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Tuesday, 30 January 2018

Eco.361 Assignment (The Structural Diversities of Different Economies) ---30/01/2018



Compare, Contrast and Discuss Two Developing Countries and a Developed country under the following headings

    1.Historical background
2. Size and income level
3. Physical and human resources
4. Ethnic and religious composition
5. Relative importance of public and private sectors
6. Industrial structure
7. External dependence
8. Political structure, power, and interest groups

(Not more than 12-15 pages on or before 7/2/2018)
 

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ABBAH SUNDAY CHIDOZIE; 2015/197097 said...

PERU

Historical background: Peru is a South America country. It covers 1,279,996 square kilometers of land and 5,220 square kilometers of water, making it the 20th largest nation in the world. It is best known as the heart of the Inca empire, but it was home to many diverse indigenous cultures long before the Incas arrived. Although there is evidence of human habitation in Peru as long ago as the eighth millennium BC, there is little evidence of organized village life until about 2500 BC. It was at about this time that climatic changes in the coastal regions prompted Peru's early inhabitants to move toward the more fertile interior river valleys. Peru’s population of about 23 million is divided almost equally between the highlands and the population centers of the coast, and the division marks a sharp cultural as well as geographic divide. The inland regions are marked by extreme poverty and subsistence agriculture, while the fertile river valleys of the lowlands have produced a wealthier, more Cosmo- Politian culture. Peru was colonized by Spain around 1532 and it got Independence on July 28, 1821 and had its political capital as Lima. Almost half of Peru's people are Indian, while another one third or so are mestizo. About ten percent are of European descent, and there are significant African and Asian minorities. Although Spanish is Peru's official language, a multitude of indigenous languages continue to hold sway in the highlands.

Size and income level: Peru has a land mass of 1,279,996 square kilometers with a population of 31,773,839 people in 2016. And is classified as upper middle income country by the World Bank and is the 37th largest in the world by total GDP. Peru is one of the world's fastest-growing economies with a 2017 GDP growth rate of 4.81%. It currently has a high human development index of 0.741 and per capita GDP of $13,735 (PPP, 2014 est.). It has an unemployment rate of 3.6% and 2% inflation rate.

Physical and human resources: Peru has a vast array of human and physical resource endowment. It has a Labor force of about 21.16 million. Its labor force by occupation include industry: 17.4%, agriculture: 25.8%, services: 56.8% (2011 est.). Peru has a wealth of mineral resources such as timber, fish, potash, natural gas, Copper, iron, lead, zinc, bismuth, phosphates, and manganese exist in great quantities of high-yield ores. Gold and silver are found extensively, as are other rare metals, and petroleum fields are located along the far north coast and the northeastern part of Amazonia.
Ethnic and Religious composition: Peru is a multiethnic country, which means that it is home to people of many different historical backgrounds. Therefore, it is a multicultural country as well. Since it is a multiethnic society, Peruvian people usually treat their nationality as a citizenship instead of an ethnicity. While Peru is home to up to 90 distinct Amerindian ethnic groups, they generally fall within the ethno-linguistic families of Quechua, Amyara, and Amazonian. The next group on the census is mestizo, people of mixed Amerindian and Spanish heritage, and 37% of Peruvian society. Religion in Peru is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. Christianity is the largest religion in Peru. The break of its religious practice by percentage is; Catholic (81.3%) protestant (12.5%), No religion (2.9%), Other religion (3.3%). Buddhism was introduced to Peru in 1899.The Baha’i Faith in Peru began as early as 1916, with the first Bahá'ís visiting as early as 1919. Also, the statistics for Islam in Peru estimate a total Muslim population of 5000, largely based in the capital of Lima, Peru. A number which has remained static since 1980.

ABBAH SUNDAY CHIDOZIE; 2015/197097 said...

Relative importance of public and private sectors: Peru is an emerging, social market economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. The inequality of opportunities has declined: between 1991 and 2012 Peru's rating on The World Bank's Human Opportunity Index improved substantially as increased public investment in water, sanitation and electric power has sustained the downward trend in inequality of opportunities. Its economy is diversified, although commodity exports still make up a significant proportion of economic activity and thus subject the economy to the risks of price volatility in the international markets. Trade and industry are centralized in Lima but agricultural exports have led to development in all the regions. Peruvian economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.
Industrial structure: Peru’s economy reflects its varied geography. The abundance of resources is found mainly in mineral deposits in the mountainous regions, while its extensive maritime territory has traditionally yielded excellent fishing resources. Agriculture contributes to 7.8% of the country’s GDP and employs 25.6% of the active population. The country’s main agricultural products are cotton, sugarcane, coffee, wheat, rice, corn and barley. The industry sector generates 32.8% of the GDP, employing 22.8% of the active population. Peru has a large and dynamic mining industry (mainly for copper and gold extraction), which accounted for 20% of the country’s GDP in 2016. Peru is the world’s top producer of silver, the fifth producer of gold, the third producer of copper, and an important supplier of zinc and lead. Large mining projects are expected to begin in the next two to three years, which could further increase the importance of the mining sector. The country also has large reserves of natural gas and oil, although Peru is a net energy importer. The main manufacturing activities are textiles, consumer goods, food processing and fish products. Peru is the world's top exporter of fish meal and asparagus. The tertiary sector contributes 59.4% of the GDP and employs around 76.1% of the population. The tourism and construction sectors are very well developed.
External Dependence: Peru spends about $68 billion on importation. They import goods such as petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunications equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines from United States (22.7%), China (22.1%), Brazil (6.9%), South Korea (6.6%), Germany (4.6%). Its FDI stock equals $76.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.) With a gross external debt of $30.15 billion.
Political structure, Power and Interest group: The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Peru as "flawed democracy " in 2016.

ABBAH SUNDAY CHIDOZIE;2015/197097 said...

BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA
Historical background: Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. During this time, Bosnia became virtually autonomous, and was eventually proclaimed a kingdom in 1377.On 6th April 1945 Sarajevo was captured by the Partisans. The end of the war resulted in the establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946 officially making Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state. A declaration of the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 15 October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence on 29 February/1 March 1992, which was boycotted by the great majority of Serbs. The turnout in the independence referendum was 63.4 percent and 99.7 percent of voters voted for independence. Bosnia got independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 and has its political capital as Sarajevo.
Size and income level: Bosnia has land mass of about 51,209 (SQ KM) and a population of 3,504,000. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an upper middle-income country which has accomplished a great deal since the mid-1990s. Today, it is an EU potential candidate country and is now embarking on a new growth model amid a period of slow growth and the global financial crisis. The key economic challenge for Bosnia and Herzegovina in the imbalance of its economic model: public policies and incentives are skewed toward the public rather than the private sector, consumption rather than investment, and imports rather than exports. Its GDP is $15.568 billion (nominal, 2015 est.) and $37.966 (PPP, 2015 est.). It has a gdp growth rate of 1.4% (2014 est.) And its GDP per capita is $4,029 (nominal, 2015 est.) $9,980 (PPP 2015 est.). Her GDP by sector are agriculture: 8.1% industry: 26.4% services: 65.3% (2013 est.) With an inflation (CPI) of 2.2% (CPI, 2012 est.).
Physical and human resources: Approximately 10% of the land in Bosnia and Herzegovina is arable. Bosnia and Herzegovina's natural resources include coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc. It has a labour force of about 1.49 million people (2012 est.). Its unemployment rate is about 44.3%. 15% of Bosnian population live below poverty line.
Ethnic and Religious composition: More than 96% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three autonomous constituent nations: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. The term constituent refers to the fact that these three ethnic groups are explicitly mentioned in the constitution, and that none of them can be considered a minority or immigrant. While each have their own standard language variant and a name for it, they speak mutually intelligible languages. The most easily recognizable feature that distinguishes the three ethnic groups is their religion, with Bosniaks predominantly Muslim, Serbs predominantly Orthodox Christians, and Croats Catholic. Throughout its history, ethnicity and religion have served as flash points for conflict and changes in government. Ethnic groups tend to be closely linked with distinct religious affiliations; however, the rate of active religious participation is considered to be low. The Bosniaks are generally Muslim. As such, nearly 40% of the population is Muslim. The Serbs are generally Serbian Orthodox, a faith practiced by about 31% of the population. Most of the Serbian Orthodox live in the Republika Srpska. The Croats are primarily Roman Catholic, a faith practiced by about 15% of the population. Protestants account for about 4% of the population. Missionary groups include Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah 's Witnesses, Methodists, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), and Krishna Consciousness. There is a small Jewish community. The constitution provides for freedom of religion and this right is generally respected.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

NAME: ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN
REG NO: 2015/202842
BLOG URL: http://kevinjasper.blogspot.com
DEPT: C.S.S. [ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE]

COMPARE AND DISCUSS TWO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND A DEVELOPED COUNTRY UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADING;

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPED COUNTRY
SERBIA SWEDEN
MOZAMBIQUE

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Serbia
Serbia became a stand-alone sovereign republic in the summer of 2006 after Montenegro voted in a referendum for independence from the Union of Serbia and Montenegro. The end of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro marked the closing chapter in the history of the separation of the six republics of the old Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia which was proclaimed in 1945 and comprised Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia.

Under Yugoslavia's authoritarian communist leader, Josip Broz Tito, the lid was kept on ethnic tensions. The federation lasted for over 10 years after his death in 1980, but under Serbian nationalist leader Slobodan Milosevic it fell apart through the 1990s. The secession of Slovenia and Macedonia came relatively peacefully, but there were devastating wars in Croatia and Bosnia. Serbia and Montenegro together formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1992 and 2003.

Mozambique
In 1498 the Portuguese sailor Vasco Da Gama landed at Ilha de Mocambique on his way to India. In 1511 A Portuguese called Antonio Fernandes explored the inland of Mozambique. During the 16th century the Portuguese established trading posts along the coast of Mozambique. They also took over some of the land and divided into large estates called prazos. However for centuries Portugal only had very limited control over Mozambique. In the 1950s and early 1960s the situation in Africa changed and many African countries became independent. In 1962 the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) was founded. However the Portuguese were determined to hang on to their colonies in Africa. In 1964 Frelimo began an armed struggle. The war went on for 10 years with the Portuguese gradually losing ground. Finally on 25 June 1975 Mozambique became an independent nation.
However the new government in Mozambique adopted Socialist policies which left Mozambique impoverished. Worse, from 1977 Mozambique was riven by civil war. An anti-Communist organisation called Renamo fought the government for 15 years. However by 1989 Frelimo had given up its Socialist policies and in 1990 they published a new constitution. Then in 1992 a peace agreement was made with Renamo. On 1994 elections were held. Mozambique recovered from the war and today it is developing rapidly. Mozambique is still a poor country but the economy is growing steadily. Today the population of Mozambique is 25 million.

Sweden
The beginning of the Swedish state can be traced back to around 1000 A.D. when Olof Skotkonung was recognized as the country's first Christian king. This would mark the beginning of the end of the Vikings' reign over the country as Christianity gained more prominence. By the mid-to-late 1100s, all vestiges of pagan worship had been purged from Sweden. The Swedes also expanded their territory, as well as the influence of Christianity, during the 12th and 13th Centuries as they launched a series of crusades into modern-day Finland. The following centuries saw Sweden become Europe's main supplier of resources like iron, copper, timber and fur. The 19th Century saw the rise of industrialization and urbanization. The Swedish economy grew, as did its middle class. Sweden remained neutral during both World Wars I and II. Without having to rebuild their country as many other European nations did, the ruling Social Democrats could focus on the creation of a welfare state. With a population between 7 and 8 million, the folkhemmet as it was called proved highly successful. Swedes enjoyed a high standard of living with little to no poverty in the years following the Second World War. In 1995, Sweden joined the European Union in the hope that would help turn around its economic situation.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL

Serbia
Serbia sits between Central and Southeast Europe. Its capital, Belgrade, is one of the oldest cities in Europe and one of the largest in all of Southeast Europe. The 2017 population is estimated at 8.79 million. This excludes Kosovo, which has a long-running dispute with Serbia and declared itself independent in 2008. The last official census was conducted in 2011 and excluded Kosovo, which held its own census placing its population at 1.73 million. Serbia itself has been in demographic crisis since the early 1990's with a death rate that still exceeds its birth rate. Serbia, along with Bulgaria, has one of the most negative population growth rates in the world, with one of the lowest fertility rates (just 1.44 children per woman). 1/5 of all households consist of just one person and Serbia has among the 10 oldest populations in the world. Serbs make up the largest ethnic group in Serbia with 83% of the population, followed by Hungarians (3.5%). Serbia has only one city with a population over 1 million: Belgrade, the capital, has about 1.2 million people (1.65 in the metro area), with the second largest city of Novi Sad having a population of just 277,000.
The economy of Serbia is a service-based economy with the tertiary sector accounting for two-thirds of total gross domestic product (GDP) and functions on the principles of the free market. Nominal GDP in 2016 amounted $37.745 billion, which is $5,376 per capita, while the GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP) stood at $101.752 billion, which is $14,493 per capita.

Mozambique
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique, is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by Zimbabwe, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, and the Indian Ocean. It is also separated from the island of Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel. In 2017, Mozambique has an estimated population of 29.67 million, which ranks 50th in the world.
Mozambique has an estimated population of 29.67 million, which is significantly higher than the 2007 census figure of 21,397,000. Mozambique remains fairly sparsely populated with 29 people per square kilometer, which is 178th in the world. The north-central provinces of Nampula and Zambezia are the most populous regions of Mozambique and account for 45% of the total population. The largest city and capital is Maputo (previously Lourenco Marques) with a population of 1.2 million in 2007. The next-largest city is Matola, with a population of 671,000 in 2007. At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $34 billion in 2015. Mozambique is a country with low income level (by per capita GNI).

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL

Sweden
By area, it is the third-largest country in the European Union, at 450,295 square kilometres. Its capital city is Stockholm, which is also the country’s largest city. Sweden has been ranked as the fourth most competitive country in the world, and has a rapidly growing economy with equal distribution of income. The country boasts a rich culture and heritage, which has attracted many tourists over the years. The 2017 estimated population for the country is 9.91 million.
In 2017, Sweden's population is estimated to be 9.91 million, making it the 91st largest country in the world by population. According to Statistics Sweden, the population was exceeded by 9 million for the first time on August 12, 2004. Population density is recorded as 24.2 people per square kilometre, with a higher population density in the south than in the north. Since May 2012, Sweden’s population has increased by around 0.85%. Immigration has been a major source for growth in population throughout Sweden's history, and since 2012, the number of immigrants to Sweden has increased while the number of emigrants have decreased. Today, about one-fifth of Sweden's population has an immigrant background. When ranked by world population, Sweden stands at the 91st position according to the monthly official estimate, constituting 0.133% of the world population. Sweden is a developed export-oriented economy aided by timber, hydropower, and iron ore. These constitute the resource base of an economy oriented toward foreign trade. The National Institute of Economic research predicts GDP growth of 1.8%, 3.1% and 3.4% in 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively.
The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Sweden was last recorded at 56319.05 US dollars in 2016. The GDP per Capita in Sweden is equivalent to 446 percent of the world's average. GDP per capita in Sweden averaged 36641.80 USD from 1960 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56319.05 USD in 2016 and a record low of 18142.88 USD in 1960.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCE

Serbia
Topography
Serbia's terrain ranges from rich, fertile plains of the northern Vojvodina region, limestone ranges and basins in the east, and in the southeast ancient mountains and hills. The north is dominated by the Danube River. A tributary, the Morava River flows through the more mountainous southern regions. In central parts of Serbia, the terrain consists chiefly of hills, low and medium-high mountains, interspersed with numerous rivers and creeks. The main communication and development line stretches southeast of Belgrade, towards Niš and Skopje (in Republic of Macedonia), along the valley of Great and South Morava river. Most major cities are located on or around that line, as well as the main railroad and highway. On the East of it, the terrain quickly rises to limestone ranges of Stara Planina and Serbian Carpathians, relatively sparsely populated. On the West, height of mountains slowly rises towards southwest, but they do not form real ridges. The highest mountains of that area are Zlatibor and Kopaonik.
Hydrology
Practically the entire territory (92%) of Serbia belongs to the Danube (Black Sea) drainage basin, an area in Kosovo (5%) belongs to the Adriatic drainage basin, chiefly through the White Drin river, and the rest (3%) in Kosovo and southern Serbia belongs to Aegean basin, chiefly via the Vardar river.
Apart from the Danube, which flows 588 km through Serbia or as a border river (with Croatia on its north-western flow and Romania on southeast), the chief rivers are its tributaries Sava (incoming from West), Tisa (incoming from North), Drina (incoming from South, forming a natural border with Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Morava; only the latter flowing (almost) entirely through Serbia. Their tributaries form a dense network of smaller rivers and creeks, covering most of the country.
Climate
Climate of Serbia is moderate continental with a diversity on local level, caused by geographic location, relief, terrain exposition, presence of river and lake systems, vegetation, urbanization etc. Proximity of the mountain ranges of Alps, Carpathians, Rhodopes, as well as Adriatic Sea and Pannonian plain affect the climate. Location of river ravines and plains in the northern area of the country enable occasional deep southward protrusion of polar air masses on winters, while hot Saharan air often intrudes over the Mediterranean Sea on summers. Average annual air temperature for the period 1961-1990 for the area with the altitude of up to 300 m (980 ft) amounts to 11 °C (51.8 °F). Serbia has 6,167 registered settlements: 207 urban and 5,960 rural.

Mozambique
Climate
Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons, a wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. Climatic conditions vary depending on altitude. Rainfall is heavy along the coast and decreases in the north and south. To the north of the Zambezi river, a narrow coastline and bordering plateau slope upward into hills and a series of rugged highlands punctuated by scattered mountains. South of the Zambezi River, the lowlands are much wider with scattered hills and mountains along its borders with South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia. Monte Binga, peaking at 7,988 ft. (2,435 m), is the highest point of Mozambique; the Indian Ocean (0 m) is the lowest.
The country is drained by several significant rivers, with the Zambezi being the largest and most important. The Zambezi is in fact the fourth-longest river in Africa, and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. Lake Malawi (Nyasa) is the country's major lake. The Cahora Bassa is Africa's fourth-largest artificial lake. A small slice of Malawi's Lake Chiuta sits in Mozambique. Education expenditure 5% in GDP: (2005) , Literacy Rate: 47.8%, Percentage of Female literates: 32.7%, Percentage of Male literates:63.5%, HDI is 0.402, HDI rank is 172 (Low Human Development – according to 2008 Human Development report)

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCE

Sweden
Soil
The dominant soil of Sweden is till, formed under glacial ice. Till that comes from the archaic bedrock of granites and gneisses forms a poor soil, and forestry and polluted (acid) rain add to its acidification. On the other hand, small areas of clayey till from younger sedimentary limestone, scattered mainly in southern Sweden, form brown earth, providing agricultural soils of high fertility. In addition, vast areas of central Sweden are covered by heavy and fertile sea-bottom clays raised out of the sea by postglacial land uplift. One-fifth of the country, especially in rainy southwestern Sweden and the cold far north, is covered by marshland and peat.
Climate
About 15 percent of the country lies within the Arctic Circle. From about late May until mid-July, sunlight lasts around the clock north of the Arctic Circle, but, even as far south as Stockholm, the nights during this period have only a few hours of semidarkness. In mid-December, on the other hand, Stockholm experiences only about 5.5 hours of daylight; in areas as far north as Lappland, there are nearly 20 hours of total darkness relieved by a mere 4 hours of twilight.
Relief
Norrland is the largest and most sparsely populated of the regions, covering some three-fifths of the country. The region features an undulating surface of rounded hills and mountains, large lakes, and extensive river valleys. To the west lie the Kölen (Kjølen; Scandinavian) Mountains, through which runs the border demarcating Sweden and Norway.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION

Serbia
Ethnic Serbs constitute a majority in Serbia, at about 82.86% (excluding Kosovo). There are 37 different ethnicities in Serbia. Ethnic Albanians are concentrated in the Kosovo region of southwest Serbia. Ethnic Hungarians make up about 3.91% of the population and live in northern Serbia near the Hungarian border. The remaining population consists primarily of Slavic Muslims, Bulgarians, Slovaks, Macedonians, Croats, Roma, Montenegrins, Ruthenians, Romanians, Vlachs, Bunjevci, and Turks.
Serbia has been traditionally a Christian country since the Christianization of Serbs by Eastern Orthodox missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century. Therefore, the dominant confession is Eastern Orthodoxy of the Serbian Orthodox Church. During the Ottoman rule of the Balkans, Sunni Islam established itself in the territories of Serbia, mainly in southern regions of Sandžak and Preševo Valley, as well as in the disputed territory of Kosovo and Metohija. The Catholic Church has roots in the country since the presence of Hungarians in Vojvodina (mainly in the northern part of the province), while Protestantism arrived in the 18th and 19th century with the settlement of Slovaks in Vojvodina.

Mozambique
The people of Mozambique are ethnically diverse, but ethnic categories are fluid and reflect the country’s colonial history. All inhabitants of the country were designated Portuguese in 1961, and some ethnic classifications such as Makua-Lomwe were created by colonial Portuguese officials themselves. Within the country, in addition to the Makua-Lomwe, live the Tsonga, Sena, Ndau (see Shona), Chopi, Chewa, Yao, Makonde, and Ngoni. In terms of cultural organization, the Zambezi valley again provides Mozambique’s key marker, roughly dividing groups that trace their heritage according to principles of patrilineality to the north and groups that order themselves along patrilineal lines to the south.
Prior to independence in 1975, almost one-third of the population was nominally Christian, and a small number were Muslim. Christian missionaries were active throughout the country during the colonial era, and after 1926 the Roman Catholic Church was given government subsidies and a privileged position with respect to its educational and evangelical activities among the African population. Although the Portuguese were generally suspicious of Protestants, Protestant missionaries—Presbyterian, Free Methodist, African Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, Anglican, and Congregationalist—remained active, particularly in the northern interior and in the hinterlands of Inhumane and Maputo, providing Africans with alternative medical facilities and boarding schools. A variety of African Independent Churches developed, but, because of official disdain for their activities, they were unlikely to register publicly.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION

Sweden
In the 1980s Sweden began to receive an increasing number of asylum seekers from Asian and African countries such as Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Turkey, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as from Latin American countries that were suffering under repressive governments. Then from 2010 to 2014 the number of people seeking asylum in Sweden expanded dramatically, reaching more than 80,000 in 2014, and that number doubled to more than 160,000 in 2015. Many of these people were fleeing the Syrian Civil War. From the beginning of that conflict, Sweden had granted residency to any Syrian seeking asylum (some 70,000 in total). Thus, by 2016 one in six Swedish residents had been born outside the country, and Sweden, feeling the strain of the mass influx of migrants, enacted new and more stringent immigration restrictions. Sweden has two minority groups of indigenous inhabitants: the Finnish-speaking people of the northeast along the Finnish border, and the Sami (Lapp) population of about 15,000 scattered throughout the northern Swedish interior.
Sweden adopted Christianity in the 11th century, and for nearly 500 years Roman Catholicism was the preeminent religion. Sweden was the home to Saint Bridget, founder of the Brigittine convent at Vadstena. As the first waves of the Protestant Reformation swept Europe in the mid-1500s, Lutheranism took hold in Sweden, and it remained dominant through the 20th century. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sweden was the official state church until 2000; about four-fifths of the population remain members of this church. Since the late 1800s a number of independent churches have emerged; however, their members can also belong to the Church of Sweden. Immigration has brought a steady increase to the membership of the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Islamic religions. Judaism is the country’s oldest global non-Christian religion, practiced in Sweden since 1776. After Christianity, Islam is the largest religion in Sweden, with about 100,000 active practitioners at the turn of the 21st century, although the number of Swedes of Muslim heritage was nearly three times that number.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR

Serbia
A public-private partnership is a dynamic and developing process of funding projects of economic development, and it represents a form of cooperation between the government and private sector with a purpose to modernize the construction of public infrastructure as well as strategic public services. In some cases, a public-private partnership includes financing, planning, constructing, reconstructing, managing or maintenance. In other cases, it includes providing the services which are traditionally provided by public institutions. Although the focus of public-private partnership should be on the improvement of efficiency in public services through sharing risks and implementation of private sector expertise, it should be stressed that public private partnership indirectly reduces the pressure on public finances by providing additional source of funding. For that reason, public-private partnership is based on the fact that both public and private sector can benefit from adjoining their financial resources, knowledge and expertise for providing better services to all citizens.
An important actor of the concept of public-private partnership in Republic of Serbia is Commission for Public-Private Partnership designed as professional body of the Government of Republic of Serbia, which provides help in the realization of public private partnership projects and concessions in Republic of Serbia. Commission is made of nine members, deputies of relevant ministries and bodies. Representative of the Ministry in charge of Economy and Regional Development is also the President of the Commission, a representative of the ministry responsible for finance is his deputy.

Mozambique
he Maputo Private Hospital (MPH) in Mozambique is an example of a successful private hospital. The 105-bed facility is run by Lenmed Health, a South African private hospital group. It opened in October 2012. Private donors invested $ 38.5 million. KFW subsidiary DEG, which has the mission to promote private-sector investments in developing countries and emerging markets, was among the financiers that furnished long-term capital.
The impacts of the private hospital are particularly visible in Mozambique where, unlike in other African countries, the private sector so far has hardly played a role in health care. Accordingly, Mozambique has huge gaps, both in basic medical services and in hospital care. The MPH is improving matters. It has state-of-the-art equipment and imports pharmaceuticals that were previously unavailable in the country. The MPH guarantees emergency services, mother-and-child health care as well as obstetrics, pediatrics, radiology and treatment for chronic complaints.
The Ministry of Health of Mozambique receives considerable support from a large number of international development partners. In 2007, foreign aid contributes to 70% of the health sector’s budget and will increase to 73% in 2008. Mozambique has adopted a “Sector Wide Approach” (SWAp) to the health sector in 2000. The introduction of the Health SWAp aims at improving the performance of the sector, strengthening government leadership, putting greater emphasis on policy and strategy development and lowering the transaction costs of foreign assistance.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR

Sweden
The public sector plays a key economic role as regulator, service provider and employer. It accounts for more than 30 % of total employment and about 20 % of GDP. Additionally, an efficient and productive public sector can be a strong driver of economic growth through its support of innovation in the private sector as well as a procurer of innovative goods and services.
Healthcare, school and other welfare services, as well as systems for energy and communications are examples of public services that are publicly financed. Most European countries, Sweden included, are facing major demographic challenges to adapt to an ageing society. By the year 2030 it is estimated that more than one in five citizens will be over 65. In order to adapt to these conditions, innovations are needed to deliver public services with increased quality and efficiency. The Swedish government believes that innovation in the public sector can lower costs and increase efficiency and quality, with better use of existing resources.
The Swedish government is increasingly acknowledging the importance of public sector innovation. In the report “The Swedish Innovation Climate” the agency for Growth Policy Analysis suggests quantitative indicators to monitor the implementation of the newly launched Swedish Innovation Strategy. This is an attempt to systemize existing indicators and “take the temperature” on the Swedish innovation climate in order to find drivers and barriers to innovation in the Swedish innovation system.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE

Serbia
The industrial sectors of Serbia include: automotive, mining, non-ferrous metals, food-processing, electronics, pharmaceuticals, clothes.
Automotive industry (with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles as a forebearer) is dominated by cluster located in Kragujevac and its vicinity, and contributes to export with about $2 billion. Serbia's mining industry is comparatively strong: Serbia is the 18th largest producer of coal (7th in the Europe) extracted from large deposits in Kolubara and Kostolac basins; it is also world's 23rd largest (3rd in Europe) producer of copper which is extracted by RTB Bor, a large domestic copper mining company; significant gold extraction is developed around Majdanpek. Serbia notably manufactures intel smartphones named Tesla smartphones.
Food industry is well known both regionally and internationally and is one of the strong points of the economy. Some of the international brand-names established production in Serbia: PepsiCo and Nestlé in food-processing sector; Coca-Cola (Belgrade), Heineken (Novi Sad) and Carlsberg (Bačka Palanka) in beverage industry; Nordzucker in sugar industry. Serbia's electronics industry had its peak in the 1980s and the industry today is only a third of what it was back then, but has witnessed a something of revival in last decade with investments of companies such as Siemens (wind turbines) in Subotica, Panasonic (lighting devices) in Svilajnac, and Gorenje (electrical home appliances) in Valjevo. The pharmaceutical industry in Serbia comprises a dozen manufacturers of generic drugs, of which Hemofarm in Vršac and Galenika in Belgrade, account for 80% of production volume. Domestic production meets over 60% of the local demand. After the democratic reforms in 2000, the Serbian industry has been liberalized and since then follows the exponential economic growth.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE

Mozambique
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Sector
The agricultural sector had contracted in the first half of 2008 because of the natural calamities like floods and cyclones that hit the south and north of the country. Though the situation improved in the second half of 2008, but the year ended with growth in agriculture below 6 per cent. To prevent such a food crisis again, the government has developed a plan to increase crop production for both export and domestic consumption. This project is worth MZN 503 million (Mozambican meticais) or USD 14.46 million (US dollars) and is expected to start in 2009 and aims to raise production by 2014 of wheat, rice, cassava, corn and potatoes. The strategy of this programme includes distributing subsidized inputs to small landholders and establishing storage silos.
Mining Sector
The mining sector of Mozambique holds great potential. The country is a major electricity producer and an exporter of coal. Several foreign companies which hold exploration licenses for oil and gas and minerals, such as titanium, uranium and gold, are prospecting in the mineral-rich Tete and Sofala provinces. Petronas, the Malaysian oil company has been granted a license for oil exploration in the Rovuma basin in Cabo Delgado province. A number of other foreign companies including Anadarko (United States), Artumas (Canada), ENI (Italy) and NorskHydro (Norway) are already searching for oil there. Oilmoz has signed an agreement with Shell Global Solutions to carry out a feasibility study for the refinery it plans to build in Matutuine by 2014. Millions of tons of coal are expected to be mined in Tete province by 2010 by the Australian-South African mining company, BHP Billiton, and the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa. Titanium will be mined in the Gaza province as soon as electricity supply problems are solved and the Delta Group will be extracting gold in the Manica province by 2009. The most viable mining projects are those that are already under construction or have a secured way to be financed. These include the development of a fuel pipeline from Maputo harbour to South Africa, which is to supply the South African market and the expansion of the natural gas pipeline mega-project owned by the South African petrochemical company Sasol, which plans to invest USD 225 million to increase output from the Pande and Temane gas fields for export to South Africa.
Manufacturing Sector
Around 1975, the industrial and manufacturing sector of Mozambique was mainly into processing of raw material such as shrimps, tea, sugar, cashews, citrus, copra coal and cotton and other light manufacturing commodities for domestic purpose. From the 1950s to the 70’s there was an immense growth in the local manufacturing capacity as a result of the increase in the demand.
A large amount of the skilled labours and managerial class left Mozambique when it got its independence, there was a rise in industrial production till the early 80s. Though by 1990s the industrial production had declined to almost its 1/3rd. The internal conflicts interrupted the growth in the industrial sector. The problem in supply of raw material to the industries, the soaring debt and the diminishing amount of exports strangled the industrial sector of Mozambique.
As the country’s overall social and economic climate improved in the early 1990s, industrial development resumed. Although production levels for the cement industry have not returned to those reached in the late 1970s, other industries are expanding. An ammonia plant opened in the centre of the country in the late 1990s and a car assembly plant began operation in 2000. A key factor in Mozambique’s economic growth was the opening of an aluminium smelter near Maputo in 2000. It is one of the world’s largest smelters of aluminium, which has become an important export for Mozambique.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE

Sweden
The Sweden main industries include motor vehicles, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, industrial machines, precision equipment, chemical goods, home goods and appliances, forestry, iron, and steel. Traditionally a modern agricultural economy that employed over half the domestic workforce, today Sweden further develops engineering, mine, steel, and pulp industries that are competitive internationally, as evidenced by companies like Ericsson, ASEA/ABB, SKF, Alfa Laval, AGA, and Dyno Nobel. Sweden is a competitive mixed economy featuring a generous universal welfare state financed through relatively high income taxes that ensures that income is distributed across the entire society, a model sometimes called the Nordic model.[ Approximately 90% of all resources and companies are privately owned, with a minority of 5% owned by the state and another 5% operating as either consumer or producer cooperatives.
Being an economy that relies primarily on industrial production and exports, Sweden’s economic structure has been hit badly by the global economic recession of 2008. The nation witnessed a more than 5% contraction in its GDP in Q4 2008, as compared to the previous quarter, as a result of plummeting exports, reduction of credit and rapid drawdown of stocks. The downturn was subsequently mitigated by Sweden making its fiscal policies more lenient and the Central Bank’s lowering the interest rates to unprecedented low levels. Discretionary fiscal measures of 1.5% of GDP were deployed in 2009 and further measures amounting to 1% of the GDP have been announced in the budget for 2010. The fiscal policies have been geared towards mitigating the effects of the downturn, providing support to domestic demand, and achieving the long term goal of increased incentives in the employment market.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE

Serbia
Currently, Serbia's dependence on natural gas imported from Russia through Ukraine and Hungary exceeds 80%. High energy dependence renders Serbia's economy more vulnerable to fuel price shocks, thus affecting the country's prospects for socioeconomic growth. Infrastructure development will benefit the entire region (gas to power initiative). In the gas sector, improved interconnections which contribute to the diversification of routes and supplies are necessary to meet the objective of increased security of supply.
Other strategic investments into development of gas sector in Serbia are the construction of underground gas storage, the connection to other gas pipeline systems in the region and the further development of gas distribution networks. Furthermore, in accordance with Energy Community Treaty requirements Serbia has obligations to harmonise existing and new plants with Emission limit values according to Large Combustion Plant Directive part of Industrial Emissions directive in the area of environmental protection in the energy sector. Finally, Serbia also needs to comply with the Directive on oil emergency stocks by 2023.

Mozambique
Mozambique turned out to be country with high dependence on external aid for the critical water and sanitation sector. Mozambique’s dependence on external financing of its state budget fell to less than 30 percent in 2012. The chairman of the Tributary Authority, Rosário Fernandes, said that external dependence had dropped by over 10 percentage points in just a few years due to good tax collection performance.

Sweden
Sweden is highly dependent on exports, is strongly pro-free trade, and has one of the most internationally integrated economies in the world. The government has been expanding its export base away from the traditionally European market, seeking to grow in Asia, South America, and the United States, but the bulk of Sweden’s exports still remains within the EU. The United States is Sweden’s 4th largest export market, capturing 7.1% of Swedish exports valued at an estimated $10.2 billion. Sweden is the 11th largest investor in the U.S. and one of the largest investors on a per capita basis. Swedish FDI in the U.S. amounts to roughly $56 billion and creates nearly 330,700 U.S. jobs.

ONWUDIWE OKECHUKWU KEVIN said...

POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUP

Serbia
The politics of Serbia function within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. The prime minister is the head of government, while the president is the head of state. Serbia is a parliamentary republic composed of three branches of government: an executive, legislature, and judiciary. Serbia is a parliamentary democracy with a multi-party system. We have unicameral parliament which is composed of 250 proportionally elected members. They serve four-year terms. The prime minister and cabinet members are executive authority. Head of state is the president, but he has no executive, legislative or judicial authority. This is ceremonial role. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister, who heads a cabinet. The prime minister is chosen by the National Assembly on the proposal of the president, who names the designate after consultations with all parliamentary leaders.
The president is elected based on popular vote, but has little governing power and is primarily a ceremonial position. The president’s term lasts five years and can be elected for at most 2 terms. Cabinet ministers are nominated by the prime minister and confirmed by the National Assembly. Governing power is vested in the prime minister, deputy prime ministers and other ministers. The prime minister is responsible for presenting his agenda to the National Assembly as well as proposing the ministers to fill the cabinet posts in his government. The government is considered elected if it has been elected by a majority vote of all representatives in the National Assembly.

Mozambique
Mozambique is a republic and a multiparty democracy. It has an executive president as head of state and government, who is directly elected for a five-year term and serves a maximum of two terms. He or she appoints the prime minister and Council of Ministers. The national legislature is the 250-member unicameral parliament (Assembléia da República), members of which are elected every five years by direct universal suffrage. There are 11 provinces headed by a president-appointed governor and indirectly elected local assemblies. Each province is subdivided into districts.

Sweden
Sweden is a parliamentary democracy, which means that all public power proceeds from the people. At the national level, the people are represented by the Riksdag (Swedish parliament) which has legislative power. The Government implements the Riksdag's decisions and draws up proposals for new laws or law amendments. Sweden is a representative democracy and is governed on the basis of a democratic structure at different levels of society. Sweden is also a monarchy. This means that we have a king or queen who is the country's head of state. However, the head of state has no political power and has a merely ceremonial role. It is the democratically elected politicians who run the country. The Instrument of Government, which is the fundamental law that determines how Sweden is governed, begins with the sentence "All public power in Sweden proceeds from the people". This means that all decisions made a different levels of society have to be based on the opinions and interests on Sweden's inhabitants. The Government has executive authority. This involves being responsible for the day-to-day work of governing the country. This includes presenting proposals for the central government budget and setting guidelines for how the central government's money is to be used, leading the Swedish Armed Forces and being responsible, together with the Riksdag, for foreign policy.

ABBAH SUNDAY CHIDOZIE; 2015/197097 said...

Relative importance of public and private sectors: Bosnia has a disproportionately large public sector, which dates back to Yugoslavia times and has only been partly reformed since. Public expenditures amount to nearly half of GDP and, if state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and costs from corruption are added in, the public sector may be as large as 70 percent of GDP. That’s not much smaller than in the 1980s! Though public spending is high, it is not pro-poor. For instance, high social protection spending benefits the wealthy almost as much as the poor. While SOEs maintain employment (even in some extreme cases when factories no longer operate), they also generate bills, which ultimately are paid by the taxpayer. In turn, this creates a negative spiral: taxes are high and biased against employment. A large tax wedge swallows over a third of even the lowest paid workers’ salaries, making it almost impossible for employers to create formal jobs. And employers are hit by the region’s worst business environment—partly the result of a plethora of regulatory regimes and a rent-seeking rather than public-service oriented public sector.

