self-reliance, co-operation, and willingness to take long view (crucial for long term investment and preservation of our environment). These attitude adjustments by themselves may not lead to growth but would facilitate trade and set-up pre-conditions for economic growth.

  60. Obijaka Uche Chidiogo
    2014/sd/33749
    Rationality – usually implies the substitution of modern methods of thinking, acting, production, distributing, and consuming for age-old, traditional practices. Policies must be logically rooted as deeply as possible in knowledge of relevant facts.
    Economic planning – the search for coordinated ways of allocation of scarce resources to accelerate economic growth. This may include export promotion, directed credits or subsidies, and selective promotion (strategic trade theory by Thurow). However, other successful countries like Hong Kong has relatively little market intervention, thus intervention is not a necessary condition to growth.
    Social and economic equality: The promotion of social and economic equality in status, opportunity, wealth, incomes and levels of living. This could be done through promoting universal primary education, paying special attention to the education of and access to health care for female children, promoting technocrats who are free from corruption, and guaranteeing equality of opportunity for all citizens. Note that promotion of education and access to health care especially for female children promote the accumulation of human capital. Children of educated mothers also stand a better chance of accumulating human capital and access better health care.

  61. Ezeleke Celestine.O.
    2014/sd/33693

    Urban growth is defined as the rate at which the population of an urban area increases. This result from urbanization which is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. Urban growth may lead to an increase in economic development of a country. Urban growth is also referred as the expansion of a metropolitan or suburban area into the surrounding environment. It can be considered as an indicator of the state of a country’s economic condition as the effect of urban growth directly impacts the country’s economic development. The more the urban area grows, the more employment it generates and in this way economic growth also takes place.
    Various characteristics of urban growth or urbanization:
    1. Economic Development
    The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development.
    Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    2. Industrialization and Density
    An urban settlement is not just characterized by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.
    3. Industrialization leads to urbanization but not vice versa.
    The bigger cities have one advantage. Most businesses are subject to fluctuations. In big cities, one may switch from one employer to another in case of need or any other reason since there is a wide choice. In that way, a wage laborer is better off in migrating to a big city rather than a small city, where (big city) he is likely to be more fully employed. All these factors increase the density of population in the cities.
    Hence, the level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development, as economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.

  62. UGWU ANGELA A

    the reason for urban economic growth are as follows having the definition to be that economic growth is the amount of goods and services produced per head of the population over a period a time.it can also be seen as the capacity of an economy to produced good and service compared from period to another. (i)For employment opportunity;
    (i) population pressure.: the high number of people in the urban environment is a great reason for the urban economic soul.
    ( ii) Decrease of death rate and growing birth rate: good hospitals in the urban areas and good and healthy lifes makes it possible for people to live long and thus make more people to be in the urban area causing its growth
    (iii) Social mobility and fortune: because of the social mobility and good fortunes, people migrate to urban areas adding to its growth.
    (iv) For better standard of living : people seek for better standard of living and therefore moves to the urban area for what they seek and there fore adding to the economic growth
    (v) For growing industries: there are many industries in urban areas and still are growing ones there too and this makes increases urban growth rapidly.
    The characteristics of urban economy growth are as follows
    (1) City planning focused only on legitimate area :there is the focusing of city planning in either a state capital or developing area.
    (2) It occurred as a result of rural push: people migrate from rural to urban areas and this makes urban development growth possible
    (3) Increase in unemployment, exploitation, degradation of equality of life: there is increase ion unemployment rate as almost every youth come from rural areas to urban areas in search of a greener pasture.
    (4) High population growth rate : there is the high growth of population because of the way people migrate to the areas.