Industrial structure: The Main industries in Bosnia include steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicles, textiles tobacco products, furniture, tanks, aircraft, domestic appliances, oil refining. Its economy is diversified with the agriculture contributing 8.1% of the GDP and industry 26.4% while services sector yields 65.3%of the GDP (2013 est.).

External Dependence: Bosnia is both dependent economically and security wise on the international environment. While its importation worth $5.327 billion, it only exports goods and services Worth only $5.327 billion. Again, while it exports only metals, clothing and wood products, it imports machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs which reveals a relative dependence. Its international debt also is about $9.768 billion (31 December 2016 est.) Although it decreased in 2017.
Political structure, Power and Interest group: Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Legislative power is vested in both the Council of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Members of the Parliamentary Assembly are chosen according to a proportional representation system. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The system of government established by the Dayton Accord is an example of consociationalism, as representation is by elites who represent the country's three major ethnic groups termed constituent peoples, with each having a guaranteed share of power. Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into two Entities – the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, which are politically autonomous to an extent, as well as the district of Brčko, which is jointly administered by both. The Entities have their own constitutions. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Bosnia and Herzegovina as "hybrid regime " in 2016.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BOLIVIA

The Spaniards founded cities in Bolivia at Chuquisacac (1538), La Paz (1548), Cochabamba (1571) and Oruro (1606). In 1545 silver was discovered at Potosi and the Spanish used forced labor to mine the silver. Many of the Indians who were forced to work in mines died there. Many more died of European diseases.
Not surprisingly the Bolivian Indians were resentful and in 1780 their anger boiled over into rebellion. The Indians believed they could revamp the old Inca Empire and replace the unjust and oppressive Spanish rule. However the Indians were disunited and they failed to capture La Paz. By 1782 the Great Rebellion in Bolivia was crushed.
Yet in 1809 another rebellion began. People of Spanish descent led this one. It began when Napoleon's army occupied Spain and he deposed the Spanish king and made his brother Joseph king of Spain. For many South Americans already dissatisfied with Spanish rule that was the last straw. In 1809 the people of La Paz declared independence. The rebellion was quickly crushed but the movement for independence in Bolivia became unstoppable. Fighting continued across the continent and the Spanish armies were gradually defeated. More and more regions of South America became independent until on 6 August 1825 Bolivia finally joined them and became independent from Spain. The new nation was named Bolivia in honor of the Simon Bolivar the hero of the independence movement.
However the new republic of Bolivia faced an economic depression and many silver mines were abandoned. Bolivia became a backward and impoverished state.The first president of Bolivia was General Sucre. He was followed by Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz who was president from 1829 to 1839. In 1836 he tried to unite Bolivia with Peru but the Chileans felt threatened and they fought the War of the Confederation in 1836-39 to break up the union.
In 1879 Bolivia increased taxation on Chilean owned nitrate companies. The result was a war called the War of the Pacific. In 1884 Bolivia lost the strip of coast she controlled and became a landlocked country.However in the late 19th century the silver industry in Bolivia revived helped by capital from Britain and Chile and by new technology.
Economically Bolivia prospered. Tin mining boomed and it replaced silver mining as the main industry. Meanwhile railways were built in Bolivia linking parts of Bolivia. In the north a rubber industry boomed. However politically Bolivia was split between Conservatives and Liberals.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

LOCATION, SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF BOLIVIA
Situated in South America just north of the Tropic of Capricorn, Bolivia has a total area of 1,098,580 sq km (424,164 sq mi), extending about 1,530 km (950 mi) n–s and 1,450 km (900 mi) e–w. Comparatively, the area occupied by Bolivia is slightly less than three times the size of the state of Montana. Completely landlocked, Bolivia is bounded on the n and ne by Brazil, on the se by Paraguay, on the s by Argentina, on the sw by Chile, and on the w by Peru, with a total boundary length of 6,743 km (4,190 mi).
The population of Bolivia in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 8,922,000, which placed it at number 85 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 37% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 2005–10 was expected to be 2.1%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 12,018,000. The population density was 8 per sq km (21 per sq mi).
The UN estimated that 63% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 2.50%. The capital city, La Paz (administrative capital) had a population of 1,477,000 in that year. Sucre (legal and judicial capital), had a population of 190,000. Santa Cruz, a departmental capital, had a metropolitan population of 1,352,000. Other important departmental capitals and their estimated populations include Cochabamba, 815,800; Oruro, 211,700; and Potosí, 115,000.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Bolivia's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $23.6 billion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $2,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 3%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 5.4%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 12.6% of GDP, industry 35%, and services 52.4%.According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $126 million or about $14 per capita and accounted for approximately 1.6% of GDP. Foreign aid receipts amounted to $930 million or about $105 per capita and accounted for approximately 12.3% of the gross national income (GNI).
The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Bolivia totaled $5.8 billion or about $658 per capita based on a GDP of $8.1 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 3.3%. In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 37% of household consumption was spent on food, 11% on fuel, 9% on health care, and 14% on education. It was estimated that in 2004 about 64% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF BOLIVIA
Bolivia has traditionally been a mining country—mining was the country's top industry—producing antimony, bismuth, copper, gold, lead, silver, tungsten, and zinc. It had large reserves of gold, lithium, iron ore, natural gas, and petroleum.
Production totals for 2003 were: zinc, 144,985 metric tons; gold, 9,362 kg; silver, 465,309 kg; tin, 16,755 metric tons; lead, 9,740 metric tons; antimony, 2,911 metric tons; tungsten, 556 metric tons; rough amethyst, 144 kg; hydraulic cement, 1,138,000 metric tons; and arsenic, 276 metric tons. The richest and most productive alluvial gold deposits were located in Challana and the Kaka, the Mapiri, and the Tipuani River valleys, in the northern area of La Paz Department.
For two centuries following the discovery of silver at Cerro Rico de Potosiacute in 1545, the area that became Bolivia was the largest producer of silver. Cerro Rico was protected as a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization site, making the use of expensive backfill mining techniques necessary to maintain the mountain's shape. New studies at the base of the mountain estimated 3.3 million kg of silver in its gravel bed channel deposits.
Bolivia's labor force was estimated at 4.22 million in 2005. In 2000, (the latest year for which data was available), the 28.2% of the work force was in manufacturing, while 4.9% was in agriculture, and 66.8% in the services sector. As of 2005, unemployment in Bolivia was estimated to be widespread. In the country's urban areas, the unemployment rate was estimated at 8% that year.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

Workers may form and join unions, but the labor courts and inadequate government laws undermine the effectiveness of this right. The government must authorize a union, may dissolve a union, and must confirm the legitimacy of elected officers. Workers, however, are generally not penalized for union activity. The Bolivian Labor Federation theoretically represents all workers, but only one half of the employees actually belong. About 25% of the country's workers in the formal economy belong to unions. However, the formal economy covers only about 30% of the country's entire workforce. Strikes are prohibited in public services, although some strikes were initiated and workers were not penalized.
The law prohibits child labor under age 14, but this is generally ignored. According to statistics from UNICEF and the Bolivian government, about 32% of the country's children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 19 were engaged in some kind of work. The minimum wage is subject to annual negotiation and in 2005 was set at $55 per month. This does not provide a decent standard of living, and most workers earn more than the minimum. However, the minimum wage does not cover the 30% of workers in the informal sector. The workday is set at eight hours a day with a maximum of 48 hours per week, but this is not effectively enforced.


ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF BOLIVIA
Among the Amerindian population, an estimated 30% are Quechua and 25% are Aymará. Cholos (Bolivians of mixed white and Amerindian lineage) make up another 25 to 30%, and those of wholly European background account for virtually all of the remainder. One reason for the uncertainty of these estimates is that although the distinction between Amerindian, cholo, and white was at one time racial, it has gradually become at least partially sociocultural: Amerindians become cholos when they abandon their native costumes, learn to speak Spanish, and acquire a skill or trade. Not all those classified as whites are without some Amerindian mixture.
The rapidly disappearing Amerindians who populate the tropical plains in the southeast, the Chiriguanos, are believed to be a Guaraní tribe that moved west from Paraguay before the Spanish conquest. The Mojenos, Chiquitanos, and Sirionós inhabit the forest-grassland border in the far east.
Spanish, Quechua, and Aymará are all official languages. Spanish as spoken by educated Bolivians differs less from Castilian than do the dialects of many regions in Spain itself. An increasing number of Amerindians also speak Spanish

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

Roman Catholicism is the official religion. As such, the Roman Catholic Church receives support from the state and exercises a certain degree of political influence through the Bolivian Bishops' Conference. Courses in Catholicism are offered in public schools, but students of other faiths are not required to attend. Non-Catholic organizations register with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship for tax and legal benefits, but unregistered groups are not restricted from gathering. Freedom of religion is provided for in the constitution and this right is generally respected in practice.
According to a 2001 survey, about 78% of the population were Roman Catholic. Between 16 and 19% of the population were Protestant, including Mennonites, Lutherans, Mormons, Methodists, Seventh-Day Adventists, Baptists, Pentecostals, and various evangelical groups. There is a Mormon temple in Cochabamba which is believed to serve more than 100,000 Mormons from across the country. Less than 0.2% of the population were affiliated with other faiths such as Judaism, Bahaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Shintoism. There is a small Jewish community with a synagogue in La Paz, as well as a Muslim community with a mosque in Santa Cruz. Korean immigrants also have a church in La Paz.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS OF BOLIVIA
Bolivia's tradition of state-owned monopolies has been a highly politicized topic; the government's capitalization plan became a way to bring Bolivia the benefits of privatization, without entirely turning over state companies to private investors. Mining codes enacted in 1991 allowed foreign firms to operate with fewer restrictions and replaced royalties with a 30% tax on profits. By 1994, privately owned commercial mines became the dominant producers, responsible for 52% of the value of all mine production. In 2000, the medium-sized mining sector was responsible for 59% of

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

the value of mine production; the small-sized mining sector accounted for 36%; and COMIBOL's share was 2%, down from 25% in 1997, and 51% in 1985. Starting in 1999, companies looking to invest in the minerals sector were granted a deferral on value-added tax and customs duty payments, representing a savings of up to 20% on investment project costs. The large number of available prospects and a new mining code have encouraged mineral exploration in the country
INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF BOLIVIA
Historically, industrial development has been severely restricted by political instability, the small domestic market, the uncertain supply of raw materials, and the lack of technically trained labor. Domestic industry supplies less than one-fourth of the processed food and manufactured goods consumed. Over one-half of manufacturing output is in nondurable consumer goods—food, beverages, tobacco, and coffee. Handicrafts and hydrocarbons account for much of the remainder.
At their peak, Bolivia's tin mines accounted for 70% of the country's total export earnings, but in 1985 the London Metal Exchange abruptly halved the price of tin, causing economic chaos. The ensuing economic stabilization program was a mixed blessing to industry. The easing of foreign-exchange restrictions, the uniform 20% tariff, and the significant reduction in duties on nonessential consumer goods improved the availability of raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, thereby stimulating industrial growth.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

In 1992, growth in the construction industry was a remarkable 15%, sustained both by the larger number of public works projects and by private investment. By 1995, this growth had slowed to 5%. The manufacturing sector grew by 3.8% in 1995, with the largest gains occurring in agriculture-based industries despite the problems resulting from the precarious state of agriculture. The mining and hydrocarbon sector contracted because of the decline in mining output and stagnation in the production of petroleum and natural gas. The drastic reduction of COMIBOL's production resulted from the closing of several mines and frequent labor disputes. The slump in the hydrocarbons subsector was because of the depletion of a number of wells, lack of investment in exploring for new deposits, and the torrential rains that damaged the infrastructure of the state-owned company.
In the late 1990s, Bolivia experienced a renaissance in the mining and hydrocarbons sectors due to privatization of the state owned interests in these sectors. This attracted foreign interest in developing the energy and minerals potential of the country. In 2002, Bolivia had three oil refineries with a production capacity of 63,000 barrels per day.
The construction and manufacturing sectors were experiencing a slowdown in 2002, after three years of a stagnant economy. The development of the country's infrastructure was expected to be an engine for industrial growth, however. The opening of a gas pipeline to Brazil in 1999 was expected to take in much of Bolivia's natural gas production.

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EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE OF BOLIVIA
Bolivia depends primarily on its mineral exports, especially zinc, natural gas, and gold. Tin exports, which had been an integral part of the Bolivian export schedule, have been gradually decreasing since 1946. The 1985 devaluation of tin caused major problems in the Bolivian economy, and now tin plays a minor role in Bolivia's exports, as the country moves to diversify. Exports of natural and manufactured gas and petroleum are expected to surpass those of other minerals in the future, as a new pipeline has facilitated exports of natural and manufactured gas to neighboring Brazil. In 2004, natural gas exports totaled $619.6 million, and zinc exports totaled $151 million. Agricultural exports include wood, oil seeds, soya, and animal feed. Principal imports include $984.6 million in raw materials and semi-manufactures, $498.4 million in capital goods, and $407.4 million in consumer goods.
The United States has historically been Bolivia's chief trading partner. However, recently Bolivia has been diversifying its trade relations to include more regular trade with regional and European partners. As a member of the Comunidad Andina (CAN—Andean Community), Bolivia has been trading with the other members, including Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Since 1997, Bolivia has also been an associate member of the Mercado Comun del Sur (Mercosur—the Southern Cone customs union). Though devaluations in Brazil and Argentina (1999 and 2002 respectively) and nontariff barriers in CAN have discouraged trade somewhat, Brazil has nonetheless become Bolivia's main trading partner due to gas exports (something that China has been increasingly interested in importing, as well). Bolivia's drive to diversify its exports is assisted by Chinese demand for soybeans and other Bolivian commodity exports.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

POLITICAL STRUCTURE POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS IN BOLIVIA
Bolivia is essentially a unitary system, with a highly centralized national government. Bolivia's nine departments—La Paz, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Potosí, Oruro, Santa Cruz, Tarija, El Beni, and Pando—were historically administered by prefects appointed by the president for four-year terms. However, in the 2005 elections, Bolivians also chose their provincial prefects directly. The departments are subdivided into 94 provinces, each headed by a subprefect appointed by the prefect. The provinces are further divided into 1,713 cantons, each of which is under the jurisdiction of a magistrate (corregidor ). As of 1997, Bolivia had 312 municipalities. There are no local legislatures. Important towns and cities have more self-government. Each has a popularly elected council of from 5 to 12 members, but municipal tax ordinances must be approved by the Senate. Mayors (alcaldes ) are also elected. The Amerindian communities, although they are not formal administrative units, are recognized by law.
Bolivia's proportional representation system has encouraged the formation of several political parties. Numerous parties and coalitions have formed and dissolved over the years, usually tied to the personalities of the various leaders.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

The Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario—MNR) was founded by Víctor Paz Estenssoro, Hernán Siles Zuazo, and others in 1941. Although militant originally, the years have moderated the party's stance. The MNR came to power in 1952, with the help of the Revolutionary Workers Party, the carabineros (national police), and the miners' and peasants' militias. In the subsequent years, the MNR began to rely increasingly on foreign aid, especially from the United States, and became increasingly autocratic and corrupt. Finally, quarreling among the party leadership weakened the party, and by 1964 the MNR's monopoly on power had dissolved. In November 1964, Paz was sent into exile in Peru. The MNR was then eclipsed by the charisma of President René Barrientos and his Popular Christian Movement. The MNR returned as part of the Nationalist Popular Front, organized by Hugo Bánzer Suárez. Banzer then outlawed the MNR in November 1974. In the late 1970s, the MNR reappeared, along with a dissident MNRI (the "MNR of the left") headed by Hernán Siles.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF URUGUAY
The history of Uruguay comprises different periods: the pre-Columbian time or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (1516–1811), the period of nation-building (1811-1830), and the history of Uruguay as an independent country (from around 1830). During the colonial era the present-day territory of Uruguay was known as Banda Oriental (east bank of River Uruguay) and was a buffer territory between the competing colonial pretensions of Portuguese Brazil and Spanish Empire.
The Portuguese first explored the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512-1513.[6] The first European explorer to land here was Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516, but he was killed by natives. Ferdinand Magellan anchored at the future site of Montevideo in 1520. Sebastian Cabot in 1526 explored Río de la Plata but no permanent settlements took root here. Absence of gold and silver limited settlement of the region during the 16th and 17th centuries.
In 1603 cattle and horses were introduced here by the order of Hernando Arias de Saavedra and by the mid-17th century their number had greatly multiplied.
The first permanent settlement on the territory of present-day Uruguay was founded by the Spanish Jesuits in 1624 at Villa Soriano on the Río Negro, where they tried to establish a Misiones Orientales system for the Charruas.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights between the British, Spanish, Portuguese, and local colonial forces for dominance of the La Plata basin. In 1806 and 1807, the British as a part of Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808), launched the British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Buenos Aires was invaded in 1806, and then liberated by forces from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers. A new and stronger British attack in 1807 aimed to Montevideo, which was occupied by a 10,000-strong British force. The British forces were then unable to invade Buenos Aires for the second time, and Liniers demanded the liberation of Montevideo in the terms of capitulation. The British gave up their attacks when the Peninsular War turned Britain and Spain into allies against Napoleon.
SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF URUGUAY
Metropolitan Montevideo, with about one and a half million inhabitants, is the capital and largest city. The rest of the urban population lives in about 20 towns. Montevideo is about 200 kilometers (120 mi) away from Buenos Aires in neighboring Argentina.
Uruguay is distinguished by its high literacy rate (97.3%) and a large urban middle class.As a result of the low birth rate, high life expectancy, and relatively high rate of emigration of younger people, Uruguay's population is quite mature. In 2006, the country had a birth rate of 13.91 births per thousand population, lower than neighboring countries Argentina (16.73 births/1000 population)[3] and Brazil (16.56 births/1,000 population).
In July of 2013, the World Bank placed Uruguay as a high-income country. By 2016, the PPA gross NATIONAL per capita income stood at US$21,625. Two main characteristics —a solid social contract and economic openness— paved the way to the reduction in poverty and the promotion of shared prosperity that Uruguay successfully followed in the last decade. With an annual average growth rate of 4.54% between 2003 and 2016, Uruguay’s robust economic performance has given it a greater economic resilience to external shocks.
Moderate poverty went from 32.5% in 2006 to 9.4% in 2016, while extreme poverty has practically disappeared: it went down from 2.5% to 0.2% in the same period. In terms of equity, income levels among the poorest 40% of the Uruguayan population increased much faster that the average growth rate of income levels for the entire population. Inclusive social policies have focused on expanding program coverage; for example, around 87% of the over-65 population is covered by the pension system: this is one of the highest coefficients in Latin America and the Caribbean alongside Argentina and Brazil.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF URUGUAY
Uruguay’s natural resources are limited and its mining industry is still in the developmental stage. The mining sector is vigorously looking to expand its existing operations. The country’s leading energy source is petroleum products, accounting for about 60% of the total energy consumption. Uruguay relies a lot on crude oil imports, mainly from Venezuela.
Uruguay’s Labour Force Participation Rate: National data was reported at 63.05 % in Oct 2017. This records an increase from the previous number of 62.75 % for Sep 2017. Uruguay’s Labour Force Participation Rate: National data is updated monthly, averaging 63.39 % from Jan 2006 to Oct 2017, with 142 observations. The data reached an all-time high of 65.73 % in Feb 2014 and a record low of 59.55 % in Jun 2006. Uruguay’s Labour Force Participation Rate: National data remains active status in CEIC and is reported by National Institute of Statistics. The data is categorized under World Trend Plus’s Global Economic.

RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC COMPOSITION IN URUGUAY

Ethnic groups Percent
White………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  88%
Mestizo…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  8%
Black……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  4%
Languages
Spanish (Uruguayan Spanish), Uruguayan Sign Language, Portuñol.
There are other ethnic minorities speaking their original languages: Italian, Catalan, German, Plautdietsch, Yiddish, etc.[15]

Religion Percent
Roman Catholic…………………………………………………47.1%
Nondenominational…………………………………………23.2%
Agnostic or Atheist……………………………………17.2%
Non-Catholic Christian……………………………11.1%
Other…………………………………………………………………………1.1%
Jewish………………………………………………………………………0.3%

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS IN URUGUAY
Public Sector: The state in Uruguay has an important role in the economy, Uruguay resisted the trend of privatization in Utilities and state owned enterprises in the region. Several Referendums supported the state being in control of the most important utilities and energy companies. Some of the companies have a full monopoly warranted by law (like landline telephony, water), others compete freely with private operators (Insurance, mobile telephony, Banks). Most of them are dominant in the local market. There is strong debate in the Uruguayan society about their role, and future. Some of them made a contribution to the Uruguay state treasury.
The most important state owned companies are:Republica AFAP (Pension Fund), AFE (Railways), ANCAP (Energy), ANCO (Mail), Administracion Nacional de Puertos (Ports), ANTEL (Telecommunications: Telephony, Mobiles (ANCEL and Data ANTELDATA)), BHU (Mortgage Bank), BROU (Bank), BSE (Insurance), OSE (Water & Sewage), UTE (Electricity). These companies operate under public law, using a legal entity defined in the Uruguayan Constitution called 'Ente Autonomo' (Meaning Autonomic Entity). The government also owns parts of other companies operating under private law like the National Airline Carrier PLUNA and others owned totally or partially by the CND National Development Corporation.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF URUGUAY
Throughout Uruguay's history, their strongest exporting industries have been beef and wool. In the case of beef exports, they have been boosted since Uruguay joined the Mercosur agreement in 1991 and the country has been able to reach more distant markets, such as Japan. In the case of wool exports, they have not been doing so well in recent years suffering from other competitors in the market like New Zealand and the fluctuations of its demand during the 2008/09 recession in the developed world. At the same time with timber refining being kept within the country, forestry has become a growth industry in the recent years.
EXTERNAL DEPENDENCIES OF URUGUAY
Uruguay's External Debt reached 39.1 USD bn in Sep 2017, compared with 38.5 USD bn in the previous quarter. Uruguay's External Debt: USD mn data is updated quarterly, available from Dec 1999 to Sep 2017. The data reached an all-time high of 43.5 USD bn in Jun 2015 and a record low of 12.4 USD bn in Jun 2003.

In the latest reports of Uruguay, Current Account recorded a surplus of 315.7 USD mn in Sep 2017. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) increased by 55.5 USD mn in Sep 2017. Uruguay's Direct Investment Abroad expanded by 168.4 USD mn in Sep 2017. Its Foreign Portfolio Investment increased by 1.1 USD bn in Sep 2017. The country's Nominal GDP was reported at 14.4 USD bn in Sep 2017.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS IN URUGUAY
The politics of Uruguay abide by a presidential representative democratic republic, under which the President of Uruguay is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as a multiform party system. The president exercises executive power and legislative power and is vested in the two chambers of the General Assembly of Uruguay. The Judiciary branch is independent from that of the executive and legislature.
The Colorado and National parties have been locked in a power struggle, with the predominance of the Colorado party throughout most of Uruguay's history. The elections of 2004, however, brought the Encuentro Progresista-Frente Amplio-Nueva Mayoría, a coalition of socialists, former Tupamaros, communists, social democrats, and Christian Democrats among others to power with majorities in both houses of parliament. A majority vote elected President Tabaré Vázquez.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SWEDEN
In the 9th century the Norwegians and Danes turned to raiding and invading Western Europe. However the Swedes were more interested in trade. Improvements in ship design made long distance trade possible. The Swedes crossed the Baltic and traveled along Russian rivers as far as the Byzantine Empire.The number of merchants and craftsmen increased at that time. However Sweden was, of course, an overwhelmingly agricultural society. It was divided into three classes. At the bottom were the slaves or thralls. (Slaves were a common item of trade). A slaves life was, no doubt, horrid. They were made to do all the hardest and most unpleasant work. Above the thralls were the freemen. Their wealth varied greatly and it depended on the amount of land they owned. Some were quite well off and owned slaves. Above them were the jarls or earls. By the 9th century Sweden had become one kingdom. However Swedish kings had little power. When a king died his eldest son did not necessarily inherit the throne. It might go to a younger son or even to the dead kings brother. However as the centuries passed the kings power slowly increased.In the 11th century Sweden was converted to Christianity. Afterwards it became a part of Western civilization.
A missionary called Ansgar went to Sweden in 829 but he had little success in converting the Swedes. However a Swedish king, Olof Stokonung, became a Christian in 1008. However it was a long time before all Swedes were converted. Paganism lingered on in Sweden until the end of the 11th century. Nevertheless by the middle of the 12th century Sweden had become a firmly Christian country.In 1157 King Eric led Sweden in a crusade to convert the Finns. (Although whether the crusade was really motivated by religion or by politics is debatable. After his death in 1160 Eric became the patron saint of Sweden. In the 13th century the Swedes conquered Finland. (The church feared that the Finns would be converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity and so looked with favor upon a Swedish invasion). A second crusade was launched in 1249. The Russian fought the Swedes for control of Finland. However by 1323 Finland was in Swedish hands. Finland remained a province of Sweden until 1809.
SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF SWEDEN

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF SWEDEN
At 449,964 km2 (173,732 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th-largest country in the world the 4th-largest country entirely in Europe, and the largest in Northern Europe. The lowest elevation in Sweden is in the bay of Lake Hammarsjön, near Kristianstad, at −2.41 m (−7.91 ft) below sea level. The highest point is Kebnekaise at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) above sea level.Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap, based on culture, geography and history. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role in people's self-identity. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands, parts, the northern Norrland, the central Svealand and southern Götaland. The sparsely populated Norrland encompasses almost 60% of the country. Sweden also has the Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve, one of the largest protected areas in Europe, totaling 562,772 ha (approx. 5,628 km2). Sweden is located in Northern Europe, between Norway and Finland. The total area of the country is 450,295 km2, and has a population of 9,103,788 as of July 2012.


Sweden's economy overcame the 2009 global financial crisis by maintaining a stringent fiscal discipline despite widespread unemployment issues. The GDP of the country in 2011 was $386.6 billion and GDP per capita of about $42,400.6.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF SWEDEN
In 2010, Sweden was EU’s leading iron ore producer and ranked 10th in iron ore production in the world. In the past few years, the country has been producing ferrous and nonferrous metals such as gold, silver, iron ore, copper, lead, and zinc, and extracted industrial minerals such as dimension stone, crushed stone, and feldspar.
An estimated 4.5 million Swedish residents are employed and around a third of the workforce completed tertiary education. In terms of GDP per-hour-worked, Sweden was the world's ninth highest in 2006 at US$31, compared to US$22 in Spain and US$35 in the United States.GDP per-hour-worked is growing 2.5% per year for the economy as a whole and the trade-terms-balanced productivity growth is 2%.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

According to the OECD, deregulation, globalisation, and technology sector growth have been key productivity drivers.Sweden is a world leader in privatised pensions and pension funding problems are relatively small compared to many other Western European countries. A pilot program to test the feasibility of a six-hour workday, without loss of pay, will commence in 2014, involving the participation of Gothenburg municipal staff. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency. The typical worker receives 40% of his or her labour costs after the tax wedge. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at 52.3% in 1990.The country faced a real estate and banking crisis in 1990–1991, and consequently passed tax reforms in 1991 to implement tax rate cuts and tax base broadening over time. Since 1990, taxes as a percentage of GDP collected by Sweden have been dropping, with total tax rates for the highest income earners dropping the most. In 2010 45.8% of the country's GDP was collected as taxes, the second highest among OECD countries, and nearly double the percentage in the US or South Korea. Tax income-financed employment represents a third of the Swedish workforce, a substantially higher proportion than in most other countries. Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early 1990s.
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF SWEDEN
The official language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians. The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania, the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it. Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority, comprising about 5% of Sweden's population,and Finnish is recognised as a minority language. With a large influx of native speakers of Arabic in latter years, the prevalence of native Arab speakers is likely more widespread than actual usage of Finnish. The actual number is unknown, since no official statistics are kept.Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli, Sami, Romani, and Yiddish. Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented.[8] The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language has been raised in the past, and the Riksdag voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

Before the 11th century, Swedes adhered to Norse paganism, worshiping Æsir gods, with its centre at the Temple in Uppsala. With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late 19th century. After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change led by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread. Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593, and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen, the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS OF SWEDEN
The Swedish government announced that it will privatise a number of wholly and partly state owned companies. "The income from these sales will be used to pay off the government debt and reduce the burden of debt for future generations. The Government's ambition is to sell companies to a value of SEK 200 billion during 2007–2010."
-Ongoing Privatisations:
• Telia Sonera – telecom. 37.3% owned by the Swedish government. Hitherto SEK 18 billion worth of shares has been sold reducing state ownership from 45.3% to 37.3%.
• SBAB – finance. As of October 2013, it seems that plans to privatize this company have been suspended or halted.
-Completed Privatisations:
• OMX – stock exchange. Shares sold to Borse Dubai for 2.1 billion SEK.
• Vin & Sprit. Sold to Pernod Ricard for 5.626 billion Euro.
• Vasakronan. Sold to AP Fastigheter for 4.3 billion Euro.
Nordea – bank. 19.5% owned by Swedish government. Last government-held block of shares was sold in September
The swedes have enjoyed a high social welfare services and public goods most importantly job creation from the government and social corporate responsibility services from the private sector in the form of providing centres for support of the aged, schools for free, charity foundations etc.

Anonymous said...

INTRODUCTION
As a concept, economic development can be seen as a complex and multidimensional concept involving improvement in human wellbeing. Development economics tries to study developed and developing countries.
The classification of a country does not only depend on its income but also on other factors that affect how their citizens live, how their economies are integrated into the global system, and the expansion and diversification of their export industries.
A developed country is one that has a high level of industrial development, bases its economy on technology and manufacturing instead of agriculture. The factors of production such as human and natural resources are fully utilized resulting in an increase in production and consumption which leads to a high level of per capital income.
A country with a high Human Development Index (HDI) rating is considered a developed country. It not only measures the economic development and GDP of a country but also its education and life expectancy. A developed country’s citizens enjoy a free and healthy existence.
This term paper tries to see the difference between developed and developing counties using United Kingdom, Uzbekistan and Nigeria as case studies.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF SWEDEN
Being an economy that relies primarily on industrial production and exports, Sweden’s economic structure has been hit badly by the global economic recession of 2008. The nation witnessed a more than 5% contraction in its GDP in Q4 2008, as compared to the previous quarter, as a result of plummeting exports, reduction of credit and rapid drawdown of stocks. The downturn was subsequently mitigated by Sweden making its fiscal policies more lenient and the Central Bank’s lowering the interest rates to unprecedented low levels. Discretionary fiscal measures of 1.5% of GDP were deployed in 2009 and further measures amounting to 1% of the GDP have been announced in the budget for 2010. The fiscal policies have been geared towards mitigating the effects of the downturn, providing support to domestic demand, and achieving the long term goal of increased incentives in the employment market.
After a weak start to 2009, the Swedish economy stabilized in mid 2009 posting its first quarter of positive GDP growth in over a year in Q2 2009. A number of factors have been responsible for the economic recovery, partly due to the Swedish government’s rapid deployment of fiscal policies, and mostly due to a substantial reduction in risky asset spreads and therefore greater access to the capital markets for businesses in Sweden. The Swedish stock market index was up by more than 40% in October 2009. The fiscal policy outlook is likely to be characterized by a subdued recovery in 2010, gradually gaining momentum in 2011, in the wake of resurgence in consumer consumption and high demand of Swedish exports. Though investments in Sweden are likely to be marginally lower than anticipated, the annual GDP growth should reach 1.5% in 2010 and 2% in 2011.The economic crisis had led to deterioration in the Swedish labor markets, with unemployment rising from an average level of 6.2% in 2008 to 8.3% in September 2009. As the economy is expected to recover in the medium term, unemployment will continue to rise for some time yet. It should peak at about 10% in 2010 from 8.6% in 2009, before falling to expected levels.
EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE OF SWEDEN
Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. Sweden's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in 1814. During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine. However, Sweden also indirectly contributed to the defence of Finland in the Winter War, and permitted the training of Norwegian and Danish troops in Sweden after 1943.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

INTRODUCTION
As a concept, economic development can be seen as a complex and multidimensional concept involving improvement in human wellbeing. Development economics tries to study developed and developing countries.
The classification of a country does not only depend on its income but also on other factors that affect how their citizens live, how their economies are integrated into the global system, and the expansion and diversification of their export industries.
A developed country is one that has a high level of industrial development, bases its economy on technology and manufacturing instead of agriculture. The factors of production such as human and natural resources are fully utilized resulting in an increase in production and consumption which leads to a high level of per capital income.
A country with a high Human Development Index (HDI) rating is considered a developed country. It not only measures the economic development and GDP of a country but also its education and life expectancy. A developed country’s citizens enjoy a free and healthy existence.
This term paper tries to see the difference between developed and developing counties using United Kingdom, Uzbekistan and Nigeria as case studies.

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence. The function of the Swedish military was to deter attack. At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange. In 1952, a Swedish DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG-15 jet fighter. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Another plane, a Catalina search and rescue plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to Cuba during the 1970s, during which he denounced Fulgencio Batista's government and praised contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries in a speech.
Beginning in the late 1960s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of state, but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions. Under the provisions of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the King lacks any formal political power.The King opens the annual Riksdag session, chairs the Special Council held during a change of Government, holds regular Information Councils with the Prime Minister and the Government, chairs the meetings of the Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs (Swedish: Utrikesnämnden), and receives Letters of Credence of foreign ambassadors to Sweden and signs those of Swedish ambassadors sent abroad. In addition, the King pays State Visits abroad and receives those incoming as host.Apart from strictly official duties, the King and the other members of Royal Family undertake a variety of unofficial and other representative duties within Sweden and abroad.
For over 50 years, Sweden had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Riksdag—the Social Democrats, the Moderate Party, the Centre Party, the Liberal People's Party and the Left Party—before the Green Party became the sixth party in the 1988 election. In the 1991 election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the Christian Democrats and New Democracy. The 1994 election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in 2010 that an eighth party, the Sweden Democrats, gained Riksdag seats. In the elections to the European Parliament, parties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: the June List (2004–2009), the Pirate Party (2009–2014), and Feminist Initiative (2014–present).

ONOH, ALEX JNR 2015/197503 ECONOMICS DEPT said...

SUMMARY
In comparing between the countries above, the following questions are answered;
1. What do these countries have in common?
2. What do they have different from each other?
3. What makes one developed and others underdeveloped?
ANSWER 1: From all indications it is clear that Sweden is ahead of Bolivia and Uruguay, but then they all have some things in common which is that they all started somewhere in history to become what they are now, they as well all have locations, sizes, economy, people, cultural and religious systems and governments of their own. Deposits of physical resources are found, extracted and processed by their human resources to be consumed by the larger populace.
ANSWER 2: Their difference hereby demarcates the developed from the underdeveloped in the sense that the underdeveloped countries here, which are Bolivia and Uruguay firstly, in 2009, the per capita GDP of Bolivia was estimated at $2,700. National per capita income stood at US$9,625 for Uruguay, while the GDP of Sweden was $386.6 billion and GDP per capita of about $42,400.6 making a feet-sweeping difference between the developed Sweden and the underdeveloped Bolivia and Uruguay following the official international necessary condition for development, which states that for a country to be called ‘’developed’’ she must have a GDP Per capita not less than $11,905.
Furthermore, Bolivia is essentially a unitary system, with a highly centralized national government, while the politics of Uruguay abide by a presidential representative democratic republic, under which the President of Uruguay is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as a multiform party system and Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of state, but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions.
ANSWER 3: Even though time must have influenced some additions to their respective GDP figures, their rates of growth in welfare for the developing countries have to increase just as well since there is a rift between them(Bolivia and Uruguay) and the developed Sweden in both figures and welfare today to leave the scene of the Third world. The developing countries must become more industrialized. For instance, Sweden's economy overcame the 2009 global financial crisis by maintaining a stringent fiscal discipline despite widespread unemployment issues, meanwhile Uruguay's External Debt reached 39.1 USD bn in Sep 2017, compared with 38.5 USD bn in the previous quarter and Bolivia’s external debt rose from $6.341bn in December 2015 to $7.268bn in December 2016 all of which may not be healthy for the developing countries’ economic development. But I may suggest that if there is an improvement in their industrial sectors, there also could be the same in their room for employment and increased income, GDP and perhaps social welfare scheme.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

HISTORY
United Kingdom
The history of the United Kingdom as a unified sovereign state began in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain.
The Act of Union 1800 added the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The first decades were marked by Jacobite risings which ended with defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the growth of the First British Empire. With the defeat by the United States, France and Spain in the War of American Independence, Britain lost its 13 American colonies and rebuilt its second British Empire based in Asia and Africa. As a result, the culture of the United Kingdom, and its technological, political, constitutional, and linguistic influence, became worldwide.
In 1922, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, most of Ireland seceded to become the Irish Free State; a day later, Northern Ireland seceded from the Free State and returned to the United Kingdom. In 1927 the United Kingdom changed its formal title to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, usually shortened to Britain and (after 1945) to the United Kingdom or UK.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

In the Second World War, in which the Soviet Union, China and the US joined Britain as Allied powers, Britain and its Empire fought a successful war against Germany, Italy and Japan. The cost was high and Britain no longer had the wealth to maintain an empire, so it granted independence to almost all its possessions. The new states typically joined the Commonwealth of Nations. Postwar years saw great hardships until prosperity returned in the 1950s, meanwhile the Labour Party built a welfare state, nationalized many industries, and created the National Health Service. The UK took a strong stand against Communist expansion after 1945, playing a major role in the Cold War and the formation of NATO as an anti-Soviet military alliance with West Germany, France the U.S. and smaller countries. The United Kingdom has been a leading member of the United Nations since its founding. It joined the European Union in 1973. Since the 1990s large-scale devolution movements in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have changed the political structure of the country. The Brexit referendum in 2016 committed the country to an exit from the European Union.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is located in the heart of Central Asia, between two large rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya. History of nations, living on this territory, is more than thousand years. This land became the motherland of civilization, which is perhaps one of the most ancient in the world.
People settled on the territory of Uzbekistan centuries ago. They built beautiful cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and others, which were ruined by neighboring tribes, but thanks to people’s efforts they again rose from the ashes and became much beautiful. This land was the crossroad of the Great Silk Road, connecting Asia and Europe. Here, in numerous bazaars and workshops craftsmen created fine works of art, which by the Silk Road reached the most remote parts of Europe and Asia.
According to archeologists, Uzbekistan is one of the most ancient places of human habitation. It is known, that the area was inhabited long before our era, in the early Paleolithic period, according to the findings of ancient dwellings in Baysun Tau mountains and primitive tools in Samarkand. In the upper Paleolithic period this land was settled by Neanderthals; their burial place, discovered in the Teshik-Tash cave, dates back to the Moustierian culture. Particularly, archeologists discovered the burial of 8-9 years old boy that gives grounds to speak about the most ancient ritual of burial on the territory of Central Asia. The child’s body was laid into a pit, surrounded by bones of a mountain goat. Excavations show that a man of that period hunted and gathered food from natural sources. Primitive tools were made of a stone as well as wood and bones.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Next epoch was the Mesolithic era, 15-20 millenniums ago. Typical monuments of that period are a primitive settlement in Samarkand, upper soil layers of Machay cave of the Baysun region, rock paintings in the Shibad region and others.
Developed Neolithic era is characterized by the transition to a lower stage of barbarism, as evidenced by the settlement on the western part of Kyzyl Kum desert, near Amu Darya River, settlement in Uzgun, northern part of Karakum Desert, cave dwellings in Surkhandarya region and findings in Tashkent, Fergana, Samarkand and Surkhandarya regions. Primitive pottery, shepherd cattle-breeding and weaving were developed.
Bronze epoch in the history of Uzbekistan includes the period from the 3rd millennium to early centuries of 1st millenniums BC. It was the epoch of transformations, formation of first states on the territory of two great rivers: Ancient Baktria and Great Khorezm. It was the period of origin of first religion in Central Asia, Zoroastrianism, and first powerful empire of Achaemenids.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Nigeria
Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers (Nigerians) living in the area as early as 11000 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Empire, and the Oyo Empire. Islam reached Nigeria through the Hausa States during the 11th century, while Christianity came to Nigeria in the 15th century through Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal. The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region. Lagos was invaded by British forces in 1851 and formally annexed in 1861. Nigeria became a British protectorate in 1901. Colonization lasted until 1960, when an independence movement succeeded in gaining Nigeria its independence.
Nigeria first became a republic in 1963, but succumbed to military rule three years later after a bloody coup d'état. A separatist movement later formed the Republic of Biafra in 1967, leading to the three-year Nigerian Civil War. Nigeria became a republic once again after a new constitution was written in 1979. However, the republic was short-lived, when the military seized power again four years later. A new republic was planned to established in August 1993, but was dissolved once again by General Sani Abacha three months later. Abacha died in 1998 and a fourth republic was later established the following year, which ended three decades of intermittent military rule. Since then, Democracy has been d government of the day with Government leaders being elected into office till date.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
United Kingdom
The UK is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of NATO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G7 finance ministers, the G7 forum (previously the G8 forum), the G20, the OECD, the WTO, the Council of Europe, the OSCE. It is also a member state of the European Union in the process of withdrawal. The UK is said to have a "Special Relationship" with the United States and a close partnership with France—the "Entente cordiale"—and shares nuclear weapons technology with both countries. The UK is also closely linked with the Republic of Ireland; the two countries share a Common Travel Area and co-operate through the British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference and the British-Irish Council. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in 1999. Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability. Uzbekistan was an active supporter of U.S. efforts against worldwide terrorism and joined the coalitions that have dealt with both Afghanistan and Iraq.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called "colour revolutions" in Georgia and Ukraine. When the U.S. joined in a call for an independent international investigation of the bloody events at Andijan, the relationship further declined, and President Islam Karimov changed the political alignment of the country to bring it closer to Russia and China.
Uzbekistan is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), Partnership for Peace (PfP), and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). It belongs to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) In 1999, Uzbekistan joined the GUAM alliance which was formed in 1997, but pulled out of the organization in 2005. Uzbekistan is also a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). Uzbekistan joined the new Central Asian Cooperation Organisation (CACO) in 2002.
In September 2006, UNESCO presented Islam Karimov an award for Uzbekistan's preservation of its rich culture and traditions. Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

The month of October 2006 also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West. The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two. Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, it is generally assumed among Uzbekistan's population that the government will stand firm in maintaining its close ties with the Russian Federation and in its theory that the 2004–2005 protests in Uzbekistan were promoted by the USA and UK.
Nigeria
Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centre-piece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa.
Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organization for African Unity (now the African Union), and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and ECOMOG, Economic and Military Organizations, respectively. Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement.
Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which it joined in July 1971.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
United Kingdom
Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 11th century: the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans. Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK and that the British broadly share a common ancestry with the Basque people.
Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. 30.4% of London's population and 37.4% of Leicester's was estimated to be non-white in 2005, whereas less than 5% of the populations of North East England, Wales and the South West were from ethnic minorities, according to the 2001 census. In 2016, 31.4% of primary and 27.9% of secondary pupils at state schools in England were members of an ethnic minority.
Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1400 years. Although a majority of citizens still identify with Christianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the middle of the 20th century, while immigration and demographic change have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Islam. This has led some commentators to variously describe the UK as a multi-faith, secularised, or post-Christian society.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

In the 2001 census 71.6% of all respondents indicated that they were Christians, with the next largest faiths being Islam (2.8%), Hinduism (1.0%), Sikhism (0.6%), Judaism (0.5%), Buddhism (0.3%) and all other religions (0.3%). 15% of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 7% not stating a religious preference.
The Church of England is the established church in England. It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor. In Scotland, the Church of Scotland is recognised as the national church. It is not subject to state control, and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession. The Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 and, as the Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1870 before the partition of Ireland, there is no established church in Northern Ireland.
Uzbekistan
Islam is by far the dominant religion in Uzbekistan, as Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 16% of the population follow other religions and non-religious. A 2009 Pew Research Center report stated that Uzbekistan's population is 96.3% Muslim. An estimated 93,000 Jews were once present in the country.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

However, in the latter half of the 2010s there has been a slight increase in Islamist activity, with organisations such as the Islamic Movement of Uzkebistan committing allegiance to ISIL and contributing fighters for terror attacks overseas, although the terror threat in Uzbekistan itself remains low.
Nigeria
Nigeria has more than 500 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo and Fulani, together accounting for more than 70% of the population, while the Urhobo-Isoko, Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gwari, Jukun, Igala, Idoma and Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%.
With Christianity and Islam being the most widely professed religions. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Christians and Muslims, with a tiny minority of adherents of Animism and other religions.
Islam dominated the north and had a number of supporters in the South Western, Yoruba part of the country. Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in sub-Saharan Africa. Protestantism and local syncretic Christianity are also in evidence in Yoruba areas, while Roman Catholicism is more prominent in south eastern Nigeria. Both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism dominated in the Ibibio, Annang, and the Efik kiosa lands.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

The 1963 census indicated that 47% of Nigerians were Muslim, 35% Christian, and 18% members of local indigenous congregations. If accurate, this indicated a sharp increase since 1953 in the number of Christians (up 23%); a decline among those professing indigenous beliefs, compared with 20%; and only a modest (6%) drop of Muslims which can likely be attributed to immigration, emigration, and birthrate.
The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is predominantly Roman Catholic and the Edo area is composed predominantly of members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God, which was introduced into Nigeria by Augustus Ehurie Wogu and his associates at Old Umuahia.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUP
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch and head of state of the UK, as well as Queen of fifteen other independent Commonwealth countries. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". The Constitution of the United Kingdom is uncodified and consists mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes, judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and "constitutional law", the UK Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Uzbekistan
After Uzbekistan declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, an election was held, and Islam Karimov was elected as the first President of Uzbekistan.
The elections of the Oliy Majlis (Parliament or Supreme Assembly) were held under a resolution adopted by the 16th Supreme Soviet in 1994. In that year, the Supreme Soviet was replaced by the Oliy Majlis.
The third elections for the bicameral 150-member Oliy Majlis, the Legislative Chamber, and the 100-member Senate for five-year terms, were held on 27 December 2009. The second elections were held in December 2004 to January 2005. The Oliy Majlis was unicameral up to 2004. Its size increased from 69 deputies (members) in 1994 to 120 in 2004–05, and currently stands at 150.
The referendum passed, and Islam Karimov's term was extended by an act of parliament to December 2007. Most international observers refused to participate in the process and did not recognize the results, dismissing them as not meeting basic standards. The 2002 referendum also included a plan for a bicameral parliament consisting of a lower house (the Oliy Majlis) and an upper house (Senate). Members of the lower house are to be "full-time" legislators. Elections for the new bicameral parliament took place on 26 December.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Nigeria
Nigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the President. It is influenced by the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. The president presides as both head of state and head of the federal government; the leader is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two 4-year terms.
The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. The House contains 360 seats, with the number of seats per state is determined by population.
As in many other African societies, prebendalism and high rates of corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria. All major parties have practised vote rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive. In 1983, the policy institute at Kuru concluded that only the 1959 and 1979 elections to that time were conducted with minimal vote rigging. In 2012, Nigeria was estimated to have lost over $400 billion to corruption since independence.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
United Kingdom
The UK service sector makes up around 73% of GDP. London is one of the three "command centres" of the global economy (alongside New York City and Tokyo), it is the world's largest financial centre alongside New York, and it has the largest city GDP in Europe. Edinburgh is also one of the largest financial centres in Europe. Tourism is very important to the British economy; with over 27 million tourists arriving in 2004, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world and London has the most international visitors of any city in the world. The creative industries accounted for 7% GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6% per annum between 1997 and 2005.
INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
United Kingdom
The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry, followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining and steelmaking. British merchants, shippers and bankers developed overwhelming advantage over those of other nations allowing the UK to dominate international trade in the 19th century. As other nations industrialised, coupled with economic decline after two world wars, the United Kingdom began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only 16.7% of national output in 2003.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

The automotive industry is a significant part of the UK manufacturing sector and employs around 800,000 people, with a turnover in 2015 of some £70 billion, generating £34.6 billion of exports (11.8% of the UK's total export goods). The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing and in 2015 around 2.4 million engines were produced in the country.
The Aerospace industry of the UK is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry in the world depending upon the method of measurement and has an annual turnover of around £30 billion. In 2016, the global market opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the next two decades was estimated to be £3.5 trillion. The wings for the Airbus A380 and the A350 XWB, Boeing 787, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, Rolls-Royce (the engines) are designed and manufactured in the UK.
The UK space industry was worth £9.1bn in 2011 and employed 29,000 people. It is growing at a rate of 7.5% annually, according to its umbrella organisation, the UK Space Agency. Government strategy is for the space industry to be a £40bn business for the UK by 2030, capturing a 10% share of the $250bn world market for commercial space technology. On 16 July 2013, the British Government pledged £60 m to the Skylon project: this investment will provide support at a "crucial stage" to allow a full-scale prototype of the SABRE engine to be built.
The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the UK economy and the country has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D expenditures (after the United States and Japan).

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 1.6% of the labour force (535,000 workers). Around two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, one-third to arable crops. Farmers are subsidised by the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry.
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan's industrial sector accounted for 33 percent of its NMP in 1991. Despite some efforts to diversify its industrial base, industry remains dominated by raw materials extraction and processing, most of which is connected with cotton production and minerals. As illustrated especially by the domestic oil industry, in the Soviet era industrial production generally lagged behind consumption, making Uzbekistan a net importer of many industrial products. Under the difficult economic conditions caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union's system of allocations and interdependence of republics, this situation has worsened. In 1993 total manufacturing had decreased by 1 percent from its 1990 level, and mining output had decreased by more than 8 percent.
The Tashkent region, in the northeastern "peninsula" adjacent to the Fergana Valley, accounts for about one-third of the industrial output of Uzbekistan, with agricultural machinery the most important product.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Uzbekistan's most productive heavy industries have been extraction of natural gas and oil; oil refining; mining and mineral processing; machine building, especially equipment for cotton cultivation and the textile industry; coal mining; and the ferrous metallurgy, chemical, and electrical power industries. The chemical manufacturing industry focuses primarily on the production of fertilizer.
Two oil refineries in Uzbekistan, located at Farghona and Amtiari, have a combined capacity of 173,000 barrels per day. Other centers of the processing industries include Angren (for coal), Bekobod (steel), Olmaliq (copper, zinc, and molybdenum), Zarafshon (gold), and Yangiobod (uranium). The Uzbek fertilizer industry was established at Chirchiq, northeast of Tashkent, near Samarqand, and at several sites in the Fergana Basin. Uzbekistan is the largest producer of machinery for all phases of cotton cultivation and processing, as well as for irrigation, in the former Soviet Union. The machine building industry is centered at Tashkent, Chirchiq, Samarqand, and Andijon in the east, and at Nukus in Karakalpakstan.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Nigeria
Nigeria in recent years has been embracing industrialisation. It currently has an indigenous vehicle manufacturing company, Innoson Motors, which manufactures Rapid Transit Buses, trucks and SUVs with an upcoming introduction of cars. Nigeria also has few Electronic manufacturers like Zinox, the first Branded Nigerian Computer and Electronic gadgets (like tablet PCs) manufacturers. In 2013, Nigeria introduced a policy regarding import duty on vehicles to encourage local manufacturing companies in the country. In this regard, some foreign vehicle manufacturing companies like Nissan have made known their plans to have manufacturing plants in Nigeria. Ogun State is considered to be the current Nigeria's industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
United Kingdom
The UK is rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
Uzbekistan
Resources of Uzbekistan include: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

Nigeria
Oil is the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. (The country joined OPEC in 1971). Apart from petroleum, Nigeria’s other natural resources include natural gas, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc and arable land. The oil and gas sector accounts for about 35 per cent of gross domestic product, and petroleum exports revenue represents over 90 per cent of total exports revenue.
Nigeria has one of the fastest growing telecommunications markets in the world, major emerging market operators (like MTN, Etisalat, Airtel and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country. The government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to space based communications. Nigeria has a space satellite that is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja.
Nigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

CONCLUSION
The term “developed country” is synonymous to “industrialized country, post-industrial country, more developed country, advanced country, and first-world country.” The United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States of America are only a few of those considered as developed .
A developing country, on the other hand, is one that has a low level of industrialization. It has a higher level of birth and death rates than developed countries. Its infant mortality rate is also high due to poor nutrition, shortage of medical services, and little knowledge on health.
The citizens of developing countries have a low to medium standard of living because their per capita income is still developing, and their technological capacity is still being developed. There is also an unequal distribution of income in developing countries, and their factors of production are not fully utilized. Developing countries are also referred to as third-world countries or least-developed countries.

Ugwu Jeremiah Chukwuebuka Reg No;2014/196392 Department; Economics Level; 300 said...

REFERENCE
http://countrystudies.us/uzbekistan/39.htm
https://www.advantour.com/uzbekistan/history.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Uzbekistan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_Kingdom
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Nigeria
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbekistan#History
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbekistan#Foreign_relations
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbekistan#Religion
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbekistan#Politics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom






ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

BULGARIA
Historical Background:
The history of Bulgaria can be traced from the first settlements on the lands of modern Bulgaria to its formation as a nation-state and includes the history of the Bulgarian people and their origin. The earliest evidence of human occupation discovered on what is today Bulgaria date from at least 1.4 million years ago. Around 5000 BC, a sophisticated civilization already existed and produced some of the first pottery and jewelry in the world. After 3000 BC, the Thracians appeared on the Balkan Peninsula. In the late 6th century BC, most of what is nowadays Bulgaria came under the Persian Empire. In the 470s BC, the Thracians formed the powerful Odrysian Kingdom, probably after the Persian defeat in Greece, which subsequently declined and Thracian tribes fell under Macedonian, Celtic and Roman domination. This mixture of ancient peoples was assimilated by the Slavs, who permanently settled on the peninsula after 500 AD.
Meanwhile, in 632 the Bulgars formed an independent state north of the Black sea that became known as Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat. Pressure from the Khazars led to the disintegration of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the 7th century. One of the Kubrat's successors, Asparukh, migrated with some of the Bulgar tribes to the area around the Danube delta, and subsequently conquered Scythia Minor and Moesia Inferior from the Byzantine Empire, expanding his new kingdom further into the Balkan Peninsula. In the 11th century, the First Bulgarian Empire collapsed under Rus' and Byzantine attacks, and became part of the Byzantine Empire until 1185. Then, a major uprising led by two brothers - Asen and Peter of the Asen dynasty, restored the Bulgarian state to form the Second Bulgarian Empire. After reaching its apogee in the 1230s, Bulgaria started to decline due to a number of factors, most notably its geographic position which rendered it vulnerable to simultaneous attacks and invasions from many sides.
With the decline of the Ottoman Empire after 1700, signs of revival started to emerge. The Bulgarian nobility had vanished, leaving an egalitarian peasant society with a small but growing urban middle class. By the 19th century, the Bulgarian National Revival became a key component of the struggle for independence, which would culminate in the failed April uprising in 1876, which prompted the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and the subsequent Liberation of Bulgaria. Bulgaria's economic advancement during the era came to an end in the 1980s, and the collapse of the Communist system in Eastern Europe marked a turning point for the country's development. A series of crises in the 1990s left much of Bulgaria's industry and agriculture in shambles, although a period of relative stabilization began with the election of Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as prime minister in 2001. Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

BULGARIA CONTD
Size and Income Level:
The land area of Bulgaria is 110,879 square kilometres (42,811 sq mi), slightly larger than that of Iceland or the U.S. state of Tennessee. The population of bulgaira is about a total of 7,364,570. The population density (people per square kilometer) of Bulgaria lies between the range of 71.8 and 65.6 approximately. Bulgaria has the labour force of 2.525 million (2016 estimate)
Bulgarian economy has experienced rapid growth in recent years reaching estimated gross domestic product (GDP) of $152 billion (PPP, 2017 estimate). The GDP per capita of Bulgaria is $7,392 in nominal terms. As at 2015, the GDP per capita in terms of purchasing power parity was $19508.97, by 2017 it rose to $21,498 (PPP, 2017 estimate), and average monthly gross salary of 1,064 leva, which is approximately 544 euro (September, 2017) and average net salary of BGN 560/ € 286/ $ 339 (June, 2016).
Physical and Human Resources
Bulgaria is a country situated in south-eastern Europe, bordering Romania to the north, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The northern border with Romania follows the river Danube until the city of Silistra. Even within small parts of the country, the land may be divided into plains, plateaus, hills, mountains, basins, gorges, and deep river valleys. There are approximately 60 types of minerals that are extracted commercially in Bulgaria. The mineral resources are divided into three groups: fossil fuels, metals and industrial minerals. The fossil fuels include coal, petroleum and natural gas. Bulgaria has significant reserves of metal ores, especially copper, zinc and lead, situated mainly in the southern half of the country. Bulgaria is rich in industrial minerals, a number of them are; rock salt, kaolin, marble limestone, gypsum, baryte, perlite, feldspar, granite, etc.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

Bulgaria Contd
Ethnic and Religious Composition:
Bulgaria is composed of many ethnic groups which include the following: Albanians in Bulgaria, Arabs in Bulgaria, Armenians in Bulgaria, Aromanians, Banat Bulgarians, Banat Swabians Bulgarian, Turks Bulgarians, Bulgarians in Bulgaria, Crimean Tatars in Bulgaria Czechs and Slovaks in Bulgaria, Danube Swabians, Dobrujan Bulgarians, Dobrujan Germans, Gagauz people, Gajal Germans in Bulgaria, Greeks in Bulgaria Lipovans, Ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria, Romani people in Bulgaria, Russians in Bulgaria, Sarakatsani Serbs in Bulgaria, Vietnamese people in Bulgaria, and the Vlachs in Bulgaria. As regards to religion, Bulgaria has been traditionally a Christian state since the adoption of Christianity as state religion in 865, and therefore the dominant confession is Eastern Orthodoxy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. During the Ottoman rule of the Balkans, Sunni Islam established itself in the territories of Bulgaria; the Catholic Church has roots in the country since the middle Ages, and Protestantism arrived in the 19th century. The religion found today in Bulgaria include: Christianity, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Protestantism, Catholic Church, and Islam.
Relative Importance of Public and Private Sectors:
While the size of the civil service in Bulgaria is small in comparison with OECD countries, its composition reflects a disproportional share of health and education employment. The civilian government comprises of the central government, and the local government. Over the period 1997 to 1999, the number of central government employees increased by 28.2 percent. The increase in the number of local government employees over the same period was only 4.3 percent. However, in Bulgaria, private sectors are more emphasized than the public sector unlike in the Russia where most of the means of production are owned by the state.
Industrial Sector:
The industrial sectors in the Bulgarian economy are energy, mining, metallurgy, machine building, agriculture and tourism. Primary industrial exports are clothing, iron and steel, machinery and refined fuels. Sofia is the capital and economic heart of Bulgaria and home to most major Bulgarian and international companies operating in the country, as well as the Bulgarian National Bank and the Bulgarian Stock Exchange. In recent years, electronics and electric equipment production has regained higher levels. Household appliances, computers, CDs, telephones, medical and scientific equipment are being produced. In 2008 the electronics industry shipped more than $260 million in exports, primarily of components, computers and consumer electronics. Oil refining survived the shocks of the 1990s because of a continuing export market and the purchase of the Burgas refinery by the Russian oil giant LUKoil. The chemical industry has remained in good overall condition but is subject to fluctuating natural gas prices. Growth in ferrous metallurgy, which is dominated by the Kremikovtsi Metals Combine, has been delayed by a complex privatization process and by obsolete capital equipment. Non-ferrous metallurgy has prospered because the Pirdop copper smelting plant was bought by Union Minière of Belgium and because export markets have been favourable.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

Bulgaria Contd
External Dependence:
Before the world war, Bulgaria had endeavoured to reduce their external dependence this meant strong promotion of import substitution policies to bolster domestic production of goods previously imported. Before World War II, Germany was the main Bulgaria's top trading partner. But, after the war, they diverted most of their trade from the Western Europe to Eastern Europe especially the Soviet Union. In the 1950s, the Bulgarian depended largely on importation of machinery which accounted for half of their total importation. The end of central planning opened the Bulgarian economy to world competition and began a wrenching transition for which it was ill-equipped in finance, industrial diversity, agricultural infrastructure, and available natural resources. The transition was made doubly difficult because the long years of privileged access to energy had fostered inefficient energy use in the Bulgarian economy.
Under the new economic conditions, imports would be purchased only in hard currency; although Western firms and governments offered some credits and aid in 1991, Western investors preferred Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia to Bulgaria. Those countries were more familiar to Westerners, and they had had relatively advanced market economies before World War II. For these reasons, in the early 1990s they received the lion's share of a rather meager Western investment in Eastern Europe.
Political Structure, Power, and Interest Groups:
The politics of Bulgaria take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The president of Bulgaria is directly elected for a 5-year term with the right to one re-election. The president serves as the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. The President's main duties are to schedule elections and referendums, represent Bulgaria abroad, conclude international treaties, and head the Consultative Council for National Security. The Bulgarian has a unicameral parliament, the National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie, which consists of 240 deputies who are elected for 4-year-terms by popular vote.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

THE RUSSIA
Historical Background:
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. The traditional beginning of Russian history is 862 A.D. Kievan Rus', the first united East Slavic state, was founded in 882. The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning with the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Slavic culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237–1240 and the death of about half the population of Rus'.
After the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center of Moscovia. By the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had become the huge Russian Empire, stretching from the Polish border eastward to the Pacific Ocean. Expansion in the western direction sharpened Russia's awareness of its separation from much of the rest of Europe and shattered the isolation in which the initial stages of expansion had occurred. Successive regimes of the 19th century responded to such pressures with a combination of halfhearted reform and repression. Peasant revolts were common, and all were fiercely suppressed. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasant fared poorly and often turned to revolutionary pressures. In following decades reforms efforts such as the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906, and State Duma attempted to open and liberalize the economy and political system, but the tsars refused to relinquish autocratic rule or share their power.
The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown, war-weariness, and discontent with the autocratic system of government, and it first brought a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists to power, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the communist Bolsheviks on 25 October.
By the mid-1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on major reforms, which led to the overthrow of the Communist party and the breakup of the USSR, leaving Russia again on its own and marking the start of the history of post-Soviet Russia. The Russian Federation began in January 1992 as the legal successor to the USSR. Russia retained its nuclear arsenal but lost its superpower status. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the socialist era, new leaders, led by President Vladimir Putin, took political and economic power after 2000 and engaged in an energetic foreign policy. Russia's treatment of Ukraine led to severe economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union.
Size and Income Level:
The land area of Russia is 17,098,246 square kilometers (6,601,670 sq mi). Russia has a labour force of 76.9 million (2016 estimate) The Russian economy can be said to be fairly stable with the estimated gross domestic product (GDP) of about $1.560 trillion (2017) in nominal terms, which is the nominal GDP. Also, the GDP was estimated to be about $3.938 trillion (2017) in terms of purchasing power parity. The GDP per capital of Russia was estimated as $8,838 (2016) in terms of nominal GDP, and $23,875 (2016) in terms of purchasing power parity. Russia the average net salary of 32,746 RUB / US$565 per month 03.2017.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

Russia Contd
Physical and Human Resources:
Russia (the Russian Federation) spans almost half the globe from east to west and about 4,000 kilometers from north to south. It has various geographical features and mineral resources as well as human resources. Some of the resources in Russia include the following: minerals, oil, gas, coal, and timber. Russia holds the greatest reserves of mineral resources than any country in the world. Though they are abundant, they are in remote areas with extreme climates, making them expensive to mine. The country is the most abundant in mineral fuels. It may hold as much as half of the world's coal reserves and even larger reserves of petroleum. Deposits of coal are scattered throughout the region, but the largest are located in central and eastern Siberia.
Ethnic and Religious Composition:
Besides the Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians), who account for about 85 percent of Russia's population, three main ethnic groups and a handful of isolated smaller groups reside within the federation. The Altaic group includes mainly speakers of Turkic languages. The Uralic group, consisting of Finnic peoples living in the upper Volga, the far northwest, and the Urals, includes the Karelians, Komi, Mari, Mordovians, and Udmurts. The Caucasus group is concentrated along the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains; its main subgroups are the Adyghs, Chechens, Cherkess, Ingush, and Kabardins. Religion in Russia is diverse, with a 1997 law naming Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism as important in Russian history. Orthodox Christianity is Russia's traditional and largest religion, deemed a part of Russia's "historical heritage" in the law passed in 1997. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 there has been a widespread revival of Siberian shamanism throughout Russia.
Relative Importance of Public and Private Sector:
Private ownership of enterprises and property had essentially remained illegal throughout the Soviet era, with Soviet communism emphasizing national control over all means of production but human labor. Under the Soviet Union, the number of state enterprises was estimated at 45,000. In the later years of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev relaxed restrictions on private property and introduced initial market reforms. Privatization shifted Russia from the Soviet planned economy towards a market economy.
Industrial Sector:
Russia has a large and sophisticated arms industry, capable of designing and manufacturing high-tech military equipment, including a fifth-generation fighter jet, nuclear powered submarines, firearms, short range/long range ballistic missiles. Russia's defense industry employs 2.5 – 3 million people, accounting for 20% of all manufacturing jobs. Russia is the world's second largest conventional arms exporter after the United States. Aircraft manufacturing is an important industry sector in Russia, employing around 355,300 people. The Russian aircraft industry offers a portfolio of internationally competitive military aircraft such as MiG-29 and Su-30. In 2009, companies belonging to the United Aircraft Corporation delivered 95 new fixed-wing aircraft to its customers, including 15 civilian models. In addition, the industry produced over 141 helicopters. Automobile production is a significant industry in Russia, directly employing around 600,000 people or 0.7% of the country's total work force. In addition, the industry supports around 2–3 million people in related industries.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

Russia Contd
External Dependence:
Russian main exports are energy (oil and petroleum products, gas, coal), rolled steel, ferrous and nonferrous metals and minerals. The greater part of Russian exports belongs to oil and petroleum products. Other leading exports are natural gas, timber, fertilizers, machinery and equipment, armaments. The foreign countries receive from Russia over 300 million tons of oil and approximately 250 billion cubic meters of gas. Russia imports machinery and equipment, vehicles, consumer goods, foodstuffs, chemical products, industrial consumer goods. Major trading partners of Russia are Germany, Italy, China, Turkey, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Finland
Political Structure, Power and Interest Groups:
The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in the framework of a federal semi-presidential republic. According to the Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state and of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the government, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval. Legislative power is vested in the two houses of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issued numerous legally binding by-laws.
Since gaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union at -the end of 1991, Russia has faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. A new constitution, creating a strong presidency, was approved by referendum in December 1993. The 1993 constitution created a dual executive consisting of a president and prime minister, but the president is the dominant figure. The presidential power oversees the domestic and foreign policies. The president is empowered to appoint the prime minister to chair the Government with the consent of the State Duma. The legislative bramch consists of 616 members of the parliaments, known as the federal assembly, which is made up of two houses, the 450-member State Duma (the lower house) and the 166-member Federation Council (the upper house). The Judiciary of Russia is defined under the Constitution and law of Russia with a hierarchical structure with the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Supreme Court of Arbitration at the apex.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

NEW ZEALAND
Historical Background:
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. The first European explorer to sight New Zealand was Dutch navigator Abel Tasman on 13 December 1642. The Dutch were also the first non-natives to explore and chart New Zealand's coastline. Captain James Cook, who reached New Zealand in October 1769 on the first of his three voyages, was the first European explorer to circumnavigate and map New Zealand. From the late 18th century, the country was regularly visited by explorers and other sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between the British Crown and various Māori chiefs, bringing New Zealand into the British Empire and giving Māori the same rights as British subjects. There was extensive British settlement throughout the rest of the century and into the early part of the next century. War and the imposition of a European economic and legal system led to most of New Zealand's land passing from Māori to Pākehā (European) ownership, and most Māori subsequently became impoverished.
From the 1890s the New Zealand Parliament enacted a number of progressive initiatives, including women's suffrage and old age pensions. The country remained an enthusiastic member of the British Empire, and 110,000 men fought in World War I (see New Zealand Expeditionary Force). After the war New Zealand signed the Treaty of Versailles (1919), joined the League of Nations, and pursued an independent foreign policy, while its defence was still controlled by Britain.
When World War II broke out in 1939, New Zealanders contributed to the defence of the British Empire; the country contributed some 120,000 troops. From the 1930s the economy was highly regulated and an extensive welfare state was developed. Meanwhile, Māori culture underwent a renaissance, and from the 1950s Māori began moving to the cities in large numbers. This led to the development of a Māori protest movement which in turn led to greater recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi in the late 20th century.
The country's economy suffered in the aftermath of the 1973 global energy crisis, the loss of New Zealand's biggest export market upon Britain's entry to the European Economic Community, and rampant inflation. In 1984, the Fourth Labour Government was elected amid a constitutional and economic crisis. The interventionist policies of the Third National Government were replaced by "Rogernomics", a commitment to a free market economy. Foreign policy after 1980 became more independent especially in pushing for a nuclear-free zone. Subsequent governments have generally maintained these policies, although tempering the free market ethos somewhat.
Size and Income level:
The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 68th-largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). The overall GDP of New Zealand isUS$186.4 billion (2017, PPP) as measured by the purchasing power parity. It has the labour force of about 2.399 million (2016 estimate.) Their GDP per capita as estimated by World Bank in 2016 is $39048.52 as measured via the purchasing power parity, and nominal GDP of $39416.35 (2016 estimate).

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

New Zealand Contd
Physical and Human Resources:
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country located in the south-western Pacific Ocean, near the centre of the water hemisphere. The country has a variety of natural resources including: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, hydropower, gold, limestone arable land, wheat, barley, and sheep. The proportion of New Zealand's area (excluding estuaries) covered by rivers, lakes and ponds, based on figures from the New Zealand Land Cover Database,[14] is (357526 + 81936) / (26821559 – 92499–26033 – 19216) = 1.6%. If estuarine open water, mangroves, and herbaceous saline vegetation are included, the figure is 2.2%.
Ethnic and Religious Composition:
The major ethnic groups in New Zealand are the Europeans, the Maori, the Asian, the Pacific peoples, the Middle Eastern, the Latin American, and some Africans. As regards to religion, Religion in New Zealand encompasses a wide range of groups and beliefs. Christianity is the most common religion with almost half (48 percent) of the population at the 2013 New Zealand census declaring an affiliation. Around six percent of the population affiliated with non-Christian religions, with Hinduism being the largest at over two percent, while 42 percent of New Zealanders stated they had no religion in the most recent census and 4 percent made no declaration. Some of the religion found in New Zealand are; Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and other sect of people who do not believe in God and religion (Atheists).
Relative Importance of the Public and Private Sectors:
Public sector organizations in New Zealand comprise the state sector organizations plus those of local government. Within the state sector lies the state services, and within this lies the core public service. Legally, the Legislative Branch non-public service departments (the Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the Parliamentary Service, Executive Branch non-public service departments, and the public service departments are all part of "the Crown".
Industrial sector:
The main industries in New Zealand are: Food processing, textiles, machinery and transportation equipment, finance, tourism, mining. New Zealand’s earliest factories were in the quarries of greenstone and argillite, where Māori workers shaped stone for tools and ornaments. The first European factories were on whaling ships, although onshore preparation of whale oil soon proved more efficient. Later, people made clothes or wooden objects at home, or in establishments too small to be formally considered factories. The processing of resources – including aluminum based on electricity, the exploitation of hydrocarbons, steel based on iron sands, and wood products – also involved larger-scale manufacture. Most processing was established after 1945 and was not large in international terms. The biggest industrial plant produced pulp and paper at Kawerau.

ONWUMEREOBI IFEANYI VICTOR said...

External Dependence:
New Zealand is heavily dependent on free trade, specifically on agricultural products. As of 2007, exports account for roughly 24% of the country’s output. While New Zealand’s total exports amounted to $26.25 billion in 2009, its total imports came in at $24.29 billion. There exports shares depend on countries like, Australia: 23.2%, US: 10.1%, Japan: 8.4%, and The People's Republic of China: 5.9%. They import from Australia 18.1%, China 13.2, US 9.5, Japan 8.3%, Singapore 4.7%, Malaysia 4.4%, Germany 4.3%.
Political structure, Power and Interest Groups:
The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy in which a hereditary monarch since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II is the sovereign and head of state. Parliament is responsible for passing laws (statutes), adopting the state's budgets, and exercising control of the Government. It currently has a single chamber, the House of Representatives. The Queen's role is largely ceremonial, and her residual powers the "royal prerogative" are mostly exercised through the government of the day. These include the power to enact legislation, to sign treaties and to declare war. Since the Queen is not usually resident in New Zealand, the functions of the monarchy are conducted by a representative, the Governor-General. New Zealand has four levels of courts: The Supreme Court of New Zealand, The Court of Appeal, The High Court, and The District Court (including the Youth Court).


REFERENCES
Encyclopedia of Nations (2017) Dependencies - New Zealand - tax, located, import, export, area, crops, annual, farming, system. www.nationsencyclopedia.com/asia/oceania/newzealand/dependencies
Krassen S. (2017) Bulgarian Law: Public Sector of the Economy and Privatization www.cecl.gr/rigasnetwork/databank/reports
U.S. Library of Congress (2017) Bulgaria Foreign Trade www.countrystudies.us/bulgaria
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) Demographics of Russia www.en.wikipeedia/demographics/of/bulgaria
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) Geography of Bulgaria www.en.wikipedia.com/geography/of/bulgaria
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) Geography of New Zealand www.en.wikipedia.com/geography/of/new-zealand
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) Geography of Russia www.en.wikipedia.com/geography/of/russia
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) History of Bulgaria www.en.wikipedia.com/history/of/bulgaria
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) History of new Zealand www.en.wikipedia.com/history/of/new-zealand
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (2017) History of Russia www.en.wikipedia.com/history/of/russia

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

BLOG URL: http://ikedera.blogspot.com
DEPT: ECONOMICS

SURINAME

Historical Background: The early history of Suriname dates from 3000 BCE, when Native Americans first inhabited the area. The Dutch acquired Suriname from the English and European settlement, from the seventeenth century, when it was a plantation colony utilizing slavery for sugar cultivation. The first Europeans who came to Suriname were Spanish explorers and Dutch traders who visited the area along with other parts of South America’s 'Wild Coast.' The first attempts to settle the area by Europeans was in 1630, when English settlers led by Captain Marshall, attempted to found a colony. They cultivated crops of tobacco, but the venture failed financially.
In 1650, Lord Willoughby, the governor of Barbados, furnished out a vessel to settle a colony in Suriname. At his own cost he equipped a ship of 20 guns, and two smaller vessels with things necessary for the support of the plantation. Major Anthony Rowse settled there in his name. Two years later, for the better settling of the colony, he went in person, fortified and furnished it with things requisite for defense and trade. 'Willoughbyland' consisted of around 30,000 acres (120 km2) and a fort. The settlement was invaded by seven Dutch ships (from the Zeeland region), led by Abraham Crijnssen, on February 26, 1667. Fort Willoughby was captured the next day after a three-hour fight and renamed Fort Zeelandia. On July 31, 1667, the English and Dutch signed the Treaty of Breda, in which for the time being the status quo was respected: the Dutch could keep occupying Suriname and the British, the formerly Dutch colony New Amsterdam (modern-day New York). Willoughbyland was renamed Suriname.
In 1973 the Dutch government started independence negotiations with the local government, led by the NPS (a largely Creole party), which was granted on November 25, 1975. The Dutch instituted an aid programme worth US$1.5 billion to last till 1985. The first President of the country was Johan Ferrier, with Henck Arron (leader of the NPS) as Prime Minister. Roughly a third of the population migrated to the Netherlands prior to independence, fearing that the new country would not be viable.