    UGWU ANGELA A
    2O16/SD/36905

  63. THREE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC
    1. A framework for growth: Peoples moving to cities have a vision and follow it through with a framework to develop in an orderly manner. A framework is not about centralized command and control but a way to anticipate needs, coordinate efforts, and draw a path to a horizon that is collectively held. Major efforts to enhance livability, prosperity and equity have taken place in a number of well known cities. Such transformational impact is not a product of spontaneity, instead of constructive planning.
    2. Physical Capital: An increased investment in physical capital such as factories, machinery and roads will lower the cost of economic activity. Better factories and machinery are more productive than physical labour. This can increase output.
    3. A planned city is a well prepared city: Anticipating the future allows us to be better prepared today. By staying ahead of challenges, city leaders are ready to see opportunities and manage risks from a vantage point. With reliable information on the current situation, they will be able to make connections between the long-term vision and short term actions. On the other hand, cities that don’t actively plan for their future will likely be left behind. An increase in investment in human capital can improve the quality of the labour force. Cities are perceived as places where one could have a better life; because of better opportunities, higher salaries, better services, and better lifestyles. As a result, there is a massive movement of people from rural to urban areas within the country. When these labour forces are empowered, there will be economic growth because skilled labour force has a significant effect on growth.
    From:
    Ome Anthonia Ijeoma
    Reg.No: 2016/SD/36576
    Department of Education Economics
    5 September 2017 at 12:37

  64. NAME: EZE LYDIA OLUCHI
    REG NO: 2015/SD/34588
    THERE ARE MANY REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH ARE THE REASONS ARE FOLLOWS
    • A lack of employment opportunities in the countryside. Overpopulation and poor crop yields are all push factors – why people leave the countryside.
    • Better paid jobs in the cities, an expected higher standard of living, and more reliable food are all pull factors – why people are attracted to the city.
    • People who migrate to towns and cities tend to be young and so have higher birth rates in that age range.
    The characteristics of urban economic growth are
    • Availability of government institutions: government institution makes people to come and settle in urban areas
    • commercialized activities :many commercialized activities do bring people from rural areas to the urban area to enjoy this commercial activities
    • sufficiency in some family needs: because of works in the urban area there is sufficiency in what people need especially in family: which is a vice versa case in the rural areas

  65. NAME: UGWU GLORIA .O.
    REG NO: 2015/SD/34302
    THE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH
    THERE ARE VARIOUS REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THEY ARE AS FOLLOWS:
    1: Population growth :in resent time ,the movement of people from urban to rural areas within the country[migration] is most significant. Although very significant comparing the movement of people within the country, international migration is also increasing.
    2:Economic growth: Expansion of economic base such as higher per capital income,increase in number survious of working person thereby creating demand for new housing or more housing space for individuals.
    3: industrialization: this implies that establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious saviors’ surface rapidly.
    4: Development and property tax: generally the cost involved in development community infrastructure and public services are higher in the country side rather than the core city .
    Characteristics of urban economic growth
    1: it increases industrial productivity
    2: transportation system development.
    3:it increases agricultural productivity

  66. THREE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC
    1. A framework for growth
    Thriving cities have a vision and follow it through with a framework to develop in an orderly manner. A framework is not about centralized command and control but a way to anticipate needs, coordinate efforts, and draw a path to a horizon that is collectively held. Major efforts to enhance livability, prosperity and equity have taken place in a number of well known cities. Such transformational impact is not a product of spontaneity, instead of constructive planning.
    2. A planned city is a well prepared city
    Anticipating the future allows us to be better prepared today. By staying ahead of challenges, city leaders are ready to see opportunities and manage risks from a vantage point. With reliable information on the current situation, they will be able to make connections between the long-term vision and short term actions. On the other hand, cities that don’t actively plan for their future will likely be left behind.
    3. Planning improves impact
    Local leaders are elected and appointed to deliver improvement. Given the magnitude of the challenges cities face, it is unlikely that all desired improvements will happen at once. Successful cities build momentum by undertaking priority projects that are aligned with the vision. Planning identifies pressing issues and available resources and makes sure that initiatives are not redundant or going in different directions.
    from:
    Ugwu Nkechinyere Jamine
    2016/SD/36669

  67. SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN URGAN EDONOMICS AND OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES
    Urban economics is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance. More narrowly, it is a branch of microeconomics that studies urban spatial structure and the location of households and firms. Social sciences in other hand are academic disciplines that examine society and how people interact and develop as a culture. With the above assertion one can see that urban Economics and social science explanation are moving in the same direction or discuss almost the same thing. Again urban economics is a sub-subject of social sciences.
    from:
    Ugwu Nkechinyere Jamine
    2016/SD/36669