Size and level income: The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005, Suriname's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $2.1 billion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $4,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 4%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 9.5%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 13% of GDP, industry 22%, and services 65%.
According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $21 million or about $48 per capita and accounted for approximately 2.1% of GDP. It was estimated that in 2002 about 70% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

Physical Resources: Bauxite is the leading mineral in Suriname, with mines near Paranam and Overdacht. Gold mining has grown in importance. Reserves of chromium, clay, copper, diamonds, iron ore, manganese, nickel, platinum, and tin are also found in Suriname. The State Oil Company of Suriname (Staatsolie) produces a significant amount of oil from wells in the Tambaredjo area, from which some crude oil is exported, and production activities began at the neighboring Calcutta field in 2006. A small refinery was established there in the 1990s. Offshore oil exploration of the Guyana-Suriname Basin, which was stalled for decades because of the maritime boundary dispute with Guyana, began again in 2008.
Human Resources: In 2003, Suriname's workforce numbered 104,000. As of 1996 (the latest year for which data was available), about 70% were engaged in services, 8.3% in manufacturing, 17% in commerce, 5.9% in agriculture, and 7.8% in transport and communications. In 2000, the unemployment rate was 17%. Suriname has numerous small unions, representing individual workplaces or enterprises, organized into six union federations. Among them are the General Confederation of Trade Unions, sometimes called the Moederbond (Mother Union); the Progressive Workers Organization, whose members are predominantly from the commercial and banking sectors; and the Central Organization for Civil Service Employees. Nearly 60% of the workforce is organized and about one-half are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Workers, with the exception of civil servants, are freely allowed to strike and do so often. Antiunion discrimination is illegal.
The minimum working age is 14 but this is not sufficiently enforced and many children work, especially in the informal sector. There is no set minimum wage. The lowest wage for civil servants was $100 per month in 2002. The standard workweek is 45 hours and time worked in excess of that requires overtime pay.
ETHNICITY: South Asians, descendants of contract labourers from India, are the largest ethnic group in Suriname, making up more than one-fourth of the population. The second major ethnic group, accounting for about one-fifth of the population, is the Maroons (descendants of escaped slaves of African origin). Creoles, who in Suriname are people of mainly African descent, constitute between one-tenth and one-fifth of the population. The descendants of Javanese (people from the island of Java in Indonesia) contract labourers and people of mixed ethnicity each make up almost one-seventh of the population. Indians, descendants of the original inhabitants of Suriname, make up only a tiny fraction of the population. The coastal groups include the Carib and Arawak, while the Trio (Tiriyo), Wayana-Aparai, Warao (Warrau), Wayarekule (Akuriyo), Tucayana, and Akurio live in the interior. Minor ethnic groups in Suriname include descendants of Chinese, Lebanese, Portuguese, and Dutch immigrants; Creoles from the West Indies; and U.S. citizens. More-recent immigrants include Chinese—known in Suriname as “New Chinese” to distinguish them from the descendants of those Chinese who were brought over as labourers in the 19th century—and Brazilians who arrived in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION: The principal religion is Christianity, brought to Suriname by European colonizers. Nearly half of the people are Christians, mainly Roman Catholics and Moravians. Hindus, nearly all of whom are South Asians, account for about one-fifth of the population. Between one-tenth and one-fifth of Surinamese are Muslim, mostly the Javanese and a small South Asian group. Judaism, present in Suriname since the early 16th century, is still practiced, while many of the Chinese are Confucians. African and Indian religions are still widely followed.
relative importance of public and private sector

Ikedera said...

Relative importance of public and private sector
Public Sector: The Government of Suriname (GOS) identified Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as the key to further growth of the country and its economy. It supports and encourages business development through foreign and local investment in a number of different sectors. In addition, the GOS Development Plan for
2012-2016 identifies international partnerships as a particularly important Means to help develop the economy. This includes both bilateral and multilateral partners, as well as private foreign investors. Currently, the mining and crude oil industry are the main sectors targeted for large scale investment. In 2013, parliament approved two gold mining deals with two multinationals. Despite theCurrent decline of world market prices for gold, the government hopes that these investments of approximately U$1.1 billion will continue as scheduled. The State Oil Company Suriname (Staatsolie) increased investment in oil refining and ethanol production. The refinery expansion project is scheduled for completion in late 2014. Following a successful pilot, Staatsolie plans to invest in a large scale project to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Later this year, the company will issue a USD $150 million bond loan to secure to fund scheduled investments. The GOS focuses also on developing tourism, forestry, and agriculture sectors

Private Sector: The private sector is dependent on mining and associated exports; the non-mining private sector is small, and mainly produces goods and services for government and domestic private consumption and investment, although a few companies are active in selling goods and services abroad. Importantly, the larger non-mining private businesses specialize in selling goods and services to the government (especially in the construction sector), or in importing goods from abroad for domestic consumption or investment. The vast majority of exports consist of gold, alumina and oil. All other exports are very small and are limited to agriculture and fisheries.

Industrial Structure:The major industries are bauxite and gold mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumber, and food processing. Industry accounted for 22% of GDP in 2001.
The bauxite industry, which accounts for about 15% of GDP and 70% of export revenue, has developed into a complex of factories, workshops, power stations, laboratories, hospitals, recreational facilities, residential areas, and sports grounds. Depressed world prices for bauxite and alumina in the recent past have reduced the industry's development. In 2005, Suriname Aluminum (Suralco), a wholly-owned Alcoa subsidiary, announced it had completed the 250,000-metric-ton-per-year expansion of its alumina refinery in Paranam. The facility now has a capacity of 2.2 million metric tons per year of alumina. Suralco and an affiliate of BHP Billiton own 55% and 45%, respectively, of the Paranam facility.
The long-term future of the mining industry depends on the companies' ability to keep production costs low and competitive, the availability of financing to exploit new reserves, and on the consolidation of peace in the country's interior. Because mineral rights are still vested in the state, exploration rights are granted by the government. The Canadian company Golden Star started mining for gold in Suriname in 1992. Proven and probable oil reserves in Suriname are estimated at 166 billion barrels. The State Oil Company of Suriname, or Staatsolie, produced 12,000 barrels per day in 2005. Staatsolie is actively seeking international joint venture partners. Suriname has one oil refinery.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

Relative importance of public and private sector
Public Sector: The Government of Suriname (GOS) identified Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as the key to further growth of the country and its economy. It supports and encourages business development through foreign and local investment in a number of different sectors. In addition, the GOS Development Plan for
2012-2016 identifies international partnerships as a particularly important Means to help develop the economy. This includes both bilateral and multilateral partners, as well as private foreign investors. Currently, the mining and crude oil industry are the main sectors targeted for large scale investment. In 2013, parliament approved two gold mining deals with two multinationals. Despite theCurrent decline of world market prices for gold, the government hopes that these investments of approximately U$1.1 billion will continue as scheduled. The State Oil Company Suriname (Staatsolie) increased investment in oil refining and ethanol production. The refinery expansion project is scheduled for completion in late 2014. Following a successful pilot, Staatsolie plans to invest in a large scale project to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Later this year, the company will issue a USD $150 million bond loan to secure to fund scheduled investments. The GOS focuses also on developing tourism, forestry, and agriculture sectors.

Private Sector: The private sector is dependent on mining and associated exports; the non-mining private sector is small, and mainly produces goods and services for government and domestic private consumption and investment, although a few companies are active in selling goods and services abroad. Importantly, the larger non-mining private businesses specialize in selling goods and services to the government (especially in the construction sector), or in importing goods from abroad for domestic consumption or investment. The vast majority of exports consist of gold, alumina and oil. All other exports are very small and are limited to agriculture and fisheries.

industrial Structure: The major industries are bauxite and gold mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumber, and food processing. Industry accounted for 22% of GDP in 2001.
The bauxite industry, which accounts for about 15% of GDP and 70% of export revenue, has developed into a complex of factories, workshops, power stations, laboratories, hospitals, recreational facilities, residential areas, and sports grounds. Depressed world prices for bauxite and alumina in the recent past have reduced the industry's development. In 2005, Suriname Aluminum (Suralco), a wholly-owned Alcoa subsidiary, announced it had completed the 250,000-metric-ton-per-year expansion of its alumina refinery in Paranam. The facility now has a capacity of 2.2 million metric tons per year of alumina. Suralco and an affiliate of BHP Billiton own 55% and 45%, respectively, of the Paranam facility.
The long-term future of the mining industry depends on the companies' ability to keep production costs low and competitive, the availability of financing to exploit new reserves, and on the consolidation of peace in the country's interior. Because mineral rights are still vested in the state, exploration rights are granted by the government. The Canadian company Golden Star started mining for gold in Suriname in 1992. Proven and probable oil reserves in Suriname are estimated at 166 billion barrels. The State Oil Company of Suriname, or Staatsolie, produced 12,000 barrels per day in 2005. Staatsolie is actively seeking international joint venture partners. Suriname has one oil refinery.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

External Dependence
After the return to a more or less democratically elected government in 1991, Dutch aid resumed. The Dutch relationship continues to be an important factor in the economy, with the Dutch insisting that Suriname undertake economic reforms and produce specific plans acceptable to the Dutch for projects on which aid funds could be spent. In 2000, however, the Dutch revised the structure of their aid package and signaled to the Surinamese authorities their decision, to disburse aid by sectoral priorities as opposed to individual projects. Although the present government is not in favor of this approach, it has identified sectors and is now working on sectoral analyses to present to the Dutch.
After a short respite in 1991–1996, when measures taken in 1993 led to economic stabilization, a relatively stable exchange rate, low inflation, sustainable fiscal policies, and growth, Suriname's economic situation deteriorated from 1996 to the present. This was due in large part to loose fiscal policies of the Wijdenbosch government, which, in the face of lower Dutch development aid, financed its deficit through credit extended by the central bank. As a consequence, the parallel market for foreign exchange soared so that by the end of 1998, the premium of the parallel market rate over the official rate was 85%. Since over 90% of import transactions took place at the parallel rate, inflation took off, with 12-month inflation growing from 0.5% at the end of 1996, to 23% at the end of 1998, and 113% at the end of 1999. The government also instituted a regime of stringent economic controls over prices, the exchange rate, imports, and exports, in an effort to contain the adverse efforts of its economic policies. The cumulative impact of soaring inflation, an unstable exchange rate, and falling real incomes led to a political crisis.

political structure, power and interest groups:
Under the 1987 constitution, legislative power is exercised by the popularly elected 51-member unicameral National Assembly, which in turn elects a president and vice president. The president, vice president, and members of the National Assembly serve five-year terms. The president is the chairman of a nonelective, military- influenced Council of State, which ensures that the government’s actions conform to the law. It has constitutional powers to annul laws passed by the National Assembly. The judicial system consists of a Court of Justice and cantonal courts. Suriname is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice, the final court of appeal for Caribbean Community members
Political process
Universal suffrage was introduced in 1948; Surinamese citizens age 18 and older are allowed to vote. Political mobilization and party affiliation have evolved along strongly ethnic lines. South Asians, Creoles, and Javanese all have played major roles in the development of the country’s constitutional democracy. The Progressive Reform Party (Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP) is a leading Hindu party; the Suriname National Party (Nationale Partij Suriname; NPS) was founded by Creoles; and the Pendawa Lima (“Five Sons of King Pandu”) is a predominately Javanese party.
The Surinamese Liberation Army (SLA), a guerrilla group better known as the Jungle Commando and consisting mainly of Maroons, formed in 1986 with the intent to overthrow the standing government. In retaliation, the National Army carried out raids in Maroon villages. The killing and detaining of many Maroons resulted in the flight of many to French Guiana. After a formal peace agreement was reached in 1992, most of them returned to Suriname, where they control economic activity on their lands.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

THE BAHAMAS
Historical background:The Bahamas, archipelago and state on the northwestern edge of the West Indies. Formerly a British colony, The Bahamas became an independent country within the Commonwealth in 1973.
The name Bahamas is of Lucayan Taino (Arawakan) derivation, although some historians believe it is from the Spanish bajamar, meaning “shallow water.” The islands occupy a position commanding the gateway to the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the entire Central American region. Their strategic location has given the history of The Bahamas a unique and often striking character. It was there that Christopher Columbus made his original landfall in America. The subsequent fate of the peaceful original inhabitants, remains one of the more tragic episodes in the development of the entire region, while the early attempts at European-dominated settlement were marked by intense national rivalries, interspersed with long periods of lawlessness and piracy. As a result, the society and culture that has evolved in The Bahamas is a distinctive blend of European and African heritages, the latter a legacy of the slave trade and the introduction of the plantation system using African slaves. The islands, lacking natural resources other than their agreeable climate and picturesque beaches, have become heavily dependent on the income generated by the extensive tourist facilities and the financial sector that have been developed, often as a result of the injection of foreign capital. The continued popularity of the islands with tourists, largely from North America, has helped to maintain a relatively high standard of living among the population, most of whom are of African descent. The capital, Nassau, is located on small but important New Providence Island.
Size and level of income: The country’s minimum wage is $4.00 an hour. That’s low by American standards, but high by regional ones: Trinidad’s average wage is only a little higher than the Bahamian legal minimum. “Kitchen helpers” in the hotel industry, one of the lowest-paid categories, average $6.16 per hour. Shop sales assistants make $7.37 an hour. Gas station attendants make $8.00; cashiers $8.40, and housekeepers $10.53. The average hourly wage for all production workers was $13.00, and the average work week was 38 hours. These wages are not low. In fact, average nominal wages in the Bahamas ($13.00) are on a par with Mississippi ($12.83), Puerto Rico ($12.92), and West Virginia ($13.19).

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

Human and Physical Resources:
Physical Resources: The natural resources of the Bahamas include salt, aragonite, timber and arable land. Aragonite is one of two naturally occurring crystalline forms of calcium carbonate and is present due to the coral on the islands. The islands have a relatively small area of arable land, making up around 0.5 percent of the total landmass. Timber production is likewise restricted to small areas throughout the island chain.
Human Resources: The Bahamas, a member of the British Commonwealth, is a 5,358 square mile archipelago of more than 700 islands and 2,400 cays. Ideally located in proximity to the world’s largest and most significant consumer markets of North, South and Central America, The Bahamas combines geographic advantage with business excellence to deliver true investment value.
The Bahamas has one of the most highly educated populations in Western Hemisphere, boasting an adult literacy rate of more than 95 per cent and an English speaking population of more than 300,000. As much as 24 per cent of the National Budget is allocated to education, exemplifying the true definition of a country that is investing in its youth and its people.
This continuous investment in human capital means The Bahamas offers a large and growing pool of well qualified and highly educated Bahamian talent to the international investor. The country’s highly developed tourism and financial services industries benefit significantly from this pool of talent, as Bahamians combine with international management staff to create a resident expertise that is comparable to anywhere else in the world.

Ethnicity: About 85% of the population are descendants of slaves brought to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. About 12% of the total is white, largely of British origin, and 3% are Asian and Hispanic.
Religious composition: The population is overwhelmingly Christian, with Baptists comprising about 32%. About 20% of the population are Anglicans and about 24% belong to other Protestants groups such as the Methodists (6%), the Church of God (6%), the Presbyterians, Seventh-Day Adventists, and members of the Salvation Army. About 19% of the population are Roman Catholics. There is also a strong Greek Orthodox community. Smaller groups include Jews, Baha'is, Muslims, Hindus, and Rastafarians. More traditional practices related to witchcraft and known to scholars as voodoo or obeah continue to be observed in some areas.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

Relative importance of public and private sector
Public Sector: BDO Bahamas is a part of one of the world’s largest audit and advisory networks, BDO offers the full range of professional services combined with the ability to manage international, multidisciplinary teams. All provided by dedicated Public sector teams with experience in delivering exceptional client service to various institutions.
By combining their deep understanding of the sector and its stakeholders with specialized technical, process oriented and analytical skills, BDO can contribute to both improved management and control, as well as to organizational and service development, quality enhancement, and efficiency improvements.
BDO’s Government & Public Sector practice serves clients across many levels of government, including regional, state and local, drawing on deep experience to provide strategic and innovative solutions. Supported by an integrated global network, we also help government leaders and international organizations develop tailored strategies and implement practical solutions that make the most of their limited resources.
Private Sector: As a tourism-dependent economy, the Bahamas is reliant on regular tourist arrivals, and this renders the country vulnerable to shocks in key tourism source markets, particularly the US. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, the outlook for the sector is positive, with forecast sustained growth in the local tourism industry of 2.6% annually in the period to 2022, and a related contribution to employment growth, with employment in the sector forecast to increase by around 23% between 2011 and 2022. However, the industry is changing, and in order to realize these forecasts the country needs to maintain an advantage in the sector over global competitors, which are steadily improving their tourism offerings.
Industrial Structure: The Bahamas is not a Third World backwater. Indeed, it is an extremely economically and politically stable developing country, with a per capita income of over 17500$, considerably higher than most of its neighbors. The literacy rate is around 85% of the population. Tourism is clearly the leading industry and the engine of the Bahamas economy. Tourism generates about 50% of the total GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and employee's nearly half of the workforce. The banking and finance sector is the second pillar in the Bahamas, accounting for roughly 15% of GDP. The majority of banks and trusts are engaged in the management of assets for wealthy individuals. The third pillar is the construction industry which contributed significantly in the last years to the Bahamian economy. Agriculture, fishing and industry play a rather minor role in the economy. Although the main export articles are agriculture and fishing products like crawfish, other seafood, fruits and vegetables but also rum and crude salt. There is an industrial zone in Free port, Grand Bahama which includes manufacturing of chemicals, ship repair, limestone processing and oil-related industries

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

External dependence: The Bahamas is a gorgeous, tropical part of the world where many people choose to vacation. This particular country has a strong and stable economy although a large part of earnings depends on the tourist and offshore banking industries. In recent years, new resorts, hotels, and beautiful homes have been developed. As a result, the GDP has seen nice growth. However, when terrorists attacked New York City and the Twin Towers in 2001, the slowing of the US economy started a trickledown effect, which slowed the Bahamas trade.
Interestingly, growth of tourism in the Bahamas is extremely dependent on growth of tourism in the United States. Just tourism offers approximately 60% of the GDP and offers employment to 50% of the workforce. Considering that more than five million people visit the Bahamas every year, with the majority being people from the US, it is easy to see why tourism is so vital.

Political process, power and interest groups: The Commonwealth of Bahamas is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy with the Prime Minister as the head of the Government in the country. The monarchy has a bicameral parliamentary system which consists of two houses, the upper and lower houses. The head of government is elected as the majority party leader. The Great Britain appoints a ceremonial representative called a Governor-General who is constitutionally a member of parliament but does not participate in the day-to-day running of the legislature. The Bahamas has 21 administrative districts with Nassau as the Capital and New Providence as the biggest city. The constitution of July 10, 1973, governs the country.
A two-party system characterizes the political fabric of the Bahamas. The two parties dominating the country are the center-left Progressive Liberty Party and the center-right Free National Movement. Other parties like the Bahamas Democratic Movement, Democratic National Alliance, and the Coalition for Democratic Reform have been unable to win parliamentary election. All the districts in the Bahamas are served by local government; except New Providence (contains 70% of the population) which is governed by the central government. The Bahamian Parliament enacted an Act that led to the establishment of Family Island Administrators, Local District Councilors, Local Government Districts, and Local Town Committees to govern the affairs of their respective districts with minimal interference from the Central Government. The Bahamas has 32 districts and elections are held every five years. 110 councilors and 281 towns Committee electives represent the various areas. They are responsible for the proper management and use of public funds in their individual constituencies.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

SLOVENIA
By about 3,500 BC stone-age farmers lived in what is now Slovenia. The bronze-age followed then from about 750 BC the iron-age. Then about 400 BC the Celts settled Slovenia. They formed the state of Noricum. However in 10 BC the Romans conquered Slovenia.In the 6th century AD the Slavs arrived in Slovenia. However in the 8th century they came under the domination of the Franks of central Europe and in the 9th century Slovenia was absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire, which was centered on Germany. Meanwhile missionaries converted Slovenia to Christianity.
In the 10th to 13th centuries Slovenia remained under German domination. However in the early 12th century towns were founded in Slovenia and trade and commerce flourished. Yet in the 14th century the Hapsburg dynasty came to control Slovenia. The Hapsburgs gained Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and they gained Istria in 1374 and Trieste in 1382.
In the late 15th and 16th century peasants in Slovenia often rebelled. However all the rebellions failed. Meanwhile the Turks threatened Slovenia. However they were crushed at the battle of Sisak in 1593. The Reformation also rocked Slovenia. In the early 16th century Protestantism made some headway but by the century's end the Catholic Counter-Reformation reconverted Slovenia.
The 18th century was a prosperous time for Slovenia and her industries flourished. In the late 18th century religious freedom was allowed and primary education was made compulsory.In December, 1991, Slovenia gained a new constitution and on 15 January, 1992, Slovenian independence was recognized by the EU. Like many eastern European countries, Slovenia faced a painful transition from Communism to Capitalism during the 1990s. However in 2004 Slovenia became a member of the EU. Also in 2004 Slovenia joined Nato. In 2007 Slovenia joined the Euro.

Size and level of income: According to the 2013 Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC), average disposable (net) household income amounted to EUR 21,038 and was thus almost EUR 2,000 lower than in 2009. Because the calculation for individual years is based on income received in the previous year, households actually had the highest income in 2008, i.e. in the last year before the onset of the economic crisis.

Average disposable income per household member amounted to EUR 8,413, while average income per equivalent adult household member calculated with the OECD modified equivalence scale amounted to EUR 12,706 (further on average equivalent income). If social transfers (social and family benefits) are subtracted from income, average income per household member decreases by 8% and average equivalent income by 6%.


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Physical Resources: Although limestone, which is quarried and used in construction, is abundant, mining has declined in importance in Slovenia, as resources have been exhausted and environmental restrictions have been applied. In the process many Slovene mines, including mercury, uranium, lead, zinc, and brown coal mines, have been closed, though the Velenje lignite mine is still important.
Because Slovene coal reserves have become meagre and are of declining quality, natural gas (through a pipeline from Russia) and oil have grown in relative importance as sources of energy. Fossil fuel-fired thermoelectricity provides about two-fifths of Slovenia’s power.
Human Resources: Slovenia has placed ninth among 130 countries which have been included in this year's Global Human Capital Index, a survey carried out by the World Economic Forum (WEF). Last year, it placed 16th. The three best performing countries in the 2017 report are Norway, Finland and Switzerland. The WEF defines human capital as the knowledge and skills people possess that enable them to create value in the global economic system.
The index ranks the countries on how well they are developing their human capital on a scale from 0-100 across four thematic dimensions and five age groups. The four key areas of human capital development are capacity (formal education), deployment (application and accumulation of skills through work), development (formal education of the next generation workforce and continued up skilling and reskilling of existing workers), know-how (breadth of specialized skills-use at work).
The report finds that the world has developed only 62% of its human capital as measured by the index. This means that nations are neglecting or wasting, on average, 38% of their talent. Ranked ninth, Slovenia got an average score of 73.33.

Ethnicity: According to the 2002 census, the total population is about 83.1% Slovene. Minority groups include Serbs (2%), Croats (1.8%), and Bosniaks (1.1%). There are about 10,467 Muslims, 6,243 Hungarians, 6,186 Albanians, 3,246 Roma and 2,254 Italians.
Religious composition: The largest denominational group in the country was the Roman Catholic Church, representing about 57.8% of the population. There is also a Slovenian Old Catholic Church and some Eastern Orthodox that made up about 2% of the population. Although Calvinism played an important role during the Reformation, the only well-established Protestant group is the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Slovenia, which has about 14,736 members. Muslims make up about 2.4% of the population. The census reported only 99 Jews. About 199,264 people responded as atheists. Freedom of religion is guaranteed in the constitution. Religious organizations register with the Office of Religious Communities in order to secure legal status and conduct business.

IKEJIANI CHIDERA 2015/197175 said...

Relative importance of public and private sector
Public Sector: That Slovenia is a social state is one of the most significant provisions of the constitution. The government has a duty to provide high-quality health care, education and other forms of social security to the population. These systems have been considerably affected by the economic crisis and austerity measures, but the new Government is committed to taking a step forward: adjustments to individual systems are absolutely necessary, but they should be subject to an overall vision of what we want to achieve with them.
Part of this vision includes the Government’s endeavours in the area of social policy, where it will seek to reduce the number of people below the poverty line by promoting employment among all age groups and establishing a simple and transparent system for claiming (social) assistance. Through gradual entry to and exit from the labour market, the Government will promote early employment and later retirement. A major aspect of social policy concerns demographic change, so adjusting resources to ensure decent pensions and a comprehensive system of long-term care are crucial.

Private Sector: Some Private Sector enterprises have developed stronger links with institutions through European projects. Slovenian institutes are now also increasing their efforts to be more integrated in European research programmes. However, this requires typically the support of strong Private Sector enterprises. Large companies have their own communication platforms (e.g. conferences; some of them are opened to institutions and to ministries) and are more involved in general dialogue, informal involvement and joint activities as an instrument for investigation and for implementation. Some of the biggest Slovenian enterprises have a participation in some of the bodies mentioned in section a) and b) with co-decision right; but they have little influence and they regard their collaboration/meetings with policy-makers as an idle time. Foreign companies have only a very limited impact on Slovenian decision processes in research policy making. SMEs are involved in the decision processes of public research and innovation policy through three instruments: conferences, informal consultations and formal consultations. All companies that are part of the survey are involved on these levels. Ministries, chamber of commerce and industry, faculties have different types of conferences. In general, large enterprises have easier direct access to national public research and policy makers, often based on personal relations.

Industrial structure: The industrial sector represents about one-third of the GDP (33.6%). Historically, the dominant industries in Slovenia have been the forestry, the textile and the metallurgical industries. Since the 1980s, the mechanical industries (automobile, tool machines) and the high value-added industries (electronics, pharmacy and chemicals) have been greatly developed.

External dependence: Slovenia's economy is highly dependent on international trade. The ratio of merchandise trade (imports and exports) to GDP is one of the highest in the region. External trade equals nearly 150% of GDP (exports and imports combined).



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political process, power and interest groups
The Republic of Slovenia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic since 25 June, 1991. The present Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia was adopted on 23 December 1991, following the results of the plebiscite on the sovereignty and independence of Slovenia on 23 December 1990, when Slovenes overwhelmingly voted for independence.
The main legislative body is the National Assembly, with 90 members directly elected for a four-year term. A National Council, elected for five years with the power only to delay legislation, has 40 members: 22 representing local interests; 12 evenly divided between employers, employees and the self-employed; and six representing not-for-profit activities in areas such as education and culture
The President of the Republic is the head of state and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He is directly elected for a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. The President calls elections for the National Assembly, proclaims laws adopted by the National Assembly, proclaims documents of ratification for international treaties, and performs other duties defined by the Constitution.
The Prime Minister is elected by the National Assembly, at the proposal of the President of the Republic. Cabinet ministers are also elected by the National Assembly, at the proposal of the Prime Minister.
The government is composed of 14 ministers plus 2 ministers without portfolio. The Council of Ministers as a whole and each cabinet minister are accountable to the National Assembly. The government proposes laws, general acts, regulations and state policies to the National Assembly for all socio-economic and political areas, and supervises state administration through ministers.
Interest groups
Slovenia has a rich tradition of people organizing themselves into interest groups. Today there are over 18,000 different organizations and associations registered in Slovenia, most of them for sports, culture and fire-fighting. Some interests are represented in particular: either within the scope of functional representation in the National Assembly or the scope of social partnership. Within the scope of social partnership the interests of employers and employees are particularly organized. Only representative unions are included in negotiations between the employers and the state.
At the government level there is an Economic and Social Council of Slovenia , comprised of five representatives from the government, employers, and employees, respectively. In Council meetings and negotiations the members advance their views on social, economic and budgetary policies, particularly dealing with issues such as social agreements, social rights and compulsory insurance, employment problems, prices and taxes, the wages system, wages policy, employee co-management etc.

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REFERENCES
•Dickey, Karlene. Slovenia: A Study of the Educational System of the Republic of Slovenia, 1995.
•Curtis, Glenn E. Yugoslavia: A Country Study, 1992.
• Craton, Michael. (1986) A History of the Bahamas. San Salvador Press. ISBN 0-9692568-0-9
• "The Bahamas – Economy", Encyclopedia of the Nations, Retrieved 21 March 2010.
•Albert Gastmann, "Suriname and the Dutch in the Caribbean" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture vol. 5, p. 189. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
•"Suriname", The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 5. Edition 15, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2002, p. 547

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Indonesia
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence on 17th August, 1945 shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

Tajikistan
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully re-established until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

Taiwan
First inhabited by Austronesian people, Taiwan became home to Han immigrants beginning in the late Ming Dynasty (17th century). The Republic of China (ROC) was founded in 1912 in mainland China. In 1895, military defeat forced China's Qing Dynasty to cede Taiwan to Japan, which governed Taiwan for 50 years. Taiwan came under Chinese Nationalist control in 1945 after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II.
However, in 1949 Chinese communist armies defeated Nationalist forces on the mainland and established the People’s Republic of China there. The Nationalist government and armies fled to Taiwan, again resulting in the separation of Taiwan from China, and established a government under the 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. In the ensuing years the ROC claimed jurisdiction over the Chinese mainland as well as Taiwan, although in the early 1990s Taiwan’s government dropped this claim to China. The Chinese government in Beijing has maintained that it has jurisdiction over Taiwan and has continued to propound a one-China policy—a position that few countries in the world dispute. There has been no agreement, however, on how or when, if ever, the two entities will be reunified.
Comparison
Ethnically and linguistically indigenous peoples of Taiwan and native Indonesians are related, as both belong to Austronesian ancestry. The "out of Taiwan theory", suggests that the Austronesian-speaking people — the ancestors of Indonesians — came from Taiwan during the "Austronesian Expansion" which began 4,000–5,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the question of origin and ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial.
Prior to the Independence of Indonesia, during Dutch East Indies era in early 20th century, Republic of China has reached out to people of the Indies, especially towards Overseas Chinese. Back in 1900, the socio-religious organization Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan (中華 會館), also known as the Chinese Association, was founded in the East Indies. Their goal was to urge ethnic Chinese in the Indies to support the revolutionary movement in mainland China. The 1912 founding of the Republic of China coincided with a growing Chinese-nationalist movement within the Indies. At that times, numbers of Chinese Indonesians has dual citizenship and often still shown their loyalty, oriented to Republic of China as their homeland.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

2. SIZE & INCOME LEVEL
Indonesia
Indonesia has a population of 260,580,739, with total dependency ratio & youth dependency ratio of 49.2 & 41.6 respectively. Indonesia has a total of 30.2 years median age with 40 years & 41.5 years of males & females respectively. Indonesia has a population growth rate of 0.86%. It has 16.2 births/1,000 population & 6.5 deaths/1,000 population as its birth rate & death rate respectively, with -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population.
Indonesia has a total of 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births, male at 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births & female at 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births. With a life expectancy at birth of total population at 73 years composing of male at 70.4 years & female at 75.7 years (2017 est.). It has a total fertility rate of 2.11 children born/woman. It has a literacy age of 15 and over can read and write with a total population of 95.4%.
Indonesia’s unemployment rate is at 5.6% (2016 est.) with 10.9% (2016 est.) of population below poverty line. Her distribution of family income - Gini index is at 36.8 (2009) & inflation rate (consumer prices) at 3.5% (2016 est.)
Tajikistan
Tajikistan has a population of about 8,468,555 million, with total dependency ratio & youth dependency ratio of 62.5 & 57.1 respectively. Tajikistan has a total of 24.5 years median age with 23.9 years & 25.1 years of males & females respectively. Tajikistan has a population growth rate of 1.62 %. It has 23.3 births/1,000 population & 6 deaths/1,000 population as its birth rate & death rate respectively, with -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population.
Tajikistan has a total of 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births, male at 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births & female at 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births. With a life expectancy at birth of total population at 68.1 years composing of male at 64.9 years & female at 71.4 years (2017 est.). It has a total fertility rate of 2.63 children born/woman. It has a literacy age of 15 and over can read and write with a total population of 99.8%.
Tajikistan’s unemployment rate is at 2.4% (2016 est.) with 31.5% (2016 est.) of the population below poverty line. Her distribution of family income - Gini index is 32.6 (2006), with inflation rate (consumer prices) at 5.9% (2016 est.)

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

Taiwan
Taiwan has a population of about 23,508,428 million, with total dependency ratio & youth dependency ratio of 35.2 & 18.6 respectively. It is known to be the second most densely populated area in the world. Taiwan has a total of 40.7 years median age with 40 years & 41.5 years of males & females respectively. Taiwan has a population growth rate of 0.17 %. It has 8.3 births/1,000 population & 7.4 deaths/1,000 population as its birth rate & death rate respectively, with 0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population.
Taiwan has a total of 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births, male at 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births & female at 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births. With a life expectancy at birth of total population at 80.2 years composing of male at 77.1 years & female at 83.6 years (2017 est.). It has a total fertility rate of 1.13 children born/woman. It has a literacy age of 15 and over can read and write with a total population of 98.5%
Taiwan’s unemployment rate is at 3.9% (2016 est.) with 1.5% (2012 est.) of the population below poverty line. Her distribution of family income - Gini index is 33.6 (2014), with inflation rate (consumer prices) at 1.4% (2016 est.)


3. PHYSICAL & HUMAN RESOURCES
Indonesia
Indonesia is located South-eastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Its climate are tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands. Indonesia has a vast natural resources consisting of petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver. Land use consists of agricultural land: 31.2% arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%.
Indonesia’s HDI value for 2015 is 0.689— which put the country in the medium human development category—positioning it at 113 out of 188 countries and territories. Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia’s HDI value increased from 0.528 to 0.689, an increase of 30.5 percent. Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia’s life expectancy at birth increased by 5.8 years, mean years of schooling increased by 4.6 years and expected years of schooling increased by 2.8 years. Indonesia’s GNI per capita increased by about 135.4 percent between 1990 and 2015.
Tajikistan
The country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west. Tajikistan is located at Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan, with climates that are mid-latitude continental, hot summers, and mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains. Tajikistan is blessed with hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, and gold as natural resources. Natural hazards includes earthquakes & floods. Land use: agricultural land: 34.7% composing of arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%. Forest: 2.9% & others 62.4%.
Tajikistan’s HDI value for 2015 is 0.627— which put the country in the medium human development category—positioning it at 129 out of 188 countries and territories. Between 1990 and 2015, Tajikistan’s HDI value increased from 0.616 to 0.627, an increase of 1.9 percent. Between 1990 and 2015, Tajikistan’s life expectancy at birth increased by 6.7 years, mean years of schooling increased by 0.8 years and expected years of schooling decreased by 0.7 years. Tajikistan’s GNI per capita decreased by about 28.3 percent between 1990 and 2015.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...


Taiwan
Taiwan is located Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the south-eastern coast of China. Its climate are tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); persistent and extensive cloudiness all year. Taiwan has a vast natural resources consisting of small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, asbestos, arable land. Its natural hazards includes earthquakes & typhoons. Land use consists of agricultural land: 22.7% arable land 16.9%; permanent crops 5.8%.
Taiwan's HDI for 2015 is 0.882, with a life expectancy at birth of 76.7 & 83.2 of male & female respectively. Taiwan's GNI per capita is about $48,100 (2016 est.)



4. ENTHIC & RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Indonesia
Indonesia is home to over 260,580,739 million people and has a population of Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15%.Across Indonesia, people speak the Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese). Indonesia is the world’s largest Muslim country with Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4%.
Tajikistan
The total population of Tajikistan is approximately about 8,468,555 million which consists of Tajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), and other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab). Tajikistan is a linguistically complex country. The official language is Tajik, Russian widely used in government and business. Different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto. The official state religion of Tajikistan is Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10%.
Taiwan
Taiwan total population is approximately 23,508,428 million and has a population of more than 95% Han Chinese (including Hoklo, who compose approximately 70% of Taiwan's population, Hakka, and other groups originating in mainland China), 2.3% indigenous Malayo-Polynesian peoples. The official language is Mandarin Chinese; however others include Taiwanese (Min), and Hakka dialects. Taiwan’s constitution guarantees freedom of religion which includes: Buddhist 35.3%, Taoist 33.2%, Taoist or Confucian folk religionist approximately 10%, none or unspecified 18.2% & Christian 3.9%,
Comparison
Indonesia currently is the world’s most populous Islamic nations with an untapped potential for growth in the economic sector. There are varying degrees to which Islam influences Indonesian business culture but it is essential to remember its influence when working with Indonesian counterparts.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

5. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PRIVATE & PUBLIC SECTOR
Indonesia
• Structure of the private sector. Indonesia’s formal private sector is dominated by large business conglomerates, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and foreign investors (primarily in the extractive natural resource industries). It is estimated, however, that 70% of the private sector in Indonesia is in the informal sector, which is characterized by a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Tajikistan
• Significant development challenges faced. Tajikistan’s development challenges arise from a narrow economic base and also that 93% of its territory is mountainous. The country has always been reliant on exports of two commodities (raw cotton and unwrought aluminum, which account for more than two-thirds of total exports) and inflows of remittances from Tajik migrant workers, mainly from the Russian Federation especially since 2002. It possesses the world’s eighth highest hydropower resources potential with about 220 terawatt-hours technically recoverable, but most of the existing hydropower plants require rehabilitation as they were built during the times of the former Soviet Union. Sustained growth rates saw Tajikistan achieve lower-middle-income status with a gross national income (GNI) per capita (Atlas method) of $1,240 for 2015.
Taiwan
• International relations of Taiwan have been suffering from the fact that, under pressure from the People’s Republic of China that considers Taiwan to be part of its sovereign territory, the country is not recognized as a sovereign state by important international institutions, such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund, nor by the United States (US) or the European Union. As such, Taiwan’s geopolitical role is relatively limited, although it enjoys strong international support from the US and relies on its support under the Taiwan Relations Act for its military. With the Cross-Strait relations being of overarching importance, Taiwan treads carefully – but is certainly not silent - with regard to regional geopolitical issues, such as sea borders in the South and East China seas, as it does not want to strain relations with China too much.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

6. INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
Indonesia
Indonesia is the economic powerhouse of Southeast Asia, a member of the G20 group of economies. Although it is a market economy, the government owns significant amounts of the industrial base following the 1997 Asian financial crisis. During the 2008-2009 global financial crisis, Indonesia was one of the few nations to continue its economic growth. Indonesia exports petroleum products, appliances, textiles, and rubber. It imports chemicals, machinery, and food.
Indonesia GDP- composition, by sector of origin includes: 14% of agriculture, 40.8% of industry & 45.3% of services. Indonesia's GDP - real growth rate is 5% (2016 est.) Her agricultural products includes rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices. While her industries includes petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewellery, and tourism. Indonesia’s industrial production growth rate is 3.9%. Indonesia's labor force is 125.4 million (2016 est.) comprising of the following occupations: 32% of agriculture, 21% of industry, 47% of services (2016 est.)
Tajikistan
Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Tajikistan GDP-composition, by sector of origin includes: 27.8% of agriculture, 25.9% of industry & 46.3% services, with a GDP real growth rate of 6.9% (2016 est.) Her agricultural products includes cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats. While her industries includes aluminium, cement, vegetable oil. Tajikistan’s industrial production growth rate is -3% (2016 est.)
Tajikistan's labor force is 2.295 million (2016 est.) comprising of the following occupations: 43% of agriculture, 10.6% of industry, and 46.4% of services (2016).

Taiwan
Taiwan is one of Asia's "Tiger Economies," along with Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong. After World War II, the island received a huge influx of cash when the fleeing KMT brought millions in gold and foreign currency from the mainland's treasury to Taipei. Today, Taiwan is a capitalist powerhouse and a major exporter of electronics and other high-tech products. Taiwan GDP composition, by sector of origin includes 1.9% of agriculture, 36.1% of industry & 62% of services. (2016 est.). Its GDP real growth rate is 1.5% (2016).
Taiwan’s agricultural products are: rice, vegetables, fruit, tea, flowers; pigs, poultry; fish. The industries in Taiwan are electronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals. Taiwan’s industrial production growth rate is 1.9% (2016 est.) Taiwan's labour force is 11.73 million (2016 est.) comprising of the following occupations: 4.9% of agriculture, 35.9% of industry, 59.2% of services (2016 est.)

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

7. EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
Indonesia
Indonesia exports are: mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts. While her imports are mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs. Indonesia has $144.4 billion (2016 est.) & $129 billion (2016 est.) as exports & imports respectively. Indonesia exports partners are: China 11.6%, US 11.2%, Japan 11.1%, Singapore 7.8%, India 7%, Malaysia 4.9%, South Korea 4.8% (2016).While her imports partners are : China 22.9%, Singapore 10.8%, Japan 9.6%, Thailand 6.4%, US 5.4%, Malaysia 5.4%, South Korea 5% (2016). Indonesia stock of direct foreign investment at home & abroad is $229.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.) & $18.42 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Tajikistan
Tajikistan exports commodities are: aluminium, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles. While her imports commodities are: petroleum products, aluminium oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs. Tajikistan has $691.1 million & $2.604 billion as exports & imports respectively. Tajikistan export partners are: Turkey 27.8%, Russia 15.6%, China 14.7%, Switzerland 9.8%, Iran 6.5%, Algeria 6.5%, and Italy 5.8% (2016). While her imports partners are: Russia 31.2%, China 13.9%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Uzbekistan 5.2%, and Iran 5.1% (2016). Tajikistan stock of direct foreign investment at home & $2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.) & abroad: $16.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Taiwan
Taiwan is an economic success. Taiwan exports are: semiconductors, petrochemicals, automobile/auto parts, ships, wireless communication equipment, flat display displays, steel, electronics, plastics, and computers. While her Imports are oil/petroleum, semiconductors, natural gas, coal, steel, computers, wireless communication equipment, automobiles, fine chemicals, textiles. Taiwan has $310.4 billion (2016 est.) & $239.7 billion (2016 est.) as exports & Imports respectively. Taiwan stock of direct foreign investment at home & abroad is $80.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.) & abroad: $354 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

8. POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER & INTEREST GROUPS
Indonesia
Indonesia practices a presidential republic & practices a civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law. Is centralized (non-federal) and features a strong President who is both Head of State and Head of Government. The first direct presidential election took place only in 2004; the president can serve up to two 5-year terms.
The tricameral legislature consists of the People's Consultative Assembly, which inaugurates and impeaches the president and amends the constitution but does not consider legislation; the 560-member House of Representatives, which creates legislation; and the 132-member House of Regional Representatives who provide input on legislation that affects their regions.
The judiciary includes not only a Supreme Court and Constitutional Court but also a designated Anti-Corruption Court. Its political parties are: Democrat Party, Functional Groups Party, Great Indonesia Movement Party, Indonesia Democratic Party, National Awakening Party, National Democratic Party etc. For you to exercise franchise in Indonesia, you must be 17 years of age. The political pressure groups in Indonesia are Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence, Indonesia Corruption Watch & Indonesian Forum for the Environment. International Participation: Asian Development Bank(ADB), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) , Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), , World Health Organization(WHO),World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), World Metrological Organisation (WMO), World Trade Organisation (WTO), United Nations (UN).

Tajikistan
The Republic of Tajikistan practices presidential republic & a civil legal system. It celebrates. To exercise your franchise, you must be 18 years of age. It operates a multi-party system Agrarian Party of Tajikistan, Communist Party of Tajikistan, Democratic Party of Tajikistan, Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan, Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs etc. However, the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan is so dominant as to render it in effect a single-party state. Voters have choices without option, so to speak. The current president is Emomali Rahmon, who has been in office since 1994. He appoints the prime minister, presently Oqil Oqilov (since 1999). Tajikistan has a bicameral parliament called the Majlisi Oli, consisting of a 33-member upper house, the National Assembly or Majilisi Milli, and a 63-member lower house, the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon. The lower house is supposed to be elected by the people of Tajikistan, but the ruling party always holds a significant majority of the seats. Political pressure groups in Tajikistan includes: Group 24, New Tajikistan Party, & Vatandor (Patriot) Movement. Tajikistan is very much involved in the International scene & is a member of the following organisations: Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Metrological Organisation (WMO), World Trade Organisation (WTO), United Nations (UN) etc.

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

Taiwan
Formally the Republic of China, is a parliamentary democracy. Suffrage is universal for citizens 20 years old and older. The current head of state is President Ma Ying-jeou. Premier Sean Chen is the head of government and President of the unicameral legislature, known as the Legislative Yuan. The President appoints the Premier. The Legislature has 113 seats, including 6 set aside to represent Taiwan's aboriginal population. Both executive and legislative members serve four-year terms. Taiwan also has a Judicial Yuan, which administers the courts. The highest court is the Council of Grand Justices; its 15 members are tasked with interpreting the constitution. There are lower courts with specific jurisdictions as well, including the Control Yuan which monitors corruption. Its Political parties are: Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party), New Power Party (NPP), Non-Partisan Solidarity Union (NPSU), People First Party (PFP). Although Taiwan is a prosperous and fully-functioning democracy, it is not recognized diplomatically by many other nations. Only 25 states have full diplomatic relations with Taiwan, most of them small states in Oceania or Latin America, because the People's Republic of China (mainland China) has long withdrawn its own diplomats from any nation that recognized Taiwan. Taiwan political groups consists of environmental groups; independence movement; various business groups. Public opinion polls consistently show most Taiwanese support maintaining Taiwan's status quo; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose unification with mainland China.
Taiwan is a member of Asian Development Bank (ADB), Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC), BCIE, ICC (national committees), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), SICA (observer) World Trade Organisation.


Comparison:
Indonesia’s relations with the international community were strained as a result of its invasion of neighboring East Timor in December 1975, the subsequent annexation and occupation, the independence referendum in 1999 and the resulting violence afterwards. As one of the founding members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), established in 1967, and also as the largest country in Southeast Asia, Indonesia has put ASEAN as the cornerstone of its foreign policy and outlook. After the transformation from Suharto's regime to a relatively open and democratic country in the 21st century, Indonesia today exercises its influence to promote co-operation, development, democracy, security, peace and stability in the region through its leadership in ASEAN. Indonesia and Taiwan (ROC) do not have diplomatic relations, both have only an unofficial relationship.
The United States and Tajikistan have a strong, dynamic, & growing partnership. Both countries have consistently maintained a cooperative relationship in order to boost living standards in Tajikistan & cooperate on matters of concern to both nations, such as the stabilization of Afghanistan.
Indonesia, Tajikistan & Taiwan are all members of Asian Development Bank (ADB).

UKADIKE, UCHECHUKWU GLORY; 2015/198882 said...

REFERENCES
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/goes/ti.html
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/goes/id.html
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/goes/tw.html
www.indexmundi.com/indonesia/
www.indexmundi.com/taiwan/
www.indexmundi.com/tajikistan/

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Archaeological evidence indicates that humans first arrived in Papua New Guinea around 42,000 to 45,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrants out of Africa, in one of the early waves of human migration. The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. "New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from Portuguese word Guiné.
In the nineteenth century, Germany ruled the northern half of the country for some decades, beginning in 1884, as a colony named German New Guinea. In 1914 after the outbreak of the Great War, Australian forces landed and captured German New Guinea in a small military campaign. Australia maintained occupation of the territory with its forces through the war. After the war, in which Germany and the Central Powers were defeated, the League of Nations authorised Australia to administer this area as a Mandate territory.
The nation established independence from Australia on 16 September 1975, becoming a Commonwealth realm, continuing to share Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It maintains close ties with Australia, which continues to be its largest aid donor. Papua New Guinea was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 10 October 1975.

PHILIPINES
Journalist Alan Robles has opined, "Colonialism created the Philippines, shaped its political culture and continues to influence its mindset. The 333 years under Spain and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation". Anthropologist Prospero Covar has observed, "Our thinking, culture, and psychology became virtually westernized, when we were, in fact, Asians."
Spanish rule
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic settlements in Cebu. Under Spanish rule, they established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies (1571).
Trade introduced foodstuffs such as maize, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, chocolate and pineapples from Mexico and Peru. The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863.As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy and an influx of Latin American immigrants opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands.
Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic was established in the Barasoain Church in the following year.

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

American rule (1898–1946)
A depiction of the Battle of Paceo during the Philippine–American War.The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris.
Japanese rule
General Douglas MacArthur landing ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944.Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic of José P. Laurel was established as a collaborator state.
Eventually, the largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Empire. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.
On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations. The following year, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.


HONG KONG
Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China,
The territory that now comprises Hong Kong was incorporated into China during the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), and the area was firmly consolidated under the ancient kingdom of Nanyue (203–111 BC). During the Qin dynasty, the territory was governed by Panyu County until the time of the Jin dynasty.
By the early 19th century, the British Empire trade was heavily dependent upon the importation of tea from China. While the British exported to China luxury items like clocks and watches, there remained an overwhelming imbalance in trade. China developed a strong demand for silver, which was a difficult commodity for the British to come by in large quantities. The counterbalance of trade came with exports of opium to China, opium being legal in Britain and grown in significant quantities in the UK and later in far greater quantities in India.
Soon after the first gas company in 1862 came the first electric company in 1890. Rickshaws gave way to buses, ferries, trams and airlines. Every industry went through major transformation and growth. Western-style education made advances through the efforts of Frederick Stewart. This was a crucial step in separating Hong Kong from mainland China during the political turmoil associated with the falling Qing dynasty. The seeds of the future financial city were sown with the first large scale bank.
Enjoying unprecedented growth, Hong Kong transformed from a territory of entrepôt trade to one of industry and manufacturing. The early industrial centres, where many of the workers spent the majority of their days, turned out anything that could be produced with small space from buttons, artificial flowers, umbrellas, textile, enamelware, footwear to plastics.
On 1 July 1997 Hong Kong was handed over to the People's Republic of China by the United Kingdom.
Scholars agree that British Hong Kong developed a sophisticated and efficient infrastructure, with a very good educational system, and health services, embedded in one of the strongest economies in Asia.

Comparison
In the historical background, it can be discovered that Papua new guinea and Philippine’s history is more of war, battles and struggles. One of such battle include the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Empire, which according to history is the largest naval battle.
This is not the case in Hong Kong. There historical background is more of trading, manufacturing, industrialisation, development of efficient infrastructure, good educational system and Health services. This aids growth and development.

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Area 462,840km2
Population (2016) 8,084,999
GDP(PPP) (2017) $29.481billion
GDP Per capita (2017) $3,635 (PPP)
GNI Per capita (2014) $5,450.36
GNI Per capita (2014) $2,790 (PPP)
Export (2012) $7,982,866,986
FDI net inflows (2016) $39,578,308



PHILIPPINES
Area 343,448km2
Population (2015) 100,981,437
GDP per capita (2017) $8,223
Forex (2014) $28 billion
GNI per capita (2015) $3,550
GDP (billion) (2017) $873.966


HONG KONG


Area 2,755km2
Population (2017) 7,389,500
GDP (billion) (2016) $429.652
GDP per capita (2016) $58,322
Exports (billion) (2016) $462
Inter reserves (2016) $386
GNI per capita (2015) $41,000
Source: Wikipedia



Comparison
From the table above, it can be discovered that the Economies of Papua New guinea and Philippines has a higher population than Hong Kong. Even when their income seems to be relatively high but when taken into account with respect to population it becomes low when compared to that of Hong Kong.
According to world bank, any country that has there Gross national income (GNI) per capita to be less than $11,905 is said to be developing; while countries that has a Gross National Income per capita up to $11,905 is said to be developed. From the table, Papua new guinea and Philippines GNI per capital is not up to the required amount to be classified as a developed Country; even though there income might be relatively high but the population effect makes it to be classified as a developing country. On the other hand, Hong Kong does not have an income level that varies largely from that of Papua New Guinea and Philippines; but their population is not a high as theirs’. For this reason, they can be classified as High income country or developed country. This therefore means that size and income level disparity between countries can make one country to be more developed than the other.




PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCE SIZE
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine (including a large portion of the world's major tuna stocks), and in some parts agriculture. The rugged terrain — including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands — and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors (including serious law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title) makes it difficult for outside developers. Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, ICT and access to finance. Agriculture, for subsistence and cash crops, provides a livelihood for 85% of the population and continues to provide some 30% of GDP. Mineral deposits, including gold, oil, and copper, account for 72% of export earnings. Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years (largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output), with palm oil now the main agricultural export. In households participating, coffee remains the major export crop (produced largely in the Highlands provinces), followed by cocoa and coconut oil/copra from the coastal areas, each largely produced by smallholders and tea, produced on estates and rubber. The Iagifu/Hedinia Field was discovered in 1986 in the Papuan fold and thrust belt.
In the realm of human resource endowments, they have large number of labour force both skilled and unskilled that can produce the goods needed for the sustenance of the economy as a whole; while the excess is being exported.

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

PHILIPPINES
Philippines natural resources include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits.
Similarly, they are endowed with both skilled and unskilled human resources. They transform their human capital into goods and services which yields income to the country both domestically and for export.

HONG KONG
Hong Kong is a small island and while this limits many of the resource possibilites it enhances the only real natural resource of Hong Kong...It's harbours and the shipping industry that has made Hong Kong one of the richest areas in the Orient.
Though Hong Kong might seem to have limited natural resources, but their human resource size has made its effect on the economy to be minimal. They have highly skilled labour force this makes their aggregate output very large.

Comparison
Papua New Guinea and Philippines have abundant natural resources but they lack adequate skilled human resources to significantly add value to these natural resources. Unlike Hong Kong that has abundant supply of skilled human resources that adds significantly to the value of natural resources that the economy has. Therefore one of the major reason while some countries are more developed than the other does not lie majorly on the supply of natural resources but to a large extent on the size of human resources.



ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. There are hundreds of ethnic groups indigenous to Papua New Guinea, the majority being from the group known as Papuans, whose ancestors arrived in the New Guinea region tens of thousands of years ago. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians, their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago. There are also numerous people from other parts of the world now resident, including Chinese, Europeans, Australians, Indonesians, Filipinos, Polynesians, and Micronesians (the last four belonging to the Austronesian family). Around 40,000 expatriates, mostly from Australia and China, were living in Papua New Guinea in 1975.
The courts and government practice uphold the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted. The 2011 census found that 95.6% of citizens identified themselves as members of a Christian church, 1.4% were not Christian, 3.1% did not answer this census question. These who stated no religion accounted for, approximately, 0%. Many citizens combine their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices.

PHILIPPINES
According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others",which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan. There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan.
The Philippines is an officially secular state, although Christianity is the dominant faith. Census data from 2010 found that about 80.58% of the population professed Catholicism. Around 37% regularly attend Mass and 29% identify as very religious. Protestants are 10.8% of the total population, mostly endorsing evangelical Protestant denominations that were introduced by American missionaries at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

HONG KONG
92% of the population is Han Chinese, the majority of whom are Taishanese, Teochew, Hakka, and a variety of other Cantonese peoples. A large portion of Hong Kong's majority population originated from the neighbouring province of Guangdong, from where many fled during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese Civil War, and after establishment of communist rule in China. Non-ethnic Chinese minorities constitute the remaining 8% of the population.
Among the religious population, the traditional "three teachings" of China (Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism) have the most adherents, estimated to be around 1.5 million. About 869,000 residents profess Christianity as their faith, forming 11.7% of the total population. Protestants and Catholics make up the bulk of this number, while the remainder is composed of members of other denominations, including Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Eastern Orthodox Christians. Islam has about 300,000 adherents in the territory, 50,000 of which are Chinese. Followers of other religions, including Sikhism, Hinduism, Judaism, and the Bahá'í Faith, generally ethnically originate from the same region as their faith.

Comparison
From the observation above, Papua New Guinea and Philippines have a very heterogeneous ethnic and religious setting. This causes diversity in orientation and attitude which most often has negative effect on the country. But Hong Kong has a relatively homogeneous ethnic and religious setting which favours productivity. Therefore homogeneous countries tend to be more developed.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Most Third World countries have mixed economic systems, featuring both public and private ownership and use of resources. The division between the two and their relative importance are mostly a function of historical and political circumstances. In Papua New Guinea, both the public and private sectors contribute to the economy. Their contribution of their private sector is relatively significant .Their public sector is not very active and this can hinder the development of an economy.

PHILIPPINES
Similarly, in Philippines their public sector is not very active. This can go a long way in encumbering their rate of development. Therefore for a country to be developed, they need an active or vibrant public sector.

HONG KONG
Here, the public and private sectors contribute remarkably to the growth and development of Hong Kong economy. Both the sectors are very vibrant, this helps in the growth and development of this country.

Comparison
From the observation above, it can be seen that Papua New Guinea and Philippines have a lag in their public sector. Their private sector contributes to their growth and development, but for their perfect efficiency, they depend on the public sector. But since their public sector is not very vibrant, it hinders their growth and development.
But in Hong Kong, both sectors are contributing remarkably to the country. This creates room for general growth and development in the country. Therefore it can be said that the contribution of both sectors of the economy can be a determinant of the countries growth rate or development.



URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...


INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
This country is agrarian in economic, social, and cultural outlook. Papua New Guinea produces and exports agricultural, timber, and fish products. Agriculture currently accounts for 25% of GDP and supports more than 80% of the population. Cash crops ranked by value are coffee, oil, cocoa, copra, tea, rubber, and sugar. The timber industry was not active in 1998, due to low world prices, but rebounded in 1999. About 40% of the country is covered with timber rich trees, and a domestic woodworking industry has been slow to develop. Fish exports are confined primarily to shrimp, although fishing boats of other nations catch tuna in Papua New Guinea waters under license.
Agriculture, both subsistence and commercial, is the principal economic activity in terms of the occupational distribution of the labour force, if not in terms of proportionate contributions to the gross national product. It is in the relative importance of both the manufacturing and service sectors that we find the widest variation among developing nations. In spite of common problems, therefore. development strategies may vary from one country to the next, depending on the nature, structure, and degree of interdependence among its primary, secondary, and tertiary industrial sectors. The primary sector consists of agriculture, forestry, and fishing; the secondary, mostly of manufacturing; and the tertiary, of commerce, finance, transport, and services. In Papua New Guinea, the industrial structure consists majorly the primary industrial sector.


PHILIPPINES
Also, this country is agrarian in economic, social, and cultural outlook. Agriculture, both subsistence and commercial, is the principal economic activity in terms of the occupational distribution of the labour force, if not in terms of proportionate contributions to the gross national product. It is in the relative importance of both the manufacturing and service sectors that we find the widest variation among developing nations. In spite of common problems, therefore. development strategies may vary from one country to the next, depending on the nature, structure, and degree of interdependence among its primary, secondary, and tertiary industrial sectors. The primary sector consists of agriculture, forestry, and fishing; the secondary, mostly of manufacturing; and the tertiary, of commerce, finance, transport, and services. In Philippines, the industrial structure consists majorly the primary industrial sector.

HONG KONG
In Hong Kong’s economy, there are three forms of industry primary, secondary, and tertiary industrial sectors. The primary sector consists of agriculture, forestry, and fishing; the secondary, mostly of manufacturing; and the tertiary, of commerce, finance, transport, and services. There is a strong mutual interrelationship between this sectors. This creates room for growth and development of this country. The three sectors have significantly contributed to their gross domestic product.

Comparison
From the information above, Papua New Guinea and Philippines have some lag in their industrial structure. Their industrial sector comprises majorly primary products.
In contrast, the Hong Kong’s industrial structure comprises majorly the secondary and tertiary products. Therefore for an economy to be developed, it needs an active secondary and tertiary sector.


URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Papua New Guinea is highly dependent on foreign aid. Australia is the largest bilateral aid donor to Papua New Guinea, offering about US$200 million a year in assistance. Budgetary support, which has been provided in decreasing amounts since independence, was phased out in 2000, with aid concentrated on project development. Other major sources of aid to Papua New Guinea are Japan, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Volunteers from a number of countries, including the United States, and mission church workers also provide education, health, and development assistance throughout the country. Papua New Guinea produces and exports agricultural, timber, and fish products. Agriculture currently accounts for 25% of GDP and supports more than 80% of the population. Cash crops ranked by value are coffee, oil, cocoa, copra, tea, rubber, and sugar. The timber industry was not active in 1998, due to low world prices, but rebounded in 1999. About 40% of the country is covered with timber rich trees, and a domestic woodworking industry has been slow to develop. Fish exports are confined primarily to shrimp, although fishing boats of other nations catch tuna in Papua New Guinea waters under license. This makes it to depend highly dependent on imports, as it can only produce primary goods for domestic consumption. The secondary Goods are been imported from other countries.

PHILIPPINES
Imports: $66.69 billion (2015), $65.4 billion (2014), $61.831 billion (2013), $68.84 billion (2011 est.) Imports – commodities: electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic[13]Imports – partners: China 16.2%, United States 10.8%, Japan 9.6%, Singapore 7%, South Korea 6.5%, Thailand 6.4%, Malaysia 4.7, Indonesia 4.4% (2015) Debt – external: $75.61 billion (30 September 2015 est.). From these, it can be seen that the Philippines heavily depends externally for its survival.

HONG KONG
Hong Kong has been ranked as the world's freest economy in the Index of Economic Freedom of The Heritage Foundation for 20 consecutive years, since its inception in 1995. The index measures restrictions on business, trade, investment, finance, property rights and labour, and considers the impact of corruption, government size and monetary controls in 183 economies. Hong Kong is the only one to have ever scored 90 points or above on the 100-point scale in 2014 Index.
Two-way Trade: US$823.9 billion, +23.6% (2010), +11.1% p.a. (1986–2010) With China:' $402.6 billion, +24.2% (2010), 48.9% share. Exports: $459.4 billion, -0.5% (2016) To China:' $205.7 billion, +26.5% (2010), 52.7% share. Re-exports: $381.2 billion, +22.8% (2010), +14.3% p.a. (1986–2010)To China:' $247.7 (2016). Imports: $513.8 billion, +9.1% (2016), From China:' $245.3 billion (2016). By implication, Hong Kong does not rely heavily on external aids for its survival.


Comparison
The Papua New Guinea and Philippines are highly dependent externally, for their survival. They depend heavily on import for their survival and sustenance.
The reverse is the case as regards to the Hong Kong economy; they does not depend heavily on external aids for their sustenance.

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

POLITICAL STRUCTURE POWER AND INTEREST GROUP

PAPUA NEW GUINEA
In the early years of independence, the instability of the party system led to frequent votes of no confidence in parliament, with resulting changes of the government, but with referral to the electorate, through national elections only occurring every five years. In recent years, successive governments have passed legislation preventing such votes sooner than 18 months after a national election and within 12-month of the next election. In December 2012, the first two (of three) readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months. This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government.
Elections in PNG attract numerous candidates. After independence in 1975, members were elected by the first past the post system, with winners frequently gaining less than 15% of the vote. Electoral reforms in 2001 introduced the Limited Preferential Vote system (LPV), a version of the Alternative Vote. The 2007 general election was the first to be conducted using LPV.


PHILIPPINES
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration. The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term. Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sector representation. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.



HONG KONG
The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. On 1 July 1997, sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the China (PRC), ending over one and a half centuries of British rule. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defence, which are responsibilities of the PRC government. According to the Sino-British Joint Declaration (1984) and the Basic Law, Hong Kong will retain its political, economic and judicial systems and unique way of life and continue to participate in international agreements and organisations as a dependent territory for at least 50 years after retrocession. For instance, the International Olympic Committee recognises Hong Kong as a participating dependency under the name, "Hong Kong, China", separate from the delegation from the China. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Hong Kong as "flawed democracy" in 2016.

URAMA HENRY CHIMAOBI 2015/199574 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT said...

Comparison
In the final analysis, it is often not the correctness of economic policies alone that determines the outcome of national approaches to critical development problems. The political structure and the vested interests and allegiances of ruling elites (e.g., large landowners, urban industrialists, bankers, foreign manufacturers). From the above, it can be seen that Hong Kong has a more stabilized political structure than Papua New Guinea and Philippines.

















References
Somare, Michael (6 December 2004). "Stable Government, Investment Initiatives, and Economic Growth". Keynote address to the 8th Papua New Guinea Mining and Petroleum Conference. Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
"Never more to rise". The National (February 6, 2006). Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2005.
"Papua New Guinea". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
"Sign language becomes an official language in PNG". Radio New Zealand. 21 May 2015.

"Republic act no. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
Jump up to:a b DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. July 13, 2013.
Jump up to:a b Philippine Statistics Authority 2014, pp. 29–34.
"Basic Law Full Text - Annex III". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
"Main Tables - Population by Ethnicity and Year". 2016 Population By-Census. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
CIA The World Fact Book






ONAH OBIANUJU WINIFRED 2015/197508 said...


ONAH OBIANUJU WINIFRED 2015/197508 said...

3 HUMAN AND PHYSICAL RESOURCES
THE BAHAMAS

The economy of Ireland is a modern knowledge economy , focusing on services and high-tech industries and dependent on trade, industry and investment. In terms of GDP per capita , Ireland is ranked as one of the wealthiest countries in the OECD and the EU-27 at 5th in the OECD-28 rankings as of 2008.
In terms of GNP per capita, Ireland ranks only slightly above the OECD average, despite significant growth in recent years, at 10th in the OECD-28 rankings. GDP (national output) is significantly greater than GNP (national income) due to the repatriation of profits and royalty payments by multinational firms based in Ireland. Its private and public sectors relative importance has always been a noticeable fact and the government has funded it to the best of their effort>

ONAH OBIANUJU WINIFRED 2015/197508 said...

6 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
THE BAHAMAS

ONAH OBIANUJU WINIFRED 2015/197508 said...

CONCLUSION

ONAH OBIANUJU WINIFRED 2015/197508 said...

REFERENCES

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century. The first European to colonize what is now the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral(c.1467/1468-c.1520) on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a colony and a part of the Portuguese Empire. The country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 (approximately the 46th meridian west) that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century.
On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and became Empire of Brazil. A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic. The country has seen a dictatorship during Vargas Era (1930–1934 and 1937–1945) and a period of military rule (1964–1985) under Brazilian military government
Equatorial guinea
Republic of Equatorial Guinea is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 sq miles). It was formerly a colony of Spain, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Equatorial Guinea is the only sovereign African state in which Spanish is an official language. As of 2015, the country had an estimated population of 1,222,245.
Equatorial Guinea consists of two parts, an insular and a mainland region. The insular region consists of the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Pó) in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island south of the equator. Bioko Island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the country's capital, Malabo. The island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and east. It is the location of Bata, Equatorial Guinea's largest city, and Oyala, the country's planned future capital. Rio Muni also includes several small offshore islands, such as Corisco, Elobey Grande, and Elobey Chico. The country is a member of the African Union, Francophonie, OPEC and the CPLP.
Pygmies probably once lived in the continental region that is now Equatorial Guinea, but are today found only in isolated pockets in southern Río Muni. Bantu migrations between the 18th and 19th centuries brought coastal ethno-linguistic groups as well as the Fang people. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who migrated from Cameroon to Río Muni and Bioko in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. The Annobón population, originally native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island.
San Marino
San Marino officially the Republic of San Marino is an enclaved micro-state surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the north-eastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest city is Serravalle. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.
The country takes its name from Marinus, a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in modern-day Croatia. In A.D. 257, Marinus participated in the reconstruction of Rimini's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus then went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in A.D. 301; thus, San Marino lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Brazil
Brazil has a total area of 8.5 million square km, and is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of area size. It has a population of 203.4 million people, making it the 5th most populated country in the world with a labour force of 103.6 million people.
Brazil's Annual Household Income per Capita reached 4,203.21 USD in Sep 2015, compared with the previous value of 5,393.65 USD in Sep 2014. This is to say that there was a decline in the per capita income of Brazil from 2014 to 2015.
Over the years, the income level in Brazil fluctuated, reaching highs and lows. In 2003, it was at its lowest recording 1,287 USD and got to its highest in 2014 which was 5,393.65 USD. But this does not mean that the income in Brazil is evenly distributed. Brazil has been tackling problems of income inequality despite high rates of growth. Its GDP (gross domestic product) growth in 2010 was 7.5%. In recent decades, there has been a decline in inequality for the country as a whole. Brazil’s GINI coefficient, a measure of income inequality, has slowly decreased from in 0.596 in 2001 to 0.543 in 2009. However, the numbers still point to a rather significant problem of income disparity.
The country's high income concentration is depicted by the richest one per cent of the population (less than 2 million people) having 13 percent of all household income. This percentage is similar to that of the poorest 50 per cent - about 80 million Brazilians. This inequality results in poverty levels that are inconsistent with an economy the size of that of Brazil
Equatorial Guinea
The republic of Equatorial Guinea has a total population of 1.221 million people as at 2016. The number must have increased by now. Equatorial Guinea has a landscape area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 sq miles)
The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Equatorial Guinea was last recorded at 12028.60 US dollars in 2016. The GDP per Capita in Equatorial Guinea is equivalent to 95 percent of the world's average. GDP per capita in Equatorial Guinea averaged 7403.28 USD from 1980 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 20333.90 USD in 2008 and a record low of 487 USD in 1991.
However, despite these reaches, Equatorial Guinea still ranks a misery 135th on the UNDP Human Capital Index, and is also seen as the country that still has a government that is very opposed to freedom of the press. Also, income distribution is very unequal, with over 70% of the population still wallowing in poverty.

San Marino
San Marino has a population of approximately 33,000, with 4,800 foreign residents, most of whom are Italian citizens. Another 12,000 Sammarinese live abroad (5,700 in Italy, 3,000 in the USA, 1,900 in France and 1,600 in Argentina).
The first census since 1976 was held in 2010. Results were expected by the end of 2011. However, 13% of families did not return their forms.
The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are reasonably high and comparable to those of surrounding Italy, with a GDP per capita of about $32,000 (2000 estimate). GDP growth for the same year was 8 percent. San Marino is closely associated with the economic structures of the EU through the Italian economy and monetary and customs systems, with which it is closely integrated. San Marino also receives payments from the Italian government in exchange for permitting its monopolies on tobacco and other commodities on its territory.
The income level in San Marino is as structured below, and it is way high when compared to that of Brazil and Equatorial Guinea
Median Income Under 25 40,000
Median Income 25-44 122,917
Median Income 45-64 169,412
Median Income Over 65 117,438

MGBEMELE, BRIGHT UGOCHUKWU REG NO: 2015/199508 said...

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MGBEMELE, BRIGHT UGOCHUKWU REG NO: 2015/199508 said...

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OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...


Brazil
Some of Brazil's natural resources are topaz, iron ore, tin, bauxite, nickel, granite, limestone, clay, rivers, sand, gems, and timber. Hydro electricity is very common in Brazil especially with the Amazon River. It can be made for electricity for many houses in Brazil. With bauxite they can produce about 25 metric tons of it in a year. They use this in the aluminium to create things. For manganese, Brazil produces 2.4 metric tons in a year. .They are the only ones that produce a lot of this natural resources, besides Australia and Africa. Another natural resource is phosphates which is a type of salt. In 2002 they have produced 5.6 metric tons in a year. One of the other resources that they have is petroleum. Petroleum is an oily substance that is thick and very flammable. Brazilians use limestone for many different objects. A few different ways is that we can use them for glass making, cemet production, chemical production, and finally for making buildings shine.
Some of Brazil's mineral resources are topaz, iron ore, tin, gold, bauxite, nickel, granite, limestone, clay, sand, gems, and timber are the minerals. A mineral that is also found in many parts of the world is a topaz. Inside the the topaz is oxygen. Topaz is popular for making jewellery for festive outfits. When mined, you can find it in large chunks. The colour that is most valuable is orange-yellow. Topaz has a variety of colours. For example there is blue, green, red, and white. Another mineral is tin. Tin has many uses for Brazilians. For instance it is used for food packaging, flatware, and to coat other metals. The tin helps keep other metals from disintegrating. Clay in Brazil is similar to what we use it for today. They use it for carving sculptures. Finally another mineral is a gem. Brazilian's use them for, of course, jewellery and surprisingly for drills.
When it comes to the human resources in Brazil, it is worthy to note that Brazil has a total workforce of 103.6 million people, which is more than half of its population. Also Brazil has a significant percentage of women in its labour force.
However, moving to other factors that make for quality human resource such as literacy rate and HCI (Human Capital Index), Brazil has a literacy rate of 92% of adults as of 2017 and a HCI of 2.9 as of 2017.
Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea is blessed with abundant physical resources or natural resources as you may call it. Chief in the list is oil. The country produces over 5•8million tonnes of oil and there are 1.8bn.bbls proven reserves. This oil alone has led to a tremendous increase in the country’s Gross Domestic Product and its GDP per Capita which is more than most African countries. It also boasts of significant forest reserve for the paper industry.
Other physical resources of Equatorial Guinea include the following: Natural gas, gold bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand, gravel, clay
On the aspect of human resources in Equatorial Guinea, she has a labour force of about 627,641 people as at 2016.
In the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, Equatorial Guinea is the country that has the highest literacy rate which stands at 94%. This means that 94% of the population of Equatorial Guinea are literate. This provides a base for quality human resources.
However, Equatorial Guinea ranks 135th in the UNDP Human Capital IndexSan Marino
In the area of mineral resources, it should be noted that San Marino has no commercial mineral resources, so most of her natural resources consist of livestock, which uses about 17% of the total area of San Marino. Also other agricultural products include wine, cheese, wheat and grapes.
In the latest years for which data was available, the labour force in 1999 totalled about 18,500. In 2000, it was estimated that the services sector provided employment for 57% of the workforce, with industry accounting for 42% and agriculture 1%. The unemployment rate in 2001 stood at 2.6%.
San Marino has a literacy rate of 96% for the general population and 97% for males. Most

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...