  68. THREE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC
    1. A planned city is a well prepared city: Anticipating the future allows us to be better prepared today. By staying ahead of challenges, city leaders are ready to see opportunities and manage risks from a vantage point. With reliable information on the current situation, they will be able to make connections between the long-term vision and short term actions. On the other hand, cities that don’t actively plan for their future will likely be left behind.
    2. Human Capital: through urban economics, an increase in investment in human capital can improve the quality of the labour force. Urban areas are perceived as places where one could have a better life; because of better opportunities, higher salaries, better services, and better lifestyles. As a result, there is a massive movement of people from rural to urban areas within the country.
    3. Technology: An influential factor for urban economic growth is the improvement of technology. This could increase productivity with the same levels of labour, thus accelerating growth and development. It is generally assumed that the technological advancement is even more important than capital formation. But the capital formation alone can bring out economic development to a limited extent and the progress stops if there is no technological change. A country cannot remain dependent on the import of technology. A nation that spends more on science and technical research will tend to grow faster than another country accumulating more capital but spending less on technological.
    Nechi Paulina Ebere
    reg. No. 2016/SD/36090
    Education/economics

  69. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN URBAN ECONOMICS AND OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCE
    Urban economics is the economic study of urban areas; comprising the use tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance, there is still the need to embrace the study of social environment in order to effective harness and manage these urban resources well for mans’ maximum utilization. Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a "social science". The social sciences include economics, political science, human geography, demography, psychology, sociology, anthropology, archaeology, jurisprudence, history, and linguistics. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century.they are related in the sense that urban economics and other social sciences all have in common the aim of studying the society, although urban economics studies a subset of the society which is the urban settlements.
    from
    Nnechi Paulina Ebere
    2016/SD/36090

  70. NAME: NKWOCHA EBERE JOY
    REEG NO: 2016/SD/36103

    Characters and reason of urban economic growth are as follows:
    1. Increase industrial productivity, made possible by
    – Water, steam, and fossil fuel-powered industries
    – Increased mechanization and industrialization
    – Specialization of labor
    – More recently, the broad development of infrastructure capable of supporting industrial production, including physical, electro/digital, and intellectual capital.
    2. Transportation system development
    – Water ways
    – Railways
    – Roadways
    – Modern information systems
    Water Ways has the emergence of coastal and inland ports as early major trade centers
    Railways allows efficient and consistent exploitation of the nations’ interior resources
    Road ways they are used to links some parts of the nations together so as to have easy access to different environments.
    Modern information system helps in making the environment worthy of staying as information is spread across easily.
    Some would argue that modern communications could be a logical, distinct aspect of urbanization. Indeed, they may be correct, but communication revolutions historically occurred simultaneously with transportation enhancements. The net effects of continuous declines in communications costs are the increased spatial separation of the functions of industries. What we often now characterize as a communications revolution is merely an incremental change in communications flow, cost, and timing relatively to a decade ago. It is a steady and non-linear progression.
    3. Increased agricultural productivity
    – Linked to industrial , transportation, behavior, and scientific advances
    – Over the decades there has been a persistent decline in the number of farms and farms, a concomitant increase in average farm sizes, and incremental gains in yields.
    – At the same time, overall food costs as fractions of household budgets have declined

  71. QUESTION; Clearly disscuss the basic reason and characteristics of urban economic growth
    ANSWER;
    Name; OBETA ERIC IKECHUKWU
    Reg. no; 2016/sd/36673
    1:Increased industrial productivity:this has to a great extent contribute to the economic development of the urban areas.this include water and fuel powered industry, increased mechanization and industrialization, specialization of labour, the broad development of infrastructure capable of supporting industrial production including physical, electrodigital and intellectual capital 2 sea change has caused movement from suburbs and outer city areas towards coastal areas.
    3 Life style features such as location near water like a harbour, national park, golf course or upper class facilities are attraction for people to move towards urban area.
    4 Development of transport and infrastructure, like roads, bridges schools public hospitals and schools links outer suburbs with the city.
    Characteristics are;
    1 Population growth: this means that the rapid growth of urban areas is the result of two population growth factors, natural and migration population.
    2 Industrialization establishment of new industries in country side increase impervious surfaces rapidly.
    3 lack of affordable housing is a term used to describe dwelling units whose total housing cost are deemed "affordable" to those that have a media household income.
    4 Transportation: it routes open the across of city to the country side and responsible for development.

  72. THREE REASONS FOR URBAN ECONOMIC
    1. A framework for growth
    Thriving cities have a vision and follow it through with a framework to develop in an orderly manner. A framework is not about centralized command and control but a way to anticipate needs, coordinate efforts, and draw a path to a horizon that is collectively held. Major efforts to enhance livability, prosperity and equity have taken place in a number of well known cities. Such transformational impact is not a product of spontaneity, instead of constructive planning.
    2. A planned city is a well prepared city
    Anticipating the future allows us to be better prepared today. By staying ahead of challenges, city leaders are ready to see opportunities and manage risks from a vantage point. With reliable information on the current situation, they will be able to make connections between the long-term vision and short term actions. On the other hand, cities that don’t actively plan for their future will likely be left behind.
    3. Planning improves impact
    Local leaders are elected and appointed to deliver improvement. Given the magnitude of the challenges cities face, it is unlikely that all desired improvements will happen at once. Successful cities build momentum by undertaking priority projects that are aligned with the vision. Planning identifies pressing issues and available resources and makes sure that initiatives are not redundant or going in different directions.
    from:
    Ugwu Nkechinyere Jamine
    2016/SD/36669

  73. APEH MARTHA NNEKA
    2013/SD/32550
    Education/Economics
    5/5
    Basic reasons for urban economic growth
    Population growth
    Independence of decision
    Economic growth
    Industrialisation
    Speculation
    Expectations of land appreciation
    Land hunger attitude
    Legal disputes
    Nucleus family
    Credit and capital market
    Government developmental policies
    Lack of proper planning policies
    Failure to enforce planning policies

    Various characteristics of urban growth or urbanization:
    A. Economic Development
    • The level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development.
    • Economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    B. Industrialization and Density
    • An urban settlement is not just characterized by relative importance of manufacturing and services but more importantly, by high density of population. Much of manufacturing is cheaper when produced on a large-scale because of the economies of scale.
    • Also, there are ready availability of inputs like skilled labor, repair services etc. from which profit is earned by producer. People like to live near places of work.
    • The bigger cities have one advantage. Most businesses are subject to fluctuations. In big cities, one may switch from one employer to another in case of need or any other reason since there is a wide choice. In that way, a wage laborer is better off in migrating to a big city rather than a small city, where (big city) he is likely to be more fully employed. All these factors increase the density of population in the cities.
    Hence, the level of urbanization is regarded as an index of economic development, as economic growth results in the shift in demand and therefore to a reallocation of resources –land, labour and capital- out of agriculture into manufacturing and services.
    The significant relationship between urban economics and other social sciences includes;
    Urban economics and sociology; Sociology is the science of society. Social sciences like politics and economics may be considered as the branches of sociology. Sociology is a general social science. It attempts to discover the facts and laws of society as a whole. Sociology deals with all aspects of society. But urban economics deals only with the economic aspects of a society. It studies the level of development of an economy. For a student of sociology, social institutions like marriage, religion, political institutions and economic conditions are all important subjects for study. But in urban economics, we are interested in them only to the extent that they affect the economic life of a society. And we cannot properly understand the economic conditions of a society without considering its sociological aspects.
    Urban economics and political science; The production and distribution of wealth are influenced to a very great extent by the government. We have economic planning in our country. And the main aim of planning is to increase the national income by increasing production and by a proper distribution of income. The Planning Commission, which is an agency of the government, plays a vital role in it. Some of the important questions like nationalization, privatization and prohibition are all economic as well as political questions.
    Urban economics and psychology; Psychology is the science of mind. It deals with all kinds of human behaviour. For example, we have child psychology, mob psychology, industrial psychology and criminal psychology. But urban economics studies one aspect of human behaviour. It studies human behaviour with reference to production and development of an economy and how it meets with human needs.

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