Brazil
Brazilian society is made up of a confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Brazilians, with the influence of Portuguese colonizers, Black African, and European, Arab, and Japanese immigration. Other significant groups include Koreans, Chinese, Paraguayans, and Bolivians.
However, the present day Brazilian society is made up of different people of different race which include the black, locally known as Pretos; who make up just about 8% of the population, the whites locally known as Brancos who are about 47% of the population, then the multiracial known as pardos, who are about 42% of the population.
The dominant religion of Brazil is Christianity. Brazil possesses a richly spiritual society formed from the meeting of the Roman Catholic Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous people. This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Roman Catholicism, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities. Until recently Catholicism was overwhelmingly dominant. Rapid change in the 21st century has led to a growth in secularism (no religious affiliation), and EvangelicalProtestantism to over 22% of the population. The 2010 census indicates that under 65% of Brazilians consider themselves Catholic, down from 90% in 1970,
Equatorial Guinea
The majority of the people of Equatorial Guinea are of Bantu origin. The largest ethnic group, the Fang, are indigenous to the mainland, but substantial migration to Bioko Island has resulted in Fang dominance over the earlier Bubi inhabitants. The Fang constitute 80% of the population and are themselves divided into 67 clans. Those in the northern part of Rio Muni speak Fang-Ntumu, while those in the south speak Fang-Okah; the two dialects are mutually unintelligible. The Bubi, who constitute 15% of the population, are indigenous to Bioko Island.
Two small groups of Pygmies also inhabit the country, the Beyele and the Bokuign, the former being located in the Altos de Nsork region. Their population is dwindling, them being subjected to heavy pressure from their neighbours, who don't even consider them as human.
Equatorial Guinea has Roman Catholicism as its principal religion since the Spanish colonial period when the whole population was baptized into the faith. Even with a Constitutional guarantee of freedom of religion in the country, it has remained predominant, drawing the largest number of adherents from the population. A religious demography, therefore, places Roman Catholicism or Christianity on top with 93%, followed by Protestantism at 6%, and the traditional indigenous religions at 5%. The Muslims, the Bahai Faith members and practitioners of other religions have each 1% of the population of the country.
San Marino
Most of the citizens of San Marino are considered Sammarinese, which is arguably a distinct ethnic group. According to tradition, the founder of the country was from an island off the Dalmatian coast and many of the people today are descended from him and his followers, implying the genetic make-up of the Sammarinese may be a combination of historic people from that coast (which is today part of Croatia) and Latin due to Italian influence; in reality the people are almost entirely Latin, but there are enough ethnic differences that the Sammarinese claim a distinct ethnicity and few argue. Obviously, the Sammarinese's closest relatives are the Italians and the Italians also make the up largest minority group in the country.
San Marino was founded by Christians fleeing prosecution and today the country is still predominately Catholic, although there is no officially recognized religion in the country.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

Brazil
Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country, Latin America's largest economy, and an important trading partner for the U.S. The Brazilian government dominates many areas of the country's economy, undercutting development of a more vibrant private sector. This is to say that the public sector of Brazil is more dominant than the private sector.
However, this is not to say that the public sector is more important than the private sector. Data from 2010 to 2017 suggests that the private sector has contributed more than 50% to the GDP of Brazil. As at 2016, the private sector contributed to 62.2 percentage of the GDP of Brazil
On the other hand, the percentage of employment of total employment by the public sector which is 21% as at 2013 is significantly lower than that of the private sector which makes up the remaining 79%.
From the above facts, we could see that the private sector is a very important part of the economy of Brazil.

Equatorial Guinea
The economy of Equatorial Guinea is mainly controlled by the government which is the public sector. However, the private sector dominates the economy of Equatorial Guinea. This is as a result of the growth of the oil industry in Equatorial Guinea which accounts for about 85% of the GDP of Equatorial Guinea.
The major problem is that the oil and gas sector provides little employment to the citizens of Equatorial Guinea despite its dominance.
San Marino
The public sector of San Marino provides about 18.7% of total employment for the whole population of the country. This means that the private sector sucks up the remaining 83% of total employment. However, the wages obtainable in the public sector are better than what is obtainable in the private sectors. Plans are being made by the government to reduce the wages of the public sectors in order to make the private sectors compete more favourably. Also, the public expenditure of San Marino has been around 23% of the GDP from 2015 to 2017

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
Brazil
Brazil as a country can boast of a much diversified economy ranging from agriculture to manufacturing sector. Agriculture in Brazil is well diversified, and the country is the largest producer of sugarcane, coffee, tropical fruits, frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ). Brazil's agriculture is also important for the production of soybeans, corn, cotton, cocoa, tobacco and forest products. Agriculture contributes to 6.1 percent of the country's total GDP and employs 20 percent of its total labour force.
Also, Brazil has the largest cattle herd in the world, with 207.5 millions of cattle as at 2009, over 50 percent larger than that of the US. The increase in production of the country's livestock and crops leads to the rise of deforestation and land clearing in the country. These activities results in producing 75 percent of Brazil's total emissions of greenhouse gases, and make the country one of the top world greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters.
Brazil also has a diverse and well-developed industry, regarded as one of the most advanced industry in Latin America. It covers the automobile parts, machinery and equipment, textiles, cement, computers, aircrafts, steel and petrochemicals, and consumer durables. The industry contributes 26.4 percent of the nation's total GDP, and employs 14 percent of its total labour force.
Brazil is also one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, and hydropower accounts for 69 percent of the country's total electricity generation. Nuclear energy contributes to 4 percent of Brazil's electricity. The country currently has 2 nuclear power plant, Angra I and Angra II. Plans and work is on the way for the third plant, Angra III.
Brazil has an expanding services industry and it contributes about 67.5 percent of the nation's total GDP, and employs about 66 percent of the total labour force. Brazil has a well-developed services sector, with major industries including telecommunications, banking, energy, commerce and computing sectors.
The banking industries are financially strong and attracted huge inflow of foreign investment, with a strong national currency, and boast one of the highest interest rate in the world. Two of the largest banks in Brazil are government owned, but US and other foreign banks do have a significant share of the financial market.
Equatorial Guinea
Industrial development in Equatorial Guinea is still in its infancy. Most manufactured goods are imported or, when needed as intermediates in other activities, locally produced by foreign ventures. The per capita income, low at least until recently, and the small national market make domestic manufacturing production a non-profitable activity. The oil boom with its increased incomes may somewhat help manufacturing activity if the limitations from insufficient transport infrastructure, the need for skilled human capital, and the risks of Dutch Disease can be eased. In the last two years, construction gained momentum thanks to the public investment programme on road infrastructure and public building arrangement and to investment in the oil sector. The sector has grown by 19.8 per cent in 1999 and by 62 per cent in 2000 and growth prospects for 2001 are expected around 40 per cent

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

San Marino
The government has a sound policy of promoting local producers. Electronics and Internet related activities have been added to the traditional Sammarinese construction materials manufacture, which includes building-stone quarrying, cement, ceramics, and tiles fabrication. Wood processing and fine furniture manufacturing are also well developed. Minting of coins and medals, printing of stamps and cards, and fine local handicrafts are the largest contributors to the economy in terms of revenue. Construction and the real estate market are another important source of income and occupation. Chemical industries, textiles, and apparel manufacturing also contribute to the country's exports.
Manufacturing is limited to light industries such as textiles, bricks and tiles, leather goods, clothing, and metalwork. Cotton textiles are woven at Serravalle; bricks and tiles are made in La Dogana, which also has a dyeing plant; and cement factories and a tannery are located in Acquaviva, as well as a paper-making plant. Synthetic rubber is also produced. The pottery of Borgo Maggiore is well known. Gold and silver souvenirs are made for the tourist trade. Other products are Moscato wine, olive oil, and baked goods. A significant source of revenue is the selling of stamps to foreign collectors.

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
Brazil
The major area that Brazil exhibits external dependence is in the area of trade. In as much as the country has enjoyed a favourable balance of trade of late, she still depends on international market for some of her consumer goods.
As at 2015, Brazil spent a total of 135billion USD on imports. Refined petroleum took 5.6% of total imports while vehicle parts had 3.4%. Most of Brazilian imports are electronic gadgets. This is to say that Brazil still depends greatly on the western world or the developed economies for electronic goods such as computers
San Marino
San Marino is the 182nd largest export economy in the world. In 2015, San Marino exported $128M and imported $287M, resulting in a negative trade balance of $159M.
The fact that San Marino ranks 182nd in export economies in the world tells you that it doesn’t have much to export. Also in 2015, the trade balance of San Marino was negative due to its imports.
San Marino depends on Italy for electricity. This means that it does not generate electricity on its own. Importation of electricity attributed to about 9.5% of total imports in 2015. Also, due to its lack of mineral resources, San Marino imports aluminium from other countries. San Marino also depends, to a large extent, on Italian force for military protection.
The top import origins for San Marino as at 2015 are Germany ($46.3M), Italy ($43.5M), the Netherlands ($28.9M), Romania ($27M) and Poland ($25.4M).
Equatorial Guinea
The rate of external dependence in Equatorial Guinea is growing by the day. Due to the country’s discovery of oil, in 2016, Equatorial Guinea bought US$1.1 billion worth of imported products down by -53.8% since 2012 and down by -36.7% from 2015 to 2016.
The economy of Equatorial Guinea is one that is heavily dependent on the countries of the west. It has a very undeveloped local industry, and as such relies on western countries for its manufactured imports ranging from cars, electronic gadgets and many other secondary goods

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
Brazil
Brazil is a democratic, federative republic, divided by states and a federal district. Brazilian citizens are obliged to vote, and it is up to the population to choose their Legislative and Executive representatives.
Every two years, Brazilians vote to select who is going to represent them in the Executive and in the Legislative power. Members of the Judiciary, however, are not chosen directly by the people: other judges, magistrates and the president decide who will occupy the disputed positions.
Nowadays, there are two elections in Brazil, the national and the municipality one. Each of them occurs every four years. The most recent national elections ended last Sunday, October 26th
According to sociologist Marcelo Ridenti, Brazilian politics is divided between internationalist liberals and statist nationalists. The first group consists of politicians arguing that internationalization of the economy is essential for the development of the country, while the latter rely on interventionism, and protection of state enterprises. According to Ridenti, who cites the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration as an example of the first group and the Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva administration as an example of the second, "we have it cyclically".
Lula's Workers' Party tended to the statist nationalist side, although there are privatizing forces within his party and government, while Cardoso's Social Democratic Party tended to favor the international private market side by taking neoliberal policies.[3] Lula compares himself with Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitscheck and João Goulart, presidents seen as statist nationalists.
As of May 2017, 16,668,589 Brazilians were affiliated with a political party. The largest parties are MDB (which accounts for 14.4% of affiliated voters), the PT (9.5% of affiliated voters), and PSDB (8.7% of affiliated voters).
Equatorial Guinea
The politics of Equatorial Guinea take place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President is both the head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Chamber of People's Representatives
The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives the President extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and calling legislative elections. The President retains his role as commander in chief of the armed forces and minister of defense, and he maintains close supervision of military activity. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. The Prime Minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs, national defense and security.
Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo seized power in a military coup. He is elected by popular vote to a seven-year term.
Another branch of the government is the State Council. The State Council's main function is to serve as caretaker in case of death or physical incapacity of the President. It comprises the following ex-officio members: the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defence, the President of the National Assembly and the Chairman of the Social and Economic Council.

OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

San Marino
Politics of San Marino takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Captains Regent are the heads of state and heads of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
San Marino was originally led by the Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family. In the 13th century, power was given to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council and is still in use today.
San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The two main parties are the Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS) and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD, a merger of the Socialist Party of San Marino and the Party of Democrats) in addition to several other smaller parties. It is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority and most of the time the government is run by a coalition.
Because tourism accounts for more than 50% of the economic sector, the government relies not only on taxes and customs for revenue, but also the sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors throughout the world. In addition, the Italian Government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of the Basic Treaty with Italy.
The political parties in San Marino have close ties with the corresponding parties in Italy. Parties represented in the Grand and General Council following the 2001 elections were as follows: Christian Democratic Party (PDCS), 25; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), 15; the Party of Democrats (PD), 12; Popular Alliance of Sanmarinese Democrats for the Republic (APDS), 5; Communist Refunding (RCS), 2; and the Sanmarinese National Alliance (ANS)


OSHIM THEOPHILUS CHISOM Reg No:2015/204047 ECONOMICS 300LEVEL said...

References
Rogatnick, Joseph H (1976) "Little States in a World of Powers: A Study of Conduct of Foreign Affairs by Andorra, Lichtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino," University of Pennsylvania.
World Development Indicators database, World Bank, accessed on January 12, 2018.
"Export Partners of Equatorial Guinea". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2018-01-12.
"International Religious Freedom Report for 2013: Brazil". United States Department of State.
Collins, John F. (2007). "Recent Approaches in English to Brazilian Racial Ideologies: Ambiguity, Research Methods, and Semiotic Ideologies". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 49(4): 997–1009
Thomas Skidmore. Racial ideas and social policy in Brazil, 1870–1940.
Import and export data retrieved https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/smr/
Goertzel, Ted and Paulo R. A.(2005), The Drama of Brazilian Politics from Dom João to Marina Silva Amazon Digital Services.
Brazil economic structure retrieved from http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy
Fausto, Boris, and Arthur B. (2014) A Concise History of Brazil (Cambridge Concise Histories)

NnAdysBlog.blogspot.com said...

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE
2015/200289


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NICARAGUA
Nicaragua's name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited the shores of Lake Nicaragua before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and the Spanish word 'Agua', meaning water, due to the presence of the large Lake Cocibolca (or Lake Nicaragua) and Lake Managua (or Lake Xolotlán), as well as lagoons and rivers in the region. Nicaragua is the third least densely populated nation in Central America, with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors. It is located about midway between Mexico and Colombia, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CUBA
The island of Cuba was inhabited by various Mesoamerican cultures prior to the arrival of the Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492. After Columbus' arrival, Cuba became a Spanish colony, ruled by a Spanish governor in Havana. In 1762, Havana was briefly occupied by Great Britain, before being returned to Spain in exchange for Florida. A series of rebellions during the 19th century failed to end Spanish rule. However, the Spanish–American War resulted in a Spanish withdrawal from the island in 1898, and following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba gained formal independence in 1902.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ITALY
Since classical times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the center and the north of Italy respectively, while various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. The Italic tribe known as the Latin’s formed the city of Rome as a Kingdom, which eventually became a Republic that united Italy by the third century BC and emerged as the dominant power of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as a consequence of the military victories of generals such as Scipio, Aemilius Paullus, Scipio Aemilianus, Gaius Marius, Lucius Sulla, Pompey and Julius Caesar.
1.3 SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
SIZEAND INCOME LEVEL OF NICARAGUA
Nicaragua, the largest of the Central American countries, has the population of 6.15 million (2016) World Bank, an area of 129,494 sq km (49,998 sq mi),
Nicaragua's capital city, Managua, is located in the southwestern part of the country.
INCOME LEVEL OF NICARAGUA: MANAGUA AS THE CASE STUDY
The minimum wage in Nicaragua rose 4.5 % in September. This means that it is currently 180 USD. The figure is among the lowest of Central America. In contrast, the average salary in Nicaragua is 420 USD, a rather average figure for low income countries worldwide

NnAdysBlog.blogspot.com said...

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE
2015/200289
300 LEVEL

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF CUBA
SIZE OF CUBA
The Republic of Cuba consists of one large island and several small ones situated on the northern rim of the Caribbean Sea, about 160 km (100 mi) south of Florida. With an area of 110,860 sq km (42,803 sq mi), and with a population of 11.48 million (2016) World Bank.
Cuba is the largest country in the Caribbean, accounting for more than one-half of West Indian land area. Cuba's capital city, Havana, is located on its north coast

INCOME LEVEL OF CUBA
The aggregated gross national income per capita of Cuba is officially $5,539, but the take home salary for most Cubans is around $20 a month. While there is little publicly available data regarding individual incomes, Richard Feinberg concludes, using a variety of indicators, that 40 percent of the Cuban labor force falls within a broadly defined middle class, though consumption remains depressed due to low government wages
SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF ITALY
SIZE
Situated in southern Europe, the Italian Republic, including the major islands of Sicily (Sicilia) and Sardinia (Sardegna), covers a land area of 301,230 sq km (116,306 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Italy is slightly larger than the state of Arizona and a population of 60.6 million (2016) World Bank.
.Italy's capital city, Rome, is located in the west-central part of the country.
INCOME LEVEL OF ITALY
In Italy, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is USD 26 063 a year, lower than the OECD average of USD 30 563 a year. But there is a considerable gap between the richest and poorest – the top 20% of the population earn close to six times as much as the bottom 20%.
COMPARISON: There is a wide gap between the size and income level of these countries.
Nicaragua is less populated but with a larger area when compared to Cuba. The population of Italy is much more than that of Nicaragua combined together. Their level of income also varies, while Nicaragua’s average income per person is commendable for a low income economy, the average income is Cuba is not, this is because only 40% of the entire is classified in the middle class group. The income gap between the poorest and the richest in Italy is quite wide and her income per capital doesn’t not meet that of OECD.










NnAdysBlog.blogspot.com said...

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE
2015/200289
ECONOMICS,300 LEVEL


PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF NICARAGUA
PHYSICAL RESOUCES
Nicaragua’s natural resources are quite diverse. Among the metals available are gold, silver, copper and tungsten. Also part of Nicaragua’s natural resources are lead, zinc, timber, fish.

HUMAN RESOURCES
In Nicaragua there is an oversupply of young professionals who have postgraduate studies, but who lack the work experience that the companies require.
One of the problems that stands out in Nicaragua is the presence of a lot of young professionals with master’s degrees, but who lack experience that is specifically demanded the contracting companies. Shortage of Specialized Technicians in Nicaragua
There is still a shortage of workers with the skills and technical training needed to work in several sectors, ranging from agriculture to telecommunications.
Nicaraguan companies are having difficulty finding employees who are 24 years old or younger with the required socio-emotional and academic skills.



PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF CUBA
PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF CUBA

The chief mineral resources produced in Cuba, which aided its economy in 2010, were nickel and cobalt. The mining sector also produced other minerals such as cement, feldspar, gypsum, iron ore, lime, limestone, asphalt, bentonite, chromite, zeolite, marble, steel, and sulfuric acid.

HUMAN RESOURCES OF CUBA
In Cuba, it is your right and your duty to work. There is a labor code that protects workers from social injustice and abuse; however, there are 11 million citizens and only four million workers.
That means four million people hustle and seven million people ride the flow.
Workers in Cuba have mixed opportunities.
Cuban citizens are given a free education, free healthcare, and a free home. Workers are protected by unions, and they are granted access to lawyers to file grievances against unfair labor practices.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN ITALY
PHYSICAL RESOURCES
Italy is a significant producer of industrial minerals such as cement, marble, feldspar, lime, clay, and pumice for global consumption. The metal industries produced copper, iron and steel, lead, and zinc, which are essential for the country’s manufacturing industry. Iron and steel industries are important contributors to the country’s revenue
HUMAN RESOURCES IN ITALY
Employment in the Italian civil service is governed by the Legislative Decree nr.165/2001, and was recently amended by the Public Employment Reform nr.15/2009. Public employment provides guarantees in favor of lifelong employment whereas this is not the case in the private sector. Part-time employment accounts for a very low proportion of the total employment under the GEF with only 4.4% of staff working part time.
COMPARISON: The three countries all have physical resources peculiar to them, in their peculiarity, they still have similar physical resources such as zinc is both present in Nicaragua and Italy. while comparing their human resources too, Nicaragua is seen to have excess supply of willing workers but they lack experience while Cuba and Italy relatively have good human resources and jobs secured by government through policies.

NnAdysBlog.blogspot.com said...

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE
2015/200289
ECONOMICS,300 LEVEL

ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF NICARAGUA
The majority of the Nicaraguan population is mestizo and white. 69% of Nicaraguans are mestizos (a mix of approx. 3/4 European, 1/8 Indigenous, and 1/8 African, according to DNA molecular autosomal assessments by the University of Zaragoza, Spain), while 17% are white, with the majority of them being of Spanish descent. There are also whites of Italian, German, or French ancestry. The remainder 9% of Nicaragua's population is black.

RELIGIOUSS COMPOSITION OF NICARAGUA
Over 90% of Nicaragua's population are members of Christian denominations. A very small percentage of Nicaraguans practice other forms of religion. The Jewish community is limited to just a few and the small Muslim groups are mostly made up of alien residents as well as immigrants who are now naturalized Nicaraguans.

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF CUBA
ETHNIC COMPOSITION
Cuba’s ethnic composition is 64.1% white, 26.6% mestizo (mixed race, primarily white/black) and 9.3% black. Cuba’s aboriginal Indians, the Taínos, were not as numerous and strong as other Native American tribes (Incas, Aztecs, Mayans, etc.)

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
About 85% of the people of Cuba are Roman Catholic although few of these people regularly practice the religion. Protestant groups, Jehovah's Witnesses and Jews are also present, but again few people are practicing, partially due to the government discouraging the practice of religion

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF ITALY
ETHNIC COMPOSITION
The major ethnic group in Italy is the Italians, who account for 95% (above 60 millions) of the total population of Italy. The remaining 5% of the population consists of ethnicities like Albanians, Romanians, Ukrainians and other Europeans (2.5%); Africans (1.5%) and several other minorities (1%).

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Italy is a Christian country, some 88 per cent of the population belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Other religious groups in Italy include over 1m Muslims, 700,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians, 550,000 evangelical Protestants, 235,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses, 45,000 Jews, and the Waldensian Evangelical Church and other small groups such as Swiss-Protestant Baptists in Piedmont, plus a number of Eastern Orthodox Albanian communities in the Mezzogiorno.
COMPARISON: Having looked at this countries in respect to their Ethnic and religious composition, it’s seen that they all are similar because they are Christian countries with Catholic Church being the dominating denomination in Cuba and Italy .Also its worthy to note that each of these countries have a fragment of black in their races/ethnicity, while Nicaragua both have the Mestizo’s as part of their ethnic group


NnAdysBlog.blogspot.com said...

NNADIE,IRENE AMUCHE
2015/200289
ECONOMICS,300 LEVEL

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
IN NICARAGUA

Nicaragua practices a mixed economy, both the government plays relevant role in the growth of the economy ,the government tries to expand its export by financially encouraging family small business .following this, both the public and private sectors are relevant in the economy as together yielded GDP PER CAPITA at 2,151.38 USD and GDP is 13.23 USD (2016)World Bank .

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTR IN CUBA
The public sector in Cuba is dominant over the private sector. Recently the Cuban government announced it would legalize small and medium-sized enterprises in May 2016. Private enterprises continue to acquire market share from state entities. While Cuban entrepreneurs and small business owners still face many barriers, including the inability to import and export and limited access to internet, private sector employment is growing rapidly and now amounts to an estimated one third of the total workforce. Although the public sector is more prominent in terms of contribution to the economic at GDP per capita of Cuba, the private sectors have also aided in their own little way and thus has resulted to per capita$3,300 (2012 est.) and GDP at $19.89 billion.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS IN ITALY
Sectors of Italy’s economy is divided into diversified industrial north and is dominated by private companies and less developed, welfare dependent , agricultural south with high unemployment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high quality consumer goods produced by small and medium sized enterprises, many of which are family owned. Therefore, the private sector in Italy relative to the public sector is very important and has gone ahead to contribute to the nation output such as in in the GDP per capita is 30,527.27 USD and GDP is 1.85 trillion USD (2016).

COMPARISON: Both the public and private sectors are present in all three countries economy. Nicaragua’s economy both have the two sectors playing their respective role being a mixed economy while Cuba’s economy is dominantly controlled by the public sector, this means that higher percentage of their GDP is contributed by the public sector, Italy’s economy is controlled by the industries and enterprises owned by private individuals, hence, Italy’s private sector is more relevant than that of the public sector.

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
NIDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NICARAGUA
The Agriculture and industry of Nicaragua is rather varied. The products of the land are coffee, banana, tobacco, sesame, sugarcane, cotton, soya, and beans. Nicaragua livestock provides beef, veal, pork, poultry and dairy products. The industries in Nicaragua includes food processing, textile, petroleum refining and distribution amongst others.

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF CUBA
Cuba has a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises. Most industries are owned and operated by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. In the year 2000, public sector employment was 76% and private sector employment, mainly composed of self-employment, was 23% compared to the 1981 ratio of 91% to 8%.Investment is restricted and requires approval by the government.. In 2016, Cuba ranked 68th out of 182 countries with a Human Development Index of 0.775, much higher than its GDP per capita rank (95th). In 2012, the country's public debt was 35.3% of GDP, inflation (CDP) was 5.5%, and GDP growth was 3%.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations and have in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. While developed countries are sovereign states that have a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized economies. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization, or undeveloped countries which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
1.1.1 SAINT LUCIA
Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique. It covers a land area of 617 km2 (238.23 sq. mi) and reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. Its capital is Castries.
The French were the island's first European settlers. They signed a treaty with the native Carib Indians in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667. In ensuing years, it was at war with France 14 times, and rule of the island changed frequently (it was ruled seven times each by the French and British). In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island. Because it switched so often between British and French control, Saint Lucia was also known as the "Helen of the West Indies”. Both the British and the French found the island attractive after the sugar industry developed, and during the 18th century the island changed ownership or was declared neutral territory a dozen times, although the French settlements remained and the island was a de facto French colony well into the eighteenth century.
1.1.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a sovereign state in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean. The country is also known simply as Saint Vincent.
Its 389 km2 (150 sq. mi) territory consists of the main island of Saint Vincent and the northern two-thirds of the Grenadines, which are a chain of smaller islands stretching south from Saint Vincent Island to Grenada. Most of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines lies within the Belt. To the north of Saint Vincent lies Saint Lucia, to the east Barbados. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a densely populated country (over 300 inhabitants/km2) with approximately 109,643 inhabitants. Kingstown is the capital and main port. Saint Vincent has a French and British colonial history

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NICARAGUA
Nicaragua's name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited the shores of Lake Nicaragua before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and the Spanish word 'Agua', meaning water, due to the presence of the large Lake Cocibolca (or Lake Nicaragua) and Lake Managua (or Lake Xolotlán), as well as lagoons and rivers in the region. Nicaragua is the third least densely populated nation in Central America, with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors. It is located about midway between Mexico and Colombia, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CUBA
The island of Cuba was inhabited by various Mesoamerican cultures prior to the arrival of the Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492. After Columbus' arrival, Cuba became a Spanish colony, ruled by a Spanish governor in Havana. In 1762, Havana was briefly occupied by Great Britain, before being returned to Spain in exchange for Florida. A series of rebellions during the 19th century failed to end Spanish rule. However, the Spanish–American War resulted in a Spanish withdrawal from the island in 1898, and following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba gained formal independence in 1902.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ITALY
Since classical times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the center and the north of Italy respectively, while various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. The Italic tribe known as the Latin’s formed the city of Rome as a Kingdom, which eventually became a Republic that united Italy by the third century BC and emerged as the dominant power of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as a consequence of the military victories of generals such as Scipio, Aemilius Paullus, Scipio Aemilianus, Gaius Marius, Lucius Sulla, Pompey and Julius Caesar.

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
SIZEAND INCOME LEVEL OF NICARAGUA

Nicaragua, the largest of the Central American countries, has the population of 6.15 million (2016) World Bank, an area of 129,494 sq km (49,998 sq mi),
Nicaragua's capital city, Managua, is located in the southwestern part of the country.
INCOME LEVEL OF NICARAGUA: MANAGUA AS THE CASE STUDY
The minimum wage in Nicaragua rose 4.5 % in September. This means that it is currently 180 USD. The figure is among the lowest of Central America. In contrast, the average salary in Nicaragua is 420 USD, a rather average figure for low income countries worldwide.


SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF CUBA
SIZE OF CUBA
The Republic of Cuba consists of one large island and several small ones situated on the northern rim of the Caribbean Sea, about 160 km (100 mi) south of Florida. With an area of 110,860 sq km (42,803 sq mi), and with a population of 11.48 million (2016) World Bank.
Cuba is the largest country in the Caribbean, accounting for more than one-half of West Indian land area. Cuba's capital city, Havana, is located on its north coast

INCOME LEVEL OF CUBA
The aggregated gross national income per capita of Cuba is officially $5,539, but the take home salary for most Cubans is around $20 a month. While there is little publicly available data regarding individual incomes, Richard Feinberg concludes, using a variety of indicators, that 40 percent of the Cuban labor force falls within a broadly defined middle class, though consumption remains depressed due to low government wages

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL OF ITALY
SIZE

Italy is Situated in southern Europe, the Italian Republic, including the major islands of Sicily (Sicilia) and Sardinia (Sardegna), covers a land area of 301,230 sq km (116,306 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Italy is slightly larger than the state of Arizona and a population of 60.6 million (2016) World Bank).
Italy's capital city, Rome, is located in the west-central part of the country.

INCOME LEVEL OF ITALY
In Italy, the average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is USD 26 063 a year, lower than the OECD average of USD 30 563 a year. But there is a considerable gap between the richest and poorest – the top 20% of the population earn close to six times as much as the bottom 20%.

COMPARISON: There is a wide gap between the size and income level of these countries.
Nicaragua is less populated but with a larger area when compared to Cuba. The population of Italy is much more than that of Nicaragua combined together. Their level of income also varies, while Nicaragua’s average income per person is commendable for a low income economy, the average income is Cuba is not, this is because only 40% of the entire is classified in the middle class group. The income gap between the poorest and the richest in Italy is quite wide and her income per capital doesn’t not meet that of OECD.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

1.1.2.1 Early settlements
The island now known as Saint Vincent was originally named Youloumain by the native Island Caribs who called themselves Kalina/Carina. The Caribs aggressively prevented European settlement on Saint Vincent until 1719. Prior to this, formerly enslaved Africans, who had either been shipwrecked or who had escaped from Barbados, Saint Lucia and Grenada and sought refuge in mainland Saint Vincent, intermarried with the Caribs and became known as Black Caribs or Garifuna.
The first Europeans to occupy St. Vincent were the French. Following a series of wars and peace treaties, the islands were eventually ceded to the British. From 1763 until its independence in 1979, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines passed through various stages of colonial status under the British. A representative assembly was authorized in 1776, Crown Colony government was installed in 1877, a legislative council was created in 1925, and universal adult suffrage was granted in 1951.
Saint Vincent was granted "associate statehood" status by Britain on 27 October 1969. This gave Saint Vincent complete control over its internal affairs but was short of full independence. On 27 October 1979, following a referendum under Milton Cato, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became the last of the Windward Islands to gain independence. Independence came on the 10th anniversary of Saint Vincent's associate statehood status.
1.1.3 QATAR
Qatar officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby island country of Bahrain.
1.1.3.1 History
Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 10,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar. Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.
1.1.3.2 Independence
The State of Qatar entered into a general maritime truce with the United Kingdom in 1968. A General Treaty was concluded between the two on 3 November 1916. The General Treaty reserved foreign affairs and defence to the United Kingdom but allowed internal autonomy. On 3 September 1971, those "special treaty arrangements" that were "inconsistent with full international responsibility as a sovereign and independent state" were terminated. This was done under an agreement reached between the Ruler of Qatar and the Government of the United Kingdom.
1.2 SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
1.2.1 SAINT LUCIA
Saint Lucia covers a land area of 617 km2 (238.23 sq. mi) and reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. In 2016, the United Nations Population Division estimated Saint Lucia's population at 178,015. The country's population is evenly divided between urban and rural areas, with more than a third living in the capital, Castries. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is $2,110 billion and per capita is $12,022 also its GDP (nominal) is $1,428 billion and per capita is $8,135. Saint Lucia is an Upper Middle Income economy with Gross National Income Per Capita of $11,370 based on World Bank ranking

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF NICARAGUA
PHYSICAL RESOUCES
Nicaragua’s natural resources are quite diverse. Among the metals available are gold, silver, copper and tungsten. Also part of Nicaragua’s natural resources are lead, zinc, timber, fish.

HUMAN RESOURCES
In Nicaragua there is an oversupply of young professionals who have postgraduate studies, but who lack the work experience that the companies require.
One of the problems that stands out in Nicaragua is the presence of a lot of young professionals with master’s degrees, but who lack experience that is specifically demanded the contracting companies. Shortage of Specialized Technicians in Nicaragua
There is still a shortage of workers with the skills and technical training needed to work in several sectors, ranging from agriculture to telecommunications.
Nicaraguan companies are having difficulty finding employees who are 24 years old or younger with the required socio-emotional and academic skills.


PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF CUBA
PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF CUBA
The chief mineral resources produced in Cuba, which aided its economy in 2010, were nickel and cobalt. The mining sector also produced other minerals such as cement, feldspar, gypsum, iron ore, lime, limestone, asphalt, bentonite, chromite, zeolite, marble, steel, and sulfuric acid.

HUMAN RESOURCES OF CUBA
In Cuba, it is your right and your duty to work. There is a labor code that protects workers from social injustice and abuse; however, there are 11 million citizens and only four million workers.
That means four million people hustle and seven million people ride the flow.
Workers in Cuba have mixed opportunities.
Cuban citizens are given a free education, free healthcare, and a free home. Workers are protected by unions, and they are granted access to lawyers to file grievances against unfair labor practices.

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN ITALY
PHYSICAL RESOURCES
Italy is a significant producer of industrial minerals such as cement, marble, feldspar, lime, clay, and pumice for global consumption. The metal industries produced copper, iron and steel, lead, and zinc, which are essential for the country’s manufacturing industry. Iron and steel industries are important contributors to the country’s revenue

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

1.2.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
Its 389 km2 (150 sq. mi) territory consists of the main island of Saint Vincent and the northern two-thirds of the Grenadines, which are a chain of smaller islands stretching south from Saint Vincent Island to Grenada. Most of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines lies within the Belt. To the north of Saint Vincent lies Saint Lucia, to the east Barbados. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a densely populated country (over 300 inhabitants/km2) with approximately 109,643 inhabitants. The population as estimated in 2016 was 109,643. Its GDP (PPP) is $1.243 billion and per capita is $11,291 also its GDP(nominal) is $784 million and per capita is $7,123 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an Upper Middle Income economy with Gross National Income Per Capita of $11,530 based on World Bank ranking.
1.2.3 QATAR
Qatar covers a land area of 11,581 km2 (4,471 sq. mi) and a population of 2,675,522 according to a 2016 estimate. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Its GDP (PPP) is $404.109 billion and per capita is $145,894. Its GDP (nominal) is $185.395 billion and per capita is $68,940. Qatar is a High Income economy with Gross National Income Per Capita of $124,740 based on World Bank ranking. After the introduction of the Japanese With no income tax, Qatar (along with Bahrain) is one of the countries with the lowest tax rates in the world.
As of 2016, Qatar has the fourth highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the International Monetary Fund. (IMF, 2016). The economic growth of Qatar has been almost exclusively based on its petroleum and natural gas industries, which began in 1940. Qatar is the leading exporter of liquefied natural gas. In 2012, Qatar retained its title of richest country in the world (according to per capita income) for the third time in a row, having first overtaken Luxembourg in 2010. According to the study published by the Washington based Institute of International Finance, Qatar's per capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) was $106,000 (QR387, 000) in 2012, helping the country retain its ranking as the world's wealthiest nation. Luxembourg came a distant second with nearly $80,000 and Singapore third with per capita income of about $61,000. The same study published that Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), with assets of $115bn, was ranked 12th among the richest sovereign wealth funds in the world.
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
2.1.1SAINT LUCIA
• Physical Resources
St Lucian Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential
• Human Resources
Labor force, total in St. Lucia was reported at 100,005 in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Public expenditure on health was at 3.3% of the GDP in 2004 and 6.7% of the GDP in 2014, whereas private expenditure was at 1.8%. Health expenditure was at US$302 (PPP) per capita in 2004. Infant mortality was at 12 per 100,000 births in 2005. Life Expectancy at birth for male and female is 73 and 78 years respectively according to World Health Organization (2015). Among Caribbean Countries, Saint Lucia can be considered very healthy. Saint Lucia’s Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.735 which is high.
The Education Act provides for free and compulsory education in Saint Lucia from the ages of 5 to 15. Public spending on education was at 5.8% among the 2002–2005 GDP. Saint Lucia has one university, the University of the West Indies Open Campus, and a few medical schools – American International Medical University, International American University College of Medicine, Destiny University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, and the oldest of which is Spartan Health Sciences University.

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

HUMAN RESOURCES IN ITALY
Employment in the Italian civil service is governed by the Legislative Decree nr.165/2001, and was recently amended by the Public Employment Reform nr.15/2009. Public employment provides guarantees in favor of lifelong employment whereas this is not the case in the private sector. Part-time employment accounts for a very low proportion of the total employment under the GEF with only 4.4% of staff working part time.

COMPARISON: The three countries all have physical resources peculiar to them, in their peculiarity, they still have similar physical resources such as zinc is both present in Nicaragua and Italy.whiile comparing their human resources too, Nicaragua is seen to have excess supply of willing workers but they lack experience while Cuba and Italy relatively have good human resources and jobs secured by government through policies.

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF NICARAGUA

The majority of the Nicaraguan population is mestizo and white. 69% of Nicaraguans are mestizos (a mix of approx. 3/4 European, 1/8 Indigenous, and 1/8 African, according to DNA molecular autosomal assessments by the University of Zaragoza, Spain), while 17% are white, with the majority of them being of Spanish descent. There are also whites of Italian, German, or French ancestry. The remainder 9% of Nicaragua's population is black.

RELIGIOUSS COMPOSITION OF NICARAGUA
Over 90% of Nicaragua's population are members of Christian denominations. A very small percentage of Nicaraguans practice other forms of religion. The Jewish community is limited to just a few and the small Muslim groups are mostly made up of alien residents as well as immigrants who are now naturalized Nicaraguans.

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF CUBA
ETHNIC COMPOSITION
Cuba’s ethnic composition is 64.1% white, 26.6% mestizo (mixed race, primarily white/black) and 9.3% black. Cuba’s aboriginal Indians, the Taínos, were not as numerous and strong as other Native American tribes (Incas, Aztecs, Mayans, etc.)

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
About 85% of the people of Cuba are Roman Catholic although few of these people regularly practice the religion. Protestant groups, Jehovah's Witnesses and Jews are also present, but again few people are practicing, partially due to the government discouraging the practice of religion

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2.1.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
• Physical Resources
Natural resources: hydropower, arable land
• Human Resource
The labor force is about 57,570 (2007 est.). Education in Saint Vincent and Grenadines is neither compulsory nor free, although children are usually in school until the age of 15. The net primary enrollment is 98.3% (2009) and the net secondary enrolment is 90.3% (2007) with a primary female-male ratio of 0.93:1 and a secondary female-male ratio of 1.04:1. The total adult literacy as at 1970 is 96%. Life Expectancy for male and female is 71 and 75 respectively according to World Health Organization, (2015). It has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.722 which is high.
2.1.3 QATAR
• Physical Resources
The physical resources are petroleum and natural gas
• Human Resources
The labour force is about 1.691million (2016 est.). It relies heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the workforce. (Bill; 2016).Qatar has been criticized by the International Trade Union Confederation.
2.1.3.1 Education
Through Qatar Foundation, the country has built Education City, a campus which hosts local branches of the Weill Cornell Medical College, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, North western’s Medill School of Journalism, Texas A&M's School of Engineering, and other Western institutions. Qatar’s Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.856 which is very high.
The illiteracy rate in Qatar was 3.1% for males and 4.2% for females in 2012, the lowest in the Arab-speaking world, but 86th in the world. Citizens are required to attend government-provided education from kindergarten through high school. Qatar University, founded in 1973, is the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education. According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (2013), the top-ranking universities in the country are Qatar University (1,881st worldwide), Texas A&M University at Qatar (3,905th) and Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (6,855th).
Furthermore, the government has launched educational outreach programs, such as Al-Bairaq. Al-Bairaq was launched in 2010 aims to provide high school students with an opportunity to experience a research environment in the Center for Advanced Materials in Qatar University. The program encompasses the STEM fields and languages. (Anderson et al; 2010).
2.1.3.2 Healthcare
Healthcare standards in Qatar are generally high. Life Expectancy at birth for male and female is 77 and 80 years respectively according to the World Health Organization (2015). Qatari citizens are covered by a national health insurance scheme, while expatriates must either receive health insurance from their employers, or in the case of the self-employed, purchase insurance. Qatar's healthcare spending is among the highest in the Middle East, with $4.7 billion being invested in healthcare in 2014 (Shane, 2012). This was a $2.1 billion increase from 2010. The premier healthcare provider in the country is the Hamad Medical Corporation, established by the government as a non-profit healthcare provider, which runs a network of hospitals, an ambulance services, and a home healthcare service, all of which are accredited by the Joint Commission.

2.2 ETHNIC AND RELIGION COMPOSITION
2.2.1 SAINT LUCIA
• Ethnic groups
Saint Lucia's population is predominantly of African and mixed African-European descent, with a small Indo-Caribbean minority (3%). Members of other or unspecified ethnic groups, account for about 2% of the population.
• 85.3% Black (African)
• 10.9% Mixed
• 2.2% Indian
• 1.6% other
• 0.1% unspecified

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION OF ITALY
ETHNIC COMPOSITION
The major ethnic group in Italy is the Italians, who account for 95% (above 60 millions) of the total population of Italy. The remaining 5% of the population consists of ethnicities like Albanians, Romanians, Ukrainians and other Europeans (2.5%); Africans (1.5%) and several other minorities (1%).

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Italy is a Christian country, some 88 per cent of the population belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Other religious groups in Italy include over 1m Muslims, 700,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians, 550,000 evangelical Protestants, 235,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses, 45,000 Jews, and the Waldensian Evangelical Church and other small groups such as Swiss-Protestant Baptists in Piedmont, plus a number of Eastern Orthodox Albanian communities in the Mezzogiorno.

COMPARISON: Having looked at this countries in respect to their Ethnic and religious composition, it’s seen that they all are similar because they are Christian countries with Catholic Church being the dominating denomination in Cuba and Italy .Also its worthy to note that each of these countries have a fragment of black in their races/ethnicity, while Nicaragua both have the Mestizo’s as part of their ethnic group

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS
IN NICARAGUA
Nicaragua practices a mixed economy, both the government plays relevant role in the growth of the economy ,the government tries to expand its export by financially encouraging family small business .following this, both the public and private sectors are relevant in the economy as together yielded GDP PER CAPITA at 2,151.38 USD and GDP is 13.23 USD (2016)World Bank .

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTR IN CUBA
The public sector in Cuba is dominant over the private sector. Recently the Cuban government announced it would legalize small and medium-sized enterprises in May 2016. Private enterprises continue to acquire market share from state entities. While Cuban entrepreneurs and small business owners still face many barriers, including the inability to import and export and limited access to internet, private sector employment is growing rapidly and now amounts to an estimated one third of the total workforce. Although the public sector is more prominent in terms of contribution to the economic at GDP per capita of Cuba, the private sectors have also aided in their own little way and thus has resulted to per capita$3,300 (2012 est.) and GDP at $19.89 billion (2012 est. PPP)

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

• Religion
About 61.5% of the population is Roman Catholic, a legacy of French colonization of the island. Another 25.5% belong to Protestant denominations, (includes Seventh Day Adventist 10.4%, Pentecostal 8.9%, Baptist 2.2%, Anglican 1.6%, Church of God 1.5%, other Protestant 0.9%). Evangelicals comprise 2.3% of the population and 1.1% are Jehovah's Witnesses. In addition, about 1.9% of the population adheres to the Rastafarian movement. Other religions include Islam, Bahá'í Faith, Judaism, Buddhism.
2.2.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
• Ethnic groups
The ethnic composition was 66% African descent, 19% of mixed descent, 6% East Indian, 4% Europeans (mainly Portuguese), 2% Island Carib and 3% others. Most Vincentians are the descendants of African people brought to the island to work on plantations. There are other ethnic groups such as Portuguese (from Madeira) and East Indians, both brought in to work on the plantations after the abolishing of slavery by the British living on the island. There is also a growing Chinese population.
• Religion
According to the 2001 census, 81.5% of the population of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is considered Christian, 6.7% has another religion and 8.8% has no religion or did not state a religion (1.5%). Anglicanism constitutes the largest religious category, with 17.8% of the population. Pentecostals are the second largest group (17.6%). The next largest group are Methodists (10.9% of the population), followed by Seventh-day Adventists (10.2%) and Baptists (10.0%). Other Christians include Jehovah's Witnesses (0.6%), Roman Catholics (7.5%), Evangelicals (2.8%), Church of God (2.5%), Brethren Christian (1.3%), and the Salvation Army (0.3%). Between 1991 and 2001 the number of Anglicans, Brethren, Methodists and Roman Catholics decreased, while the number of Pentecostals, Evangelicals and Seventh-day Adventists increased. The number of non-Christians is small. These religious groups include the Rastafarians (1.5% of the population), Hindus and Muslim.
2.2.3 QATAR
• Ethnic groups
Qatar has about 2.6 million inhabitants as of early 2017 comprising about:
• Arab 40%
• Indian 18%
• Other 14%
• Iranian 10%
• Pakistani 8.5%
Qataris can be divided into three ethnic groups: Bedouins, Hadar, and Africans-origin.
• Religion
Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status although not the only religion practiced in the country. Qatar is a multi-religious society like most of the Persian Gulf countries with waves of migration over the last 30 years. Most Qatari citizens belong to the Salafi Muslim movement of Wahhabism, and between 5–15% of Muslims in Qatar follow Shia Islam with other Muslims sects being very small in number. Qatar is 67.7% Muslim, 13.8% Christian, 13.8% Hindu, and 3.1% Buddhist; other religions and religiously unaffiliated people accounted for the remaining 1.6%. Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution.
The Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners. Since 2008, Christians have been allowed to build churches on ground donated by the government, though foreign missionary activity is officially discouraged.(Christian Post; 2008) Active churches include the Mar Thoma Church, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Anglican Church of the Epiphany. There are also two Mormon wards. A 2015 study estimates some 200 believers in Christ from a Muslim background, though not all of those are necessarily citizens (Johnstone et al; 2015). Qatar has also hosted numerous interfaith dialogue conferences.

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS IN ITALY
Sectors of Italy’s economy is divided into diversified industrial north and is dominated by private companies and less developed, welfare dependent , agricultural south with high unemployment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high quality consumer goods produced by small and medium sized enterprises, many of which are family owned. Therefore, the private sector in Italy relative to the public sector is very important and has gone ahead to contribute to the nation output such as in in the GDP per capita is 30,527.27 USD and GDP is 1.85 trillion USD (2016).

COMPARISON: Both the public and private sectors are present in all three countries economy. Nicaragua’s economy both have the two sectors playing their respective role being a mixed economy while Cuba’s economy is dominantly controlled by the public sector, this means that higher percentage of their GDP is contributed by the public sector, Italy’s economy is controlled by the industries and enterprises owned by private individuals, hence, Italy’s private sector is more relevant than that of the public sector.

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
NIDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NICARAGUA
The Agriculture and industry of Nicaragua is rather varied. The products of the land are coffee, banana, tobacco, sesame, sugarcane, cotton, soya, and beans. Nicaragua livestock provides beef, veal, pork, poultry and dairy products. The industries in Nicaragua includes food processing, textile, petroleum refining and distribution amongst others.

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF CUBA
Cuba has a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises. Most industries are owned and operated by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. In the year 2000, public sector employment was 76% and private sector employment, mainly composed of self-employment, was 23% compared to the 1981 ratio of 91% to 8%.Investment is restricted and requires approval by the government.. In 2016, Cuba ranked 68th out of 182 countries with a Human Development Index of 0.775, much higher than its GDP per capita rank (95th). In 2012, the country's public debt was 35.3% of GDP, inflation (CDP) was 5.5%, and GDP growth was 3%.

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF ITALY
Italy’s economic structure relies mainly on its manufacturing and service sectors. The Italian economic structure is well-developed; industrialized in the north, and agricultural based in the south. Italy dominates the world in high quality and superior engineered products. The service sector, as with most European economies, contributes the most to the national GDP. According to 2010 statistics, Italy’s service and industry sector contributes 72.9 and 25 percent of the GDP respectively, the service and industry sector generates a 65.1 and 30.7 percent of the country’s total employment. Agriculture remains the least contributing sector with just 2.1 percent towards GDP while employing 4.2 percent of the labor force.

COMPARISON: the industrial structure of Nicaragua is Agricultural and industrial based, Cuba’s is basically industrial based and Italy’s based on manufacturing and service as well as agriculturally based. While the Agricultural sector is most vibrant in Nicaragua, the Service sector is the most vibrant IN Italy’s economy, this is because these sectors contribute greater percentage of the nation’s GDP

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR
3.1.1 SAINT LUCIA
The private sector in St. Lucia consists mainly of small enterprises: 77% of firms employ fewer than five people, and only 1% of firms employ more than 50. The private sector is dominated by the services sector, specifically tourism, wholesale and retail trade, construction, and financial intermediation, Real estate, renting and business activities; transport, storage and communications; hotels and restaurants combined account for 60% of GDP. Real estate contributed the largest share (17.3%) followed by transport, storage, and communications (16.7%). In 2010 the services sector accounted for 80% of GDP. Although bananas remain St. Lucia’s largest export, agriculture’s contribution to GDP has declined over the past 30 years, falling from 20% in 1986 to 3% in 2010.
St. Lucia demonstrates a number of strengths that are expected to contribute to the future growth of the private sector. The country performs well on international indicators in relation to government effectiveness, economic freedom and the ease of starting a business. In addition, the island’s natural beauty and heritage are key drivers of tourism. However, there are a number of weaknesses in St. Lucia that hinder private-sector development, especially in the areas of the cost of doing business, access to finance, electricity, transportation, an inadequately educated workforce, tax rates, and the lack of a government strategy for the sector or co-ordination with private-sector stakeholders. Furthermore, the global financial crisis had a profound effect on St. Lucia’s economy, as tourism and demand for exports. St. Lucia’s private sector is dominated by services. The state owned enterprises are limited such as National Insurance Corporation and the Water and Sewage Company Inc. and they help achieve the objectives of the government.
3.1.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
The industrial structure of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is dominated by services. According to the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB), in 2013 real-estate, renting and business activities; wholesale and retail trade; and transport, storage and communications together accounted for 48.1% of GDP. The largest sectors as a percentage of gross value added (with the exception of public administration) are: real estate, renting and business activities (17%), wholesale and retail trade (16%), transport (15%), construction (8%) and financial intermediation (6%). Data from the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) indicate that in 2012 the largest sectors in terms of employment were "other services", which provided 23% of employment, construction (13.5%), and wholesale and retail trade (13.3%). The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) estimates the direct contribution of travel and tourism to the economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines in 2012 at 6% of GDP and 5.5% of employment (2,500jobs).
3.1.3 QATAR
Qatar private sector is less immediately reliant on state spending than it used to be and has become the main contributor to national capital formation. Yet it remains deeply dependent on direct and indirect recycling of state rents in the long run and thrives off state-provided cheap inputs. It also remains to an unusual extent structurally isolated from the citizenry at large, for which it provides little employment, taxes or investment opportunities, and with which it competes for increasingly scarce low price goods and services provided by the distributive state. Large parts of its private sector do not operate in line with modern standards of corporate governance, and its contribution to economic policy-making is for the most part piecemeal and dilatory. The most impressive corporates are often part or wholly state-owned.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

State owned enterprises play a dominant role in Qatar’s economy although the government has affirmed support for Qatar’s local private sector and encourages small and medium-sized enterprise development as part of its 2030 National Vision through favorable loans at local banks. The major state owned companies are Qatar Petroleum (QP), its subsidiaries and partners operate all oil and gas activities in the country. It is wholly owned by the government. Kahramaa (Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation) operates all water and electricity activities and the government owns 43 percent of the capital. Qatar Airways, Q-Post and Ooredoo are state owned transport and telecommunication enterprises.
3.2 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
3.2.1 SAINT LUCIA
The Main industries are bananas, oils, beer made from malt. Manufacturing accounted for 3.84% of GDP in 2011, while industry contributed 16.9% in the same year according to figures from the World Bank. Saint Lucia is ranked 53rd out of 185 countries by the World Bank for ease of doing business, a ranking based on how conducive the regulatory environment is to the opening and operation of a local firm. Figures for the percentage of the labour force employed by the industry are unavailable.
Traditionally, tourism has been the most lucrative industry in Saint Lucia, although it was adversely affected by the 2008 global financial crisis and ensuing cut-backs to air travel to the island. The island’s other traditionally profitable industry, the production of bananas, was similarly affected in recent years due to increased competition and the destruction of plantations by Hurricane Tomas (2010). The manufacture and assembly of clothing, electronic components, cardboard boxes and beverages also contribute significantly to the Saint Lucian economy, while other popular economic activities include lime and coconut processing (2012, CIA).
Services as well as clothing and produce – such as bananas, cocoa, mangoes, avocados and coconut oil –were exported from the country to an estimated value of US$203.3 million in 2012, an increase on the 2011 figure of $179.8 million (CIA Fact book), when this made up 46% of total GDP (World Bank). Goods are exported primarily to the US, Peru, France, UK, and Antigua and Barbuda. Imports contributed $552.3 million to the economy in 2012, arriving mainly from Brazil (CIA).
The government of Saint Lucia has offered various incentives to attract foreign direct investment to the area. Those covered by the Fiscal Incentives Act include the waiving of import duty, introduction of substantial tax holidays and unrestricted repatriation of capital and profits. A small number of state-owned enterprises exist in Saint Lucia and support the government in meeting investment objectives. Main investors and companies within Saint Lucia include American Airlines, Hess Oil and Treasure Bay Corporation, as well as Burger King, Basic Blue (Levis) and PriceWaterhouseCoopers.
The majority of manufacturing plants in St. Lucia are owned and operated by foreign companies. They open plants on the island to take advantage of the cheap labor, low tax rates, and easy access to the U.S. market. However, because the government of St. Lucia gives tax incentives to these companies, the island community does not receive many benefits from the arrangement apart from employment gains.

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EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE OF NICARAGUA:
The U.S. is the country's largest trading partner, providing 25% of Nicaragua's imports and receiving about 60% of its exports. Nicaragua also trade with countries such as Venezuela, Costa Rica, Mexico, China, and Guatemala.

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE OF CUBA
Cuba’s imports are few and no real options exist for replacing imports with national products, which determines Cuba’s chronic deficit in the balance of goods.
However, its overall foreign trade balance since 2009 has tended to show a surplus, determined by a significant surplus in the net export of professional services to various developing countries, especially Venezuela, in line with cooperation agreements with these countries. Cuba’s partners in terms of total foreign trade of goods are Venezuela, China, Spain, Canada, Holland, Brazil, Mexico, the United States, Italy, and France.

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE OF ITALY
Italy recorded a trade deficit for several decades, largely due to the fact that the country lacked energy resources and was entirely dependent on imports for its supply. However, the 1990s brought a change of fortune, beginning with the devaluation of the lira in 1992 which allowed many businesses to compete in overseas export markets, particularly in Asia markets and the United States. Today, her exports is more than imports.

COMPARISON: Nicaragua foreign policy is mostly with the United States. Nicaragua’s dependent level is not on the deficit side, this is because the country’s export is more than her import. The dependence level of Cuba is also on the positive, the country has a good trade relationship with countries such as Venezuela, China etc. and lastly the external dependence of Italy was on the deficit side until the 1990’s when they devalued their currency and her export improved greatly especially in the Asian market.

POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUP OF NICARAGUA
Nicaragua operates a presidential system of government, in which the President of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government, and there is a multi-party system
Power in Nicaragua resides in the nation’s constitution while its interest Groups have not had success in organizing to get their preferences heard by the government. Nicaragua has very few special interest groups whose purpose is to get policy that benefits them. Groups, like the Catholic Church, prefer no change at all in society, and Nicaraguan unions are hardly in existence anymore.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

3.2.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
St Vincent and the Grenadines has a developing economy which has been forced to diversify away from agriculture due to increased volatility of banana prices, the natural challenges from the weather and the loss of preferential trade arrangements with the EU. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has a small industrial sector, but one that has grown in importance in recent years. Most manufacturing revolves around food processing, such as rice milling and flour production, for the local and regional market. The major producer is the East Caribbean Group of Companies. There is also large-scale production of chicken feed and polypropylene bags, while the local brewery, the Saint Vincent Brewery Ltd., which produces beer and soft drinks, accounts for approximately 30 percent of total industrial production. The other industrial sector is geared towards exports into the North American market and includes a handful of assembly plants producing garments and sports goods, especially tennis rackets.
Tourism has become a major source of foreign exchange earnings but this sector is vulnerable as well. In 2011, travel and tourism directly contributed to 7% of GDP, generating 2,500 jobs – 6.4% of total employment. St Vincent and Grenadine is promoted as a destination for eco-adventures. The beaches, coral reefs and lagoons of The Grenadines attract many tourists year on year, while popular recreational activities include yachting and scuba diving. The manufacturing industry sector accounts for 19% of GDP undergoing a growth of 6.5% in 2011 and includes: food processing, cement companies, the furniture sector, manufacturing of clothing, and starch production.
Saint Vincent's industrial growth (there is no industry on the Grenadines) is hampered by several factors, including poor infrastructure, relatively high wages, and fierce competition from lower-wage areas elsewhere in the Caribbean and Latin America. Increasingly, Saint Vincent's industrial output has been directed towards other territories in the Eastern Caribbean.
3.2.3 QATAR
The Main industries are Liquefied natural gas, crude oil, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, reinforcing steel, cement and ship repair. Industrial sector contributes about 51.1% to its GDP. In 1973, oil production and revenues increased dramatically, moving Qatar out of the ranks of the world's poorest countries and providing it with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Qatar is totally dependent on oil, but natural gas is a potential resource for the country because the North Dome Field is the third largest reserve for liquefied natural gas in the world. Qatar's reserves of oil are 15.2 billion barrels, and will with today's production levels last until 2045. The natural gas production is about 60 billion m³ per year. Gas reserves are about 26,000 billion m³, which accounts for a staggering 14% of world total. Oil production represents about 85% of the total income of the country. The centre of the Qatari oil production is around Dukhan in the west, and there are one onshore and three offshore fields. Together with the United Arab Emirates, Qatar owns the Bundaq field. Attempts to industrialize and diversify the economy has had only limited success. Most of the industrial activity is located around Umm Said. Industries include the production of cement, fertilizers, steel and petroleum. The steel production has been a success, and has produced a profit for the last 10 years.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

3.2.3.1 Agriculture and Fishing
Agriculture is of miniscule importance, contributing to less than 2% of GNP, but there are governmental schemes to improve this through irrigation. Qatar produces about 50% of its own consumption of vegetables. Livestock includes 100,000 goats, 1,1 million sheep, 30,000 camels and 10,000 cattle. Fishing is at the level of 7,000 tons per year, principally shrimp, equaling 15 kg/inhabitant.
3.2.3.2 Tourism
Efforts are being put into the development of tourism to Qatar. Tourism facilities are still mainly used by visitors coming to Qatar for business or other reasons. Being a country of little historical sights, few nature attractions, future Qatari tourism will mainly be that of sun, beach and entertainment
The result has seen considerable growth over the years. Industries Qatar (IQ), a producer of petrochemicals, fertilizers and steel, is a regional powerhouse, surpassed only in size by Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), the Middle East’s largest chemical producer. In 2007 the manufacturing sector made the third-largest contribution to GDP among non-oil and gas sectors, equivalent to about 7.5% of GDP. Petrochemicals and fertilizers supply make up a large portion of the industrial base, along with steel and other construction materials, through Qatar Steel and Qatar Primary Material Company (QPMC). Indeed, over the past few years, demand for construction materials experienced a major surge as the development boom swept the Persian Gulf region.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
4.1.1 SAINT LUCIA
Saint Lucia is vulnerable to a variety of external shocks, including volatile tourism receipts, natural disasters, and dependence on foreign oil. Furthermore, high public debt - 77% of GDP in 2012 - and high debt servicing obligations constrain the administration's ability to respond to adverse external shocks. St. Lucia has experienced anemic growth since the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008, largely because of a slowdown in tourism - airlines cut back on their routes to St. Lucia in 2012. ). Its imports value is about $410 million (2004 est.) against its exports value of about $82 million (2004 est.). More than one-half of all imports are energy-related, meaning that fluctuations in international oil prices have a significant impact on the current account. Given the absence of a large manufacturing base, most machinery and equipment required for the production of goods and services is imported from abroad.
4.1.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is very vulnerable to external factors because of strong reliance on a single crop (banana). Its imports value is about $366.5 million (2012 est.) against its exports value of about $68.3 million (2012 est.) with most of its exports being primary products such as bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro) and arrowroot starch and its imports being foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels.
4.1.3 QATAR
Qatar’s external dependency is low with its exports valuing about $78.48 billion (2016 est.) and its imports valuing about $33.76 billion (2016 est.) although it relies heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the workforce and Qatar has been criticized by the International Trade Union Confederation for that, so it started a Qatarization project (to increase the number of Qatar nationals working in the industries). Its main exports are Liquefied Natural Gas, Petroleum Products, Fertilizers and Steel and its imports are Machinery and Transport, Food and Chemicals.

NNADI, IRENE AMUCHE, REG: 2015/200289 ,ECONOMICS 300 LEVEL said...

POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF CUBA, POWER AND INTERST GROUP OF CUBA

Cuba has had a communist political system since 1959 based on the "one state – one party" principle. Cuba is constitutionally defined as a Marxist–Leninist socialist state guided by the political ideas of Marx, one of the fathers of historical materialism, Engels and Lenin".

POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF ITALY, POWER AND INTEREST GROUP OF ITALY
Politics of Italy is conducted through a Parliamentary Republic with a multi-party system. Italy has been a democratic republic since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum and a constituent assembly was elected to draft a constitution, which was promulgated on 1 January 1948.
Italy is one of the more recent countries to “discover” the presence of interest groups in the political process. In the past histories of Italy, interest groups played important roles in influencing the decisions of the government such as in the influence of Italian catholic action on government policies, agricultural policies and host of other issues.

COMPARISON: The political structure of this three countries varies greatly. While Nicaragua operates a presidential system of government, with little voice of the existing interest groups not being heard, Cuba operates a communist system of government with a single party system and has no visible active interest group. Italy operates a parliamentary system of government with multi-party system and also adhere to the voices of interest groups

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

4.2 POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
4.2.1 SAINT LUCIA
• Government
Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of State, represented on the island by a Governor-General. The prime minister is normally the head of the party commanding the support of the majority of the members of the House of Assembly, which has 17 seats. The other chamber of Parliament, the Senate, has 11 appointed members.
Saint Lucia is a two-party parliamentary democracy. Representative government came about in 1840 with universal suffrage from 1953 Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction, meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both the civil law and English common law. The Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866, as supplemented by English common law-style legislation. It is also a member of La Francophonie. Politics of Saint Lucia takes place in the framework of an independent parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state, represented by a Governor General, who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party of the house, and the cabinet conducts affairs of state. The Governor General exercises basically ceremonial functions, but residual powers, under the constitution, can be used at the governor general's discretion. The actual power in St. Lucia lies with the prime minister and the cabinet, usually representing the majority party in parliament.
• Executive branch
As head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is represented by a governor general who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. Following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the governor general.
• Legislative branch
The Legislature has two chambers. The House of Assembly has 17 members, elected by universal adult suffrage for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies. The Senate has 11 members appointed by the governor general. The parliament may be dissolved by the governor general at any point during its 5-year term, either at the request of the prime minister—in order to take the nation into early elections—or at the governor general's own discretion, if the house passes a vote of no-confidence in the government.
• Political parties
The main political parties in Saint Lucia are Saint Lucia Labour Party, United Workers Party, and Lucian People's Movement.
• Judicial branch
St. Lucia has an independent judiciary composed of district courts and a high court. Cases may be appealed to the Eastern Caribbean Court of Appeals and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. The island is divided into 10 administrative divisions, including the capital, Castries. Popularly elected local governments in most towns and villages perform such tasks as regulation of sanitation and markets and maintenance of cemeteries and secondary roads.
• Foreign relations
Saint Lucia maintains friendly relations with the major powers active in the Caribbean, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and France. Saint Lucia has no extant international disputes.

• Military
Saint Lucia has no regular military force. A Special Service Unit and the Coast Guard are both under the command of the Royal Saint Lucia Police. The Active Manpower is approximately 116 men and women. The Military expenditure is $5 million (fiscal year 91/92) which is about 2% of gross domestic product: (fiscal year 91/92).The Royal Saint Lucia Police Force receives training from the USSOUTHCOM. The United States Armed Forces considers St. Lucia as a partner nation in the Caribbean, along with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

4.2.2 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
Politics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines takes place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an independent Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state, represented by a Governor General, who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party of the House of Assembly, and the cabinet conducts affairs of state. The Governor-General exercises ceremonial functions, but reserve powers, under the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines constitution, can be used at the Governor General's discretion.
The House of Assembly is a unicameral parliament with fifteen elected members and six appointed senators. The governor general appoints senators, four on the advice of the prime minister and two on the advice of the leader of the opposition. The parliamentary term of office is five years, although the prime minister may call elections at any time.
As in other English-speaking Caribbean countries, the judiciary in St. Vincent is rooted in English common law. There are eleven courts in three magisterial districts. The Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, comprising a high court and a court of appeals, is known in St. Vincent as the St. Vincent and the Grenadines Supreme Court. The court of last resort is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. Moves are currently being made to establish a Caribbean Court of Justice and replace the Privy Council as the country's highest court of appeal. There is no local government in St. Vincent, and all six parishes are administered by the central government.
• Executive branch
As head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is represented by a governor general who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet.
• Legislative branch
The House of Assembly has 21 members, 15 members elected for a five-year term in single seat constituencies and 6 appointed senators.
• Political parties
The main political parties in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are Unity Labour Party, New Democratic Party and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Green Party.
• Judicial branch
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent.
• Administrative divisions
The country is divided into five parishes: Charlotte, Saint George, Saint Andrew, Saint Patrick, and Saint David.
• Military
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has no regular military force; the Special Service Unit, and the Coast Guard, are both under the command of the Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force. The active manpower is approximately 94 men and women. The Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force receives training from the USSOUTHCOM. The United States Armed Forces consider Saint Vincent and the Grenadines as a partner nation in the Caribbean, along with St. Lucia.
4.2.3 QATAR
The political system of Qatar is either an absolute monarchy or a constitutional monarchy, with the Emir of Qatar as head of state and head of government. Under the 2003 constitutional referendum it should be a constitutional monarchy. Sharia Law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution. Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.

EKWUEME ISAAC CHEKWUBE,ECO DEPT,3OOL ,REG NO:202683 said...

Historical Background of Guinea Bissau
Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere.Guinea–Bissau has been wracked by conflict since independence in 1974, including a civil war in the late 1990s and multiple military coups, most recently in April 2012. In May 2014, José Mário Vaz was elected president of the former Portuguese colony. In August 2015, Vaz dismissed Prime Minister Domingos Simões Pereira, head of the ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), sparking a political crisis. Vaz quickly dismissed several successor governments and by November 2016, had named Umaro Sissoco Embaló to serve as the country’s fifth prime minister within a two-year period. Guinea–Bissau is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, the export of cashew nuts, and foreign assistance, which normally comprises about 80 percent of the country’s budget.
Size and income level of Guinea Bissau
Guinea-Bissau A neighbor of Senegal and Guinea in West Africa, on the Atlantic coast, Guinea-Bissau is about half the size of South Carolina. The country is a low-lying coastal region of swamps, rain forests, and mangrove-covered wetlands, with about 25 islands off the coast. The Bijagos archipelago extends 30 mi (48 km) out to sea. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,815,698. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is about1,805 billion dollars estimated in 2017 which is the lowest in the world. Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line.The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports
Physical and human resources in Guinea Bissau
Guinea-Bissau is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It lies mostly between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and longitudes 13° and 17°W.Guinea-Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average rainfall for Bissau is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

In Qatar, the ruling Al Thani family continued to hold power following the declaration of independence in 1971. The head of state is the Emir, and the right to rule Qatar is passed on within the Al Thani family. Politically, Qatar is evolving from a traditional society into a modern welfare state. Government departments have been established to meet the requirements of social and economic progress. The Basic Law of Qatar 1970 institutionalized local customs rooted in Qatar's conservative Islamic heritage, granting the Emir preeminent power. The Emir's role is influenced by continuing traditions of consultation, rule by consensus, and the citizen's right to appeal personally to the Emir. The Emir, while directly accountable to no one, cannot violate the Sharia (Islamic law) and, in practice, must consider the opinions of leading notables and the religious establishment. Their position was institutionalized in the Advisory Council, an appointed body that assists the Emir in formulating policy. There is no electoral system. Political parties are banned. Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions.
The influx of expatriate Arabs has introduced ideas that call into question the tenets of Qatar's traditional society, but there has been no serious challenge to Al Thani rule. On 25 June 2013 Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar after his father Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani handed over power in a televised speech. (Norland, 2013). The Prime Minister is Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani.
• Consultative Assembly
The Consultative Assembly has 35 appointed members with only consultative tasks. However, the 2003 Constitution of Qatar calls for a 45-member elected Legislature, which is to be made up of 30 elected representatives and 15 appointed by the Emir. Qatar held a constitutional referendum in 2003, which was overwhelmingly supported. The first municipal elections with men and women voters and candidates were held in 2007 and 2011. The first legislative election, for two thirds of the legislative council's 45 seats, were planned for 2016. In June 2016 they were effectively postponed to at least 2019. The elected Municipal Council has no executive powers but may offer advice to the Minister. A Consultative Assembly has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws, but the Emir has final say on all matters.
• Military
The Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. The country maintains a military force of approximately 32,500 men, including an army (12,850), navy (5,550), Emiri Guard (6,400), ISF (5,000) and air force (2,500). Furthermore, since 2015, Qatar implemented mandatory military conscription with an average of 2000 graduates per year. As of 2010, Qatar's defence expenditures added up to a total of $1.913 billion, about 1.5% of the national GDP, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).Qatar has recently signed defence pacts with the United States in 2002 and 2013 and with the United Kingdom, as well as with France earlier, in 1994. Qatar plays an active role in the collective defense efforts of the Gulf Cooperation Council; the other five members are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, and Oman. Qatar also hosts the largest American military base in the middle east and in 2017 inaugurated a military attaché office in Washington. SIPRI states that Qatar's plans to transform and significantly enlarge its armed forces have accelerated in 2014, and in 2010-14 Qatar was the 46th largest arms importer in the world. In 2015, Qatar was the 16th largest arms importer in the world, and in 2016, it was the 11th largest, according to SIPRI.

EKWUEME ISAAC CHEKWUBE,ECO DEPT,3OOL ,REG NO:202683 said...

Ethnic and religious composition in Guinea Bissau
The population of Guinea-Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures.Bissau-Guineans can be divided into the following ethnic group Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, who comprise the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast;Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions; andManjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal areas.
Balanta people
The Balanta is an ethnic group found in Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and The Gambia. They are the largest ethnic group of Guinea-Bissau, representing more than one-quarter of the population. Despite their numbers, they have remained outside the colonial and postcolonial state because of their social organisation. The Balanta can be divided into four subgroups, three of which are Balanta Kentohe, Balanta Ganja and Balanta Brassa, the largest of which are the Balanta Brassa.The Balanta practice indigenous, spiritual customs and rites. In the Balanta society, God is believed to be far away, and communication with the Almighty is established through their spiritual practices and traditions. Although Catholicism has been partially accepted, Islam is strong and practiced along with their unique spirit worship Animism, Roman Catholicism, Islam.
Bassari people
The Bassari people are an African people living in Senegal, Gambia, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. The total population is between 10,000 and 30,000. Most of the Bassari are concentrated on either side of the Senegal-Guinea border southwest of Kedougou, Kédougou Region.the religion compostion,Most of the group are animists, with a significant minority of Christians (both Catholic and Protestant). Very few Bassari are Muslims.

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

CONCLUSION
A nation cannot be developed in a day or in ten years but takes some period of time through implementation of policies, good use of resources and investing in its human resources—which is the future of every nation. Qatar though being an oil based economy, is diversifying its economy to other sectors such as steel production so as not to be solely dependent on petroleum and still has managed to develop its economy, the same cannot be said about Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and Grenadines which are developing countries..

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Cosover, M. (1989). In Islands of the Commonwealth Caribbean: A Regional Study. In Sandra W.
and Dennis M. (ed.) “St. Vincent and the Grenadines." Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office
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churches and religions in the modern world. Vol.1. (pp. 617). Oxford University Press.
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EKWUEME ISAAC CHEKWUBE,ECO DEPT,3OOL ,REG NO 2015/202683 said...

Historical Background of Guinea Bissau
Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere.Guinea–Bissau has been wracked by conflict since independence in 1974, including a civil war in the late 1990s and multiple military coups, most recently in April 2012. In May 2014, José Mário Vaz was elected president of the former Portuguese colony. In August 2015, Vaz dismissed Prime Minister Domingos Simões Pereira, head of the ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), sparking a political crisis. Vaz quickly dismissed several successor governments and by November 2016, had named Umaro Sissoco Embaló to serve as the country’s fifth prime minister within a two-year period. Guinea–Bissau is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, the export of cashew nuts, and foreign assistance, which normally comprises about 80 percent of the country’s budget.
Size and income level of Guinea Bissau
Guinea-Bissau A neighbor of Senegal and Guinea in West Africa, on the Atlantic coast, Guinea-Bissau is about half the size of South Carolina. The country is a low-lying coastal region of swamps, rain forests, and mangrove-covered wetlands, with about 25 islands off the coast. The Bijagos archipelago extends 30 mi (48 km) out to sea. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,815,698. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is about1,805 billion dollars estimated in 2017 which is the lowest in the world. Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line.The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports
Physical and human resources in Guinea Bissau
Guinea-Bissau is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It lies mostly between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and longitudes 13° and 17°W.Guinea-Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average rainfall for Bissau is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought

OKOLOMIKE, CHIEMELIE BLESSING , 2015/197506, ECONOMICS, 300 LEVEL said...

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EKWUEME ISAAC CHEKWUBE,ECO DEPT,3OOL ,REG NO 2015/202683 said...

Ethnic and religious composition in Guinea Bissau
The population of Guinea-Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures.Bissau-Guineans can be divided into the following ethnic group Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, who comprise the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast;Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions; andManjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal areas.
Balanta people
The Balanta is an ethnic group found in Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and The Gambia. They are the largest ethnic group of Guinea-Bissau, representing more than one-quarter of the population. Despite their numbers, they have remained outside the colonial and postcolonial state because of their social organisation. The Balanta can be divided into four subgroups, three of which are Balanta Kentohe, Balanta Ganja and Balanta Brassa, the largest of which are the Balanta Brassa.The Balanta practice indigenous, spiritual customs and rites. In the Balanta society, God is believed to be far away, and communication with the Almighty is established through their spiritual practices and traditions. Although Catholicism has been partially accepted, Islam is strong and practiced along with their unique spirit worship Animism, Roman Catholicism, Islam.
Bassari people
The Bassari people are an African people living in Senegal, Gambia, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. The total population is between 10,000 and 30,000. Most of the Bassari are concentrated on either side of the Senegal-Guinea border southwest of Kedougou, Kédougou Region.the religion compostion,Most of the group are animists, with a significant minority of Christians (both Catholic and Protestant). Very few Bassari are Muslims.

Daniel Onyeka 2015/00715 said...

What is development?
As a concept development can be seen as a complex multidimensional concept involving improvement in the quality of all human lives and capabilities, by raising peoples level of living, self esteem and freedom.
Development brings about the introduction of new things into the society. For instance a new road built that passes near this village will bring with it the means for prolonging life through imoroved medical care. But it will also bring more information about the world outside along with the gadgets of modern civilization. The possibilities of a better life will be promoted and the opportunities for such a life will become feasible.


In this study we will be comparing two developing countries (Vietnam and Azerbaijan) and a developed country(Canada). We will be analyzing the structural diversity of the different economies under giving headings
• Historical Background
• Size and income level
• Physical and human resources
• Ethnic and religious composition
• Relative importance of public and private sectors
• Industrial structure
• External dependence
• Political structure, power and interest groups

We will be discussing these countries simultaneously under each heading, and also making our comparism with Canada as our yardstick for a developed country

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The Vietnamese are descendants of nomadic Mongols from China and migrants from Indonesia. According to mythology, the first ruler of Vietnam was Hung Vuong, who founded the nation in 2879 B.C. China ruled the nation then known as Nam Viet as a vassal state from 111 B.C. until the 15th century, an era of nationalistic expansion, when Cambodians were pushed out of the southern area of what is now Vietnam.
France first unified Vietnam in 1887, when a single governor-generalship was created, followed by the first physical links between north and south—a rail and road system
Paris proposed a unified government within the French Union under the former Annamite emperor, Bao Dai. Cochin-China and Annam accepted the proposal, and Bao Dai was proclaimed emperor of all Vietnam in 1949. Ho and the Vietminh withheld support, and the revolution in China gave them the outside help needed for a war of resistance against French and Vietnamese troops armed largely by a United States worried about cold war Communist expansion.
The earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azokh Cave.] The Upper Paleolithic and late Bronze Age cultures are attested in the caves of Tağılar, Damcılı, Zar, Yataq-yeri and in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Saraytepe.
After series of wars and invasions on 13 October 1921, the Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia signed an agreement with Turkey known as the Treaty of Kars. The previously independent Republic of Aras would also become the Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Azerbaijan SSR by the treaty of Kars. On the other hand, Armenia was awarded the region of Zangezur and Turkey agreed to return Gyumri (then known as Alexandropol).
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archaeological investigations.
Starting in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions explored, colonized, and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present-day Canada.

Daniel Onyeka 2015/200715 said...

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Country Population GDP(nominal) Per capita
Vietnam 94,569,072 $215.829 billion $2,305
Azerbaijan 9,867,250 $63,98billion $3,340
Canada 36.29million 1.53 trillion USD $42,157.93

Azerbaijan has been the fastest growing economy in the world in the last ten years and the socio-economic reforms have led to prosperity, less unemployment and reduction of poverty. One of the biggest achievements of the government is that the rapid economic growth has been supported by strong social policy.
Azerbaijan sees an uprising trend in its GDP growth. This paves the way for a steady and rapid development of the country’s population, which in turn affects the GDP per capita. Azerbaijan increased its per capita GDP from $557.41 in year 2000, to $3,340 in 2017.
The economy of Vietnam is the 47th largest economy in the world, according to a forecast by pricewaterhousecoopers in febuary 2017 Vietnam may be the fastest-growing of the world economies, with a potential annual GDP growth rate of about 5.1%, which will make it the 20th largest in the world by 2050.
Despite the economic achievements of both countries (Azebaijan and Vietnam) they are still rated as developing countries as against Canada which is a highly developed mixed economy with 10th largest GDP by nominal in the world Canada has had a rising trend in GDP which rose from $742,319million in 2000 to a whopping $1.53 trillion USD in 2017 this is also followed by a corresponding rise in per capita from $24,221USD in 2000 to $42,157.93 USD in 2017

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
The reliance on natural resources has several effects on an economy, while manufacturing and service industries are easy to standardize natural resources vary greatly by regions.
At the beginning of the 20th century Azerbaijan was the world’s leading petroleum producer, and it was also the birthplace of the oil-refining industry. In 1901, for example, Azerbaijan produced 11.4 million tons of oil, more than the United States; it accounted for more than half of world production. As the 20th century progressed, however, Azerbaijan’s role in oil production decreased as the industry developed in other regions of the U.S.S.R. and elsewhere in the world.
Azerbaijan has other natural resources, including natural gas, iodobromide waters, lead, zinc, iron, and copper ores, nepheline syenites utilized in the production of aluminum, common salt, and a great variety of building materials, including marl, limestone, and marble.
The key natural resources of Vietnam include coal, bauxite, manganese and offshore gas and oil deposits. In 2009, the production of aluminum increased by 13% and in 2010 the market value of this commodity in the London Metal Exchange was $,278/t. In 2010 vietnam was the eighth largest producers of crude oil in Asia and Pacific region. In the same year the country’s global production of tin was 2% and that of cement and barite was 1.5% and 1.1% respectively.
Canada is the second largest nation in the world in terms of land area – behind Russia and ahead of the US. Furthermore, the country contains a rich abundance of mineral, forest and water-based resources such as iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydropower
Canada has the forth highest total estimate value of natural resources, valued at $33.2 trillion in 2016. It is the world’s third largest proven petroleum reserve and is the fourth largest exporter of petroleum. It is also the fourth largest exporter of natural gas. Canada is considered an “energy superpower” due to its abundant natural resources.

Daniel Onyeka 2015/200715 said...

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION

Vietnam is a home to 54 ethnic minority groups, including the Hmong, Dao, Tay, Thai, and Nùng. Many ethnic minorities – such as the Muong, who are closely related to the Kinh – dwell in the highlands, which cover two-thirds of Vietnam's territory. According to an analysis by the Pew Research Center, in 2010 about 45.3% of the Vietnamese adhere to indigenous religions, 16.4% to Buddhism, 8.2% to Christianity, 0.4% to other faiths, and 29.6% of the population isn't religious.
The ethnic composition of the population according to the 2009 population census: 91.60% Azerbaijanis, 2.02% Lezgians, 1.35% Armenians (almost all Armenians live in the break-away region of Nagorno-Karabakh), 1.34% Russians, 1.26% Talysh, 0.56% Avars, 0.43% Turks, 0.29% Tatars, 0.28% Tats, 0.24% Ukrainians, 0.14% Tsakhurs, 0.11% Georgians, 0.10% Jews, 0.07% Kurds, other 0.21%. Around 98% of the population are Muslims.85% of the Muslims are Shia Muslims and 15% Sunni Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world. While 1.1% are Christians.
According to the 2006 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%).[249] There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,172,790 people.
Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism. Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR

Robust private sector employment growth is an important characteristic of a successful market economy. Private sector employment flourishes best in an environment of free markets that provide individual opportunity within a stable and secure set of government institutions.
The public sector provides the social and physical infrastructure needed to support and complement private sector employment activity, as well as to generate employment by providing those goods and services that citizens have elected to collectively provide through the tax and expenditure system.
Like China, Vietnam has been moving from a communist economic system to a hybrid form of capitalist communism. These reforms known as Doi Moi, were launched in 1986 and has transformed Vietnam from one of the world most impoverished countries to a lower middle income country.
While the country privatized much of its economy, it did not lay off large numbers of public-sector workers; in fact the communist party rebranded public-sector institutions as “general companies” giving them an important role in economic development. Wages for both private and public-sector employees increased significantly in norminal terms over the years. Though inflation considerably reduced these gains.
The Canadian economic system generally combines elements of private enterprise and public enterprise. Many aspects of public sector enterprise, most notably the development of an extensive social welfare system to redress social and economic inequalities were adopted after the end of the world war two in 1914.
Canada has a private to public(crown) property ratio of 60:40 and one of the highest levels of economic freedom in the world. Today Canada closely resembles the U.S in its market-oriented economic system and pattern of production. According to the forbes Global 2000 list of the world largest companies in 2008 Canada has 69 companies in the list ranking 5th next to france.


Daniel Onyeka 2015/200715 said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
In Vietnam, although the industrial sector contributed 40.1% of GDP in 2004, it employed only 12.9% of the workforce. In 2000, 22.4% of industrial production was attributable to non-state activities. From 1994 to 2004, the industrial sector grew at an average annual rate of 10.3%. Manufacturing contributed 20.3% of GDP in 2004, while employing 10.2% of the workforce. From 1994 to 2004, manufacturing GDP grew at an average annual rate of 11.2%. The top manufacturing sectors — food processing, cigarettes and tobacco, textiles, chemicals, and electrical goods — experienced rapid growth. Benefits from its proximity to China with lower labor cost, Vietnam is becoming a new manufacturing hub in Asia, especially for Japanese and Korean firms. For instance, Samsung produces about 40% of its phones in Vietnam.
The industry is one of the most developed areas in Azerbaijan it covers fuel and energy, chemistry, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, food industry, light industry and other areas. The industrial development began in mid 1950s as a result of the national leader Heydar Aliyev’s efforts.
As a result of the radical changes in the national economy the period from 1995 to 2008 saw serious successes in the field of industry the conclusion of production sharing agreements on September 20 1994 on oil and gas fields with large foreign companies encouraged rapid development of oil and gas industry. Iut should be noted that processing industry was developing along with the production.
Industry is an equally important part of Canada’s economy and society. After rising for several consecutive years, Canada’s industrial growth rate, which measures the annual percentage increase in the country’s manufacturing, mining and construction segments, declined by 8 percent in the year 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis. However, industrial production has since recovered and in 2010, the industrial production growth rate was at 5.8 percent


ECONOMIC DEPENDENCE
Vietnam’s economy relies largely on foreign direct investment to attract the capital from overseas to support its continual economic rigorousness . Since years, Japan has been aiding Vietnam to develop its auxiliary industries. From 2008 till date, Japan has given approximately US$180 million as aid to finance SMEs. The country has already built supporting industry zones in several places including the Que Vo district and the Bac Ninh province. There is a high prospect of developing supporting industries, such as garment, textile, leather, electronics, IT, automobile and engineering. Priority is also being given to livestock and aquaculture industries. Latest technology and business solutions are being employed to serve the increasing domestic and export demand
Azerbaijan’s economy depends on the exploitation of its energy resources. According to the ministry of finance of Baku, this sector accounts for over 75% of the country’s tax revenue. Gas and oil make up 95% of Azerbaijan exports. Only when it comes to GDP do we see a decline in the contribution of the oil sector, from 65% to less than 50% in the last three years.
Canada is often described as a "small open economy" that is highly dependent on the vagaries of international trade. According to the Conference Board's value-added analysis, that may not be so.
The value of trade shrinks for all countries when measured in value-added terms. But for Canada, the difference is more pronounced because it is one of the world's bigger users of supply chains. Measured conventionally, trade represents 35 per cent of Canada's gross domestic product, 17th among the world's 30 largest trading nations, according to the Conference Board. Measured on a value-added basis, that figure drop to 24 per cent of GDP, which drops Canada's rank to 20th. That's hardly the measure of an economy dependent on trade. Mr. Armstrong offers that as an explanation for why Canada withstood the global recession better than many expected it would.

Daniel Onyeka 2015/200715 said...

POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
The political system of the republic of Azerbaijan reflects the characteristics of the national and historical profile. Its establishment was and still is influenced by variety of factors. Another important factor is the political culture of the population.
The structural formation of Azerbaijan’s political system was completed by was of the acceptance of the new constitution of Azerbaijan on November 12 1995. The constitution established Azerbaijan as a democratic, constitutional, secular and unitary republic.
The legislative power is held by Milli Majlis. Executive powers is carried out by the president, while the judicial power is held by the court of the republic of Azerbaijan.
Interest group development in Azerbaijan has a record similar to party development. The main interest group organisations are concerned with human rights isxsues, gender rights and ecological problems. In general they are closely supervised by the authorities.
For example in terms of unionized activity Azerbaijan interest groups are debilitated. There are a few trade union such as the Azerbaijan Free Trade Unionist Confederation, the League of Protection Of Labour Rights Of Citizens and the Trade Union for the Protection of the Rights of Oil Workeers. However there are neither free nor extensive.

Vietnam is a socialist country under the leadership of the Vietnam communist party. The national assembly which includes 498 members and is open to non party members is rthe supreme organ of the state and the only body with constitutional and legislative power. The president of the state and prime minister are elected by the National Assembly.
The president has the right to nominate candidates for a number of key positions including the chief justice of the Supreme People’s Court and the Procurator-General of the People’s Office of supervision and control. Nominees are then approved by the national assembly.
The Prime Minister who is charged with the day to day handling of the government has the right to nominate and dismiss the members of his cabinet though only with the approval of the National Assembly. He also has at his disposal the power to cancel or suspend decisions or directives issued by the ministries.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II the queen of Canada as the head of state, with her role delegated to the governor general, who is appointed “on the advice of the prime minister by the reigning monarch. Canada has three levels of government: federal, provincial/territorial and municipal each of the province have their own parliament. The federal government has three branches: the judiciary, legislative and executive.
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. Canada is a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is head of state. The country has a multi-party system in which many of its legislative practices derive from the unwritten conventions of and precedents set by the Westminster Parliament of the United Kingdom. However, Canada has evolved variations: party discipline in Canada is stronger than in the United Kingdom and more parliamentary votes are considered motions of confidence, which tends to diminish the role of non-Cabinet Members of Parliament, (MPs). Such members, in the government caucus, and junior or lower-profile members of opposition caucuses, are known as backbenchers. Backbenchers can, however, exert their influence by sitting in parliamentary committees, like the Public Accounts Committee or the National-Defence Committee

ARIJEH ITOFA MERCY 2015/199342 said...

BLOG ADDRESS:ARIJEHITOFA.BLOGSPOT.COM

Historical Background: Hong Kong
Archaeological findings suggesting human activity in Hong Kong date back over 30,000 years. Stone tools from old stone age have been excavated in Sai Kung in Wong Tei Tung. The stone toosl found in Sai Kung were perhaps from a stone tool making ground. Religious carvings on outlying islands and coastal areas have also been found, possibly related to she people in the Neolithic. The latest findings dating from the Paleolithics suggest that Wong Tei Tung is one of the most ancient settlements in Hong King.
The territory that now comprises Hong Kong was incorporated into China during the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC), and the area was firmly consolidated under the ancount Kigndom of Nanye (203-11 BC). During the Qin dynasty, the territory was governed by Panyu country until the time of the Kin dynasty. Archaeological evidence indicates the population increased during the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) was excavated and archaeologists began to investigate the possibility that salt production flourished in Hong Kong around 2000years ago, although conclusive evidence has not been found. Tai Po Hoi, the sea of Tai Po, was a major Pearl hunting harbor in China from the Han dynasty through to the Ming-dynasty (1368-1644) with activities peaking during the Southern HAN (917-971).
Political Structure, Power and Interest Group
The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the special administrative region and of a multi party system. Executive power is exercise by government.
In accordance with Article 31 of the constitution of the people’s republic of Hong Kong has special Administrative region status which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of one country, two systems. Basic law, Hong Kong constitutional document, was approved in March 1990 by national people congress of China and entered into force upon the transfer of sovereignty on 1 July 1997. The Hong Kong government ‘s economically –Liberal, but currently universal suffrage is only granted in District council. The head of government (Chief Executive of Hong Kong) is elected through an electoral college with the majority of its members elected through an electoral college with the majority of its members elected by a limited number of voters mainly within business and professional sectors.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

• HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Historical Background of Botswana
The country's name means "land of the Tswana, referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana.The term Batswana was originally applied to the Tswana, which is still the case. However, it has also come to be used generally as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. The history of Botswana starts more than 100,000 years ago, when the first humans inhabited the region. The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Bushmen (San) and Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and lived as hunter-gatherers. About a thousand years ago, large chiefdoms emerged that were later eclipsed by the Great Zimbabwe empire, which spread into eastern Botswana.
Around 1300 CE, peoples in present-day Transvaal began to coalesce into three main linguistic and political groups, including the Batswana. The Batswana (plural of Motswana), a term used also to denote all citizens of Botswana, remain the country's major ethnic group today. Prior to European contact, the Batswana lived as herders and farmers under tribal rule. As groups broke off and moved to new land, new tribes were created.
According to tradition, the founder of the Batswana tribe was a 14th-century chief named Mogale. His great-great-grandson Malope had three sons, Kwena, Ngwaketse, and Ngwato, who became the chiefs of the major tribes that now inhabit Botswana. The foundations of the modern state lie in the 1820–70 period, when the Batswana suffered many tribulations at the hands of the Matabele. In 1872, Khama III became chief of the Bamangwato. He was the son of Chief Sekgoma, the only Batswana chief who had succeeded in turning back the Matabele. Up to that time, the Batswana had no permanent contact with Europeans, except for the missionaries Robert and Mary Moffat and David Livingstone, who had established missions in the first half of the 19th century. But with increased exploration and the partition of southern Africa among the European powers, hostility developed between the Batswana and the Boer trekkers from the Transvaal. Khama III appealed to the UK for assistance, and in 1885 the whole of what was then known as Bechuanaland was proclaimed to be under the protection of Queen Victoria. The territory south of the Molopo River was constituted a crown colony called British Bechuanaland, and in 1895 it was incorporated into South Africa. The northern part of the territory, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, remained under the protection of the British crown, the powers of which, beginning in 1891, were exercised by the high commissioner in South Africa. The South African Act of Union of 1909, which created the Union (now Republic) of South Africa, provided for the eventual transfer to South Africa of Bechuanaland and the two other High Commission Territories, Basutoland and Swaziland, despite their requests to the contrary. The provision was dropped in 1961, after the withdrawal of South Africa from the Commonwealth.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

Historical Background of the Philippines
The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines.
The evidence of human habitation dates back some 250,000 years. In more recent times, experts believe that the Negritos, who crossed then existing land bridges from Borneo and Sumatra some 30,000 years ago, settled the Philippine Islands. Successive waves of Malays, who arrived from the south, at first by land and later on boats called barangays—a name also applied to their communities—came to outnumber the Negritos. By the 14th century, Arab traders made contact with the southern islands and introduced Islam to the local populace. Commercial and political ties also linked various enclaves in the archipelago with Indonesia, Southeast Asia, India, China, and Japan. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese-born navigator sailing for Spain, made the European discovery of the Philippines on 15 March 1521 and landed on Cebu on 7 April, claiming the islands for Spain, but the Filipino chieftain Lapulapu killed Magellan in battle. The Spanish later named the islands in honor of King Philip II, and an invasion under Miguel Lopez de Legaspi began in 1565.


Historical Background of Ireland
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. During the last glacial period, and up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe. By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Later, around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe. The earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, however, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island. These Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

• SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Size and Income Level of Botswana
A landlocked country in southern Africa, Botswana has a total area of 600,370 sq km (231,802 sq mi), extending 1,110 km (690 mi) NNE – SSW and 960 km (597 mi) EWE – WNW. Comparatively, the area occupied by Botswana is slightly smaller than the state of Texas. It meets Zambia at a point in the N and is bordered on the NE by Zimbabwe, on the SE and S by South Africa, and on the W and N by Namibia, with a total boundary length of 4,013 km (2,494 mi). The population of Botswana in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 1,785,000, which placed it as number 144 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 41% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 96 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 0.85%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 1,712,000. The population density in 2002 was 3 per sq km (7 per sq mi). Nearly 80% of the population lives on the better soils of the eastern strip of the country. Formerly Botswana was one of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—but has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. Botswana boasts a GDP (purchasing power parity) per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, which is one of the highest in Africa. Its high gross national income (by some estimates the fourth-largest in Africa) gives the country a relatively high standard of living and the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

Size and Income Level of the Philippines
Made up of about 7,100 islands, the Philippines is on the southeastern rim of Asia and is bordered by the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China Sea on the west, the Luzon Strait on the north, and the Celebes Sea on the south. Its land area, which is slightly larger than that of Arizona, measures 300,000 square kilometres (115,830 square miles), and its coastline is 36,289 kilometres (22,550 miles). The Philippine population has more than tripled since 1948, from 19 million to an official estimate of 81.16 million in 2000. From 1995 to 2000, and the annual population growth rate stood at 2.02 percent, slightly lower than in 1990 and one-third less than the growth rate of 3 percent during the 1960s. As of 2015, the Philippines had a population of approximately 101 million and as of January 2018, it was the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world.
The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2001 the Philippines' gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $335 billion. The per capita GDP was estimated at $4,000. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 2.8%. The Philippine economy is the 34th largest in the world, with an estimated 2017 gross domestic product (nominal) of $348.593 billion.
Size and Income Level of Ireland
Ireland covers an area of 70,280 sq km (27,135 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Ireland is slightly larger than the state of West Virginia. The island's length is 486 km (302 mi) N – S, and its width is 275 km (171 mi) E – W. The population of Ireland in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 3,956,000, which placed it as number 121 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 11% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 21% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.12%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 4,398,000. The population density in 2002 was 54 per sq km (140 per sq mi). The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2002 Ireland's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $111.3 billion. The per capita GDP was estimated at $28,500. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 3.9%.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

• PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
Physical and Human Resources in Botswana
Botswana is the world’s biggest diamond producer supplying 21% of global rough diamonds producing over 15 million carats of diamonds a year. With its diamond reserves predicted to run out in 20 years, about 18 million carats over 20 years are expected to be recovered from a modular tailings treatment project currently under construction at Debswana’s Jwaneng diamond mine in Botswana, world’s richest diamond mine by value. Botswana is a country rich in a variety of mineral resources with diamond being the most significant resource since its discovery in 1967. The Jwaneng open pit mine in the country is considered as the richest diamond mine in the world based on the measured value of recovered diamond. Unexploited mineral resources, such as gypsum, iron, asbestos, feldspar, chromium, graphite, and manganese, are located in remote areas and below the Kalahari sands. Labor force, total in Botswana was reported at 1130046 in 2017, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources.
Physical and Human Resources in the Philippines
The Philippines is rich in natural resources. It has fertile, arable lands, diverse flora and fauna, extensive coastlines, and rich mineral deposits. About 30% of the land area of the country was determined be geologically prospective by the Philippine Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau. But Only 1.5% of country's land area is covered with mining permits. Despite the rich natural resources of the Philippines, the government is restricting its exploitation. A logging ban is imposed on many areas of the country and only in select areas are "sustainable logging" allowed. However illegal logging and small-scale illegal mining continues is many areas. In July 2012, President Benigno Aquino III ordered a stop to all mining activities in all (78 areas) protected and eco-tourism sites. A positive step in the right direction to protect the natural resources of the Philippines. The value for Labor force, total in Philippines was 43,807,160 as of 2014. Labor force, female (% of total labor force) in Philippines was 39.22 as of 2014. Its highest value over the past 24 years was 39.22 in 2014, while its lowest value was 36.33 in 1991
Physical and Human Resources in Ireland
The primary natural resources of the Republic of Ireland include natural gas, petroleum, peat, copper, lead, dolomite, barite, limestone, gypsum, silver and zinc. Key industries based on these and other natural resources include fishing, mining, and various forms of agriculture and fish farming. The Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources is charged with the legislative protection of the Republic of Ireland's natural resources. Labor force, total in Ireland was reported at 2231459 in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

• ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Ethnic and Religious Composition of Botswana
The population, predominantly of Tswana stock (79%), is distributed among eight tribes, Batswana being the largest. The others include Bamangwato, Bakwena, Bangwaketsi, Bakgatla, Barolong, Bamalete, and Batlokwa. The next largest single group of indigenous peoples is the Kalanga, which accounts for about 11% of the population. There are about 3% Basarwa (Bushmen). There are a small number of Kgalagadi. In 1998, non-Africans constituted only 1% of the population. It is presently estimated that about one-half the population follows traditional African religions while most of the rest are nominally Christian. Anglicans, Methodists, and the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa—formerly the London Missionary Society—claim the largest numbers of Christian followers. There are also congregations of Lutherans, Roman Catholics, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baptists, the Dutch Reformed Church, Mennonites, and other Christian denominations. About 1% of the population is Muslim and about 1% is Hindu. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed.
Ethnic and Religious Composition of the Philippines
Filipinos of Malay (Malayan and Indonesian) stock constitute about 95.5% of the total population. They are divided into nine main ethnic groups: the Tagalog, Ilocanos, Pampanguenos, Pangasinans, and Bicolanos, all concentrated in Luzon; the Cebuanos, Boholanos, and Ilongos of the Visayas; and the Waray-Waray of the Visayas, Leyte, and Samar. The Chinese minority totaled about 1.5% of the population in 1999. In addition, 10 Muslim groups, mainly of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, comprised about 4% of the population. Numerous smaller ethnic groups inhabit the interior of the islands, including the Igorot of Luzon and the Bukidnon, Manobo, and Tiruray of Mindanao. These other groups accounted for the remaining 3% of the population in 1999. Most of the population (about 85%) belong to the Roman Catholic Church. Other Christian churches represent about 9%. Among Christian and Protestant groups, there are numerous denominations. Muslims (representing about 5%), commonly called Moros by non-Muslims, are concentrated in Mindanao and the Sulus. Most Muslims are Sunni. Buddhists, Baha'is, Chinese folk religionists, and tribal religionists, mainly in the more inaccessible mountainous areas of Luzon and Mindanao, constitute the remaining 3%. There are also small communities of Hindus and Jews. It is believed that a majority of the indigenous population includes elements of native religions within their practice of other faiths. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution.

Abugwu, O'Brian Chimezie, 2015/198500, Economics Department said...

• ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Ethnic and Religious Composition of Botswana
The population, predominantly of Tswana stock (79%), is distributed among eight tribes, Batswana being the largest. The others include Bamangwato, Bakwena, Bangwaketsi, Bakgatla, Barolong, Bamalete, and Batlokwa. The next largest single group of indigenous peoples is the Kalanga, which accounts for about 11% of the population. There are about 3% Basarwa (Bushmen). There are a small number of Kgalagadi. In 1998, non-Africans constituted only 1% of the population. It is presently estimated that about one-half the population follows traditional African religions while most of the rest are nominally Christian. Anglicans, Methodists, and the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa—formerly the London Missionary Society—claim the largest numbers of Christian followers. There are also congregations of Lutherans, Roman Catholics, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baptists, the Dutch Reformed Church, Mennonites, and other Christian denominations. About 1% of the population is Muslim and about 1% is Hindu. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed.

ONAH OBIANUJU WINIFRED 2015/197508 said...


Adaeze obuanya hope 2015/203181 said...



COMPARISM AND CONTRAST OF TWODEVELOPED COUNTRIES (TOGO AND EQUITORIAL GUINEA) AS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH (SAN MARINO) A DEVELOPED COUNTRY
The term underdevelopment refers to that state of an economy where levels of living of masses are extremely low due to very low level of per capita income resulting from low levels of productivity and high growth rates of population. According to the United Nation definition, an underdeveloped country is one which have a real per capita income that is lower in relation to the USA, Canada, Australia and Western Europe. Therefore, Togo and Equatorial Guinea which have lower per capita than USA, Canada, Australia and Western Europe can be said to be underdeveloped while San Mario higher per capita is said to be developed.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TOGO
The historical background of the Republic of Togo dates down to the fifteenth century when the Portuguese explorers arrived the land, although signs of the Ewe settlement for several centuries before their arrival. After the Portuguese arrival, the Ewe from Benin and Mina and Guin from Ghana also settled among the coast of Togo. The Portuguese then built forts in neighboring Ghana and used natural harbors at the coast of Togo as trade centers. For the next 200 years, the coastal region was a major trading center for Europeans in search of slaves earning Togo and the surrounding the name “the slave coast’’.
COLONIAL RULE: the Togolese was colonized by the Germans during the League of Nations in 1884 it the name German Togoland, it was also at this time that many western nations scrambled for Africa.
At the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the colony was quickly invaded and overrun by British and French forces during the Togoland campaign and was placed under military rule. This led to the division of the Togoland into French and British administrative zones. This continued until 27th April 1958 when a parliamentary election conducted by the UN in view of their universal suffrage was won by Sylvanu Olympio of the committee of Togolese Unity party CUT and served as the first president of Togo. However on 27th April1960, in a smooth transition, Togo severed its constitutional ties with France, shed its UN trusteeship status and became fully independent under a provisional constitution with Olympio as the president.
After the independent of Togoland in 1960, it has continued to have a very poor and fluctuating government. These ranges from Gildanist Olypios’s in 1968 by a military coup led by Gen.Gnassingbe Eyadema who led the country until his death on 5th February 2005 while on board an airplane en route to France for treatment for a heart attack. Gnassingbe is said to have killed more than fifteen thousand people during his dictatorship. His son Faure Grassingbe who was the country former minister replaced him.
POPULATION SIZE: According to the wordometers annual population review, Togo is estimated to have about 7,899,673 people having a land area of about 57,000 square kilometers.
INCOME: According to the US central intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2001 Togo’s gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $7.6 billion. The per capita GDP was estimated at $1,500. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 2.2% the average inflation rate in 2001 was 2.3%.
RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC COMPOSITION: Togo has a rich history of religion as almost half of the Togolese population are Christians, many of them being Protestants, independent or other Christian communities.
Ethnically, Togo is also rich in tradition as most of the ethnic group organize different traditional festivals. The Ewe who, migrated from Nigeria in the fourteenth century is the major ethnic group.

Adaeze obuanya hope 2015/203181 said...

PHYSICAL RESOURCES: The country is endowed with a large deposit of phosphate and also has great agricultural product such coffee, cocoa bean and peanuts which together consist of about 30% of the country’s export earnings.
HUMAN RESOURSES: Togo has a good human resources as it contributes of about 21% of its GDP.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR: the country’s public and private sectors have contributed much in the to the country’s economy. The public sector has helped in the educational, health, economic and virtually every other sector in the country. It employs a great number of the country’s work force thereby reducing their the country’s unemployment rate. Again, a strong NGO sector helps in developing nations such as Togo, to make progress in addressing the problem of poverty (poverty alleviation). The private sector also brings about competition to the economy as different industries will do all tto attain growth.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF EQUITORIAL GUINEA
The history of Equatorial Guinea is marked by centuries of colonial domination by the Portuguese, British and Spanish empires and by the local kingdoms. The first inhabitants of the country includes the Pygmies who are remnants of Rio Muni clan, Bantu who generated the Fang clan from Cameroun and the Aro of Igbo origin from Nigeria who worked as slave traders.
Equatorial Guinea like many other colonized African countries where ruled and governed by the Western countries before their independence. But amongst the countries that colonized the country are Portuguese, British and majorly Spain. Notable of the Spanish colonization of the country was between 1960 and 1968, when Spain attempted a partial decolonization which was hoped would conserve the territory as an integral segment of the Spanish system. However in March 1968, under pressure from Equatoguinean nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea. A referendum and constitution was drafted and in September 1968, Francisco Macias Nguema was elected the first president of Equatorial Guinea and independence was granted in October.
In 1970, Macias the president created a single oarty system and assumed the president of life to the country. This, accompanied by the gross ignorance of the people made the president to unleash terror to the people leading to the death of about one third of the country’s population and also causing untold hardship to the entire country. His leadership of Ngueme was so oppressive that in 1975 churches and the schools in the country was entirely shut down.
In 1979, Macias nephew Teodoro Obiang Ngueme led a successful coup which led to the death of the president while he assumed the office of the presidency.
POPULATION SIZE: Equatorial Guinea has a population size of about 1.2 million people covering a land area of 28,051 sqkm.
INCOME: the country as at 2009 had a GDP of $10.41 billion giving it a GDP growth of 18.6%. it also has a $15,401 GDP per capita. Its major gdp contributors are the industry 87.3%, agriculture 4.6% and services 8.1%
HUMAN RESOURCES: with a population of 1.2million people, the country’s human resources contribute about 8.1% of its GDP.
RELIGION: the country’s major religion is Christianity.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR: the country’s public and private sectors have contributed much in the to the country’s economy. The public sector has helped in the educational, health, economic and virtually every other sector in the country. It employs a great number of the country’s work force thereby reducing their country’s unemployment rate. Again, a strong NGO sector helps in developing nations such as Togo, to make progress in addressing the problem of poverty (poverty alleviation). The private sector also brings about competition to the economy as different industries will do all to attain growth.

Adaeze obuanya hope 2015/203181 said...

HISYORY OF SAN MARINO
The history of San Marino is typical of Italian Penisula. It is the world fifth smallest state and the world oldest surviving republic. It was founded in 301 AD when a Christian stonemason known only via the single name Marinus running away from the then persecution ran to the city for safety. After the persecution, Marinus became a deacon and was ordained by Gaudeatius, the bishop of Rimini. A letter evidence of the existence of the city was made in the 9th century from a paper showing a well-organized, open and proud community: the writings reports that the bishop ruled this territory. There was a self-government known as Arengo, which consisted of each family.
The Holy See confirmed the independent of San Marino in 1631. Therefore, San Mario historically was not colonized by any super power but was founded independently. The country practices a parliamentary system of government. The captain regent is head of the state, and there is piriform system of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both government and the grand and general council. The judiciary, is independent of the executive and the legislature.
POPULATION SIZE: The current population size of San Marino is 33,485 that is according to United Nations estimates.

Adaeze obuanya hope 2015/203181 said...

INCOME LEVEL: The country has a GDP of $1.665 billion as of 2017 and ranks 199th as of 2012. It also has a GDP growth of 0.9%. Its major sources of capital are agriculture 0.1%, industry 39.2% and services of 60.7%.
HUMAN RESOURCES: The country has a labour force of 21830 persons as of December2012.
PHYSICAL RESOURCES: the country has a rich heritage in tourism, banking, textile, electronics, ceramics, cements and wine.
RELIGION: san Mario’s major religion is Christianity.
ETHNICITY: Most of the citizens of San Marino are considered Samarinese, which is a distinct ethnic group. The country’s major language is Italian.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR: the country’s public and private sectors have contributed much in the to the country’s economy. The public sector has helped in the educational, health, economic and virtually every other sector in the country. It employs a great number of the country’s work force thereby reducing their country’s unemployment rate. Again, a strong NGO sector helps in developing nations such as Togo, to make progress in addressing the problem of poverty (poverty alleviation). The private sector also brings about competition to the economy as different industries will do all tto attain growth.

COMPARISM OF REPUBLIC OF TOGO AND EQUATORIAL GUINEA
The two countries are still under developed and ranked among third world countries. They are both in Africa and where colonized by the western European countries. These countries during their colonization made laws for them and determined their economic strength. The two countries also got their independent in the 1960’s from their colonial masters and then where governed by their own people.
Politically, the two countries have a characteristic spell of bad and very poor government structure after their independent and this result to their poor economic and income state in spite of their vast human and physical endowments. Therefore the two countries are mainly underdeveloped because of their poor political policies and governance.

adaeze ogbuanya said...

CONTRAST BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF TOGO AND EQUITORIAL GUINEA (UNDERDEVELOPED) AND SAN MARINO (DEVELOPED)
The two undeveloped countries; Togo and Equatorial Guinea are both African countries and where colonized by the western countries during the scramble for Africa at the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They were also victims of slave trade and severe dictatorship from their foreign colonial masters unlike their San Marino an European country found itself independently of any colonial rule or dictatorship.
Again, San Mario’s system of government is more effective since its creation than that of the two undeveloped countries who has a some-what autocratic and anarchical governance. Furthermore, Togo and Equatorial Guinea are more respectively more populated than San Mario thereby having a less PPP and GDP per person in the country.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR: the country’s public and private sectors have contributed much in the to the country’s economy. The public sector has helped in the educational, health, economic and virtually every other sector in the country. It employs a great number of the country’s work force thereby reducing their the country’s unemployment rate. Again, a strong NGO sector helps in developing nations such as Togo, to make progress in addressing the problem of poverty (poverty alleviation). The private sector also brings about competition to the economy as different industries will do all to attain growth.

Onyia Ogechukwu Pamela 2015/202894 said...

DEPARTMENT OF COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE
ECONOMICS/GEOGRAPHY
TONGA
HISTORY OF TONGA
An Austronesia-speaking group linked to the archaeological construct known as the Lepta cultural complex reached and inhabited Tonga around 1500–1000 BC.
The Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht, captained by Willem Schouten, made a short visit to trade. Later came other Dutch explorers,
In 1845, the ambitious young warrior, strategist, and orator Taufaahau united Tonga into a kingdom. He held the chiefly title of Tuikanokupoul , but had been baptised by Methodist missionaries with the name Siros (George) in 1831. In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Wald mar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy.
Tonga became a protected state under a Treaty of Friendship with Britain on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. The treaty posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul (1901–1970). Under the protection of Britain, Tonga maintained its sovereignty, and remained the only Pacific nation to retain its monarchical government .The Tongan monarchy follows an uninterrupted succession of hereditary rulers from one family.
SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Tonga, is a Polynesian Located in Oceania. It is a sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi) scattered over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. It has a population of 107,122 people.
Tonga stretches across approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) in a north-south line. It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna(France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east, Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west.

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
The people of tonga are blessed with good soil which enhances their agricultural production. They cultivate agricultural products such as coconut, coffee beans, vanilla beans, cassava, sweet potatoes, taro etc. They also deal in fishery which is because they are surrounded by water. It human resoureces is few due to migration to other countries and continents such as asia and austraria.
ETHNIC AND REELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Tongans, Polynesian by ethnicity with a mixture of Melanesian, represent more than 98% of the inhabitants. 1.5% are mixed Tongans and the rest are European (the majority are British), mixed European, and other Pacific Islanders. In 2001 there were approximately 3,000 or 4,000 Chinese in Tonga, comprising 3 or 4% of the total Tongan population.In 2006, Nukuʻalofa riots mainly targeted Chinese-owned businesses, leading to the emigration of several hundred Chinese so that only about 300 remain.
The Tongan language is the official language, along with English..
They are mostly Christians,thefree weselayn church of tonga is the established religion in the state. It is the world's only state church in the Methodist tradition of Protestantism, although only one-third of the island's population adheres to it. In 1928, Queen Salote Tupou III, who was a member of the church, established the Free Wesleyan Church as the state religion of Tonga.

ogechukwu onyia said...

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR.
Tonga provides for its citizens a free and mandatory education for all, secondary education with only nominal fees, and foreign-funded scholarships for post-secondary education. Tongans have universal access to a national health care system. The Constitution of Tonga protects land ownership: land cannot be sold to foreigners (although it may be leased ). The majority of the population engages in some form of subsistence production of food, with approximately half producing almost all of their basic food needs through farming, sea harvesting, and animal husbandry. Women and men have equal access to education and health care and are fairly equal in.Primary education between ages 6 and 14 is compulsory and free in state schools.

INDUSTRIAL SCETOR
The manufacturing sector consists of handicrafts and a few other very small scale industries, which contribute only about 3% of GDP
Tonga's development plans emphasise a growing private sector, upgrading agricultural productivity, revitalising the squash and vanilla bean industries, developing tourism, and improving communications and transport. Substantial progress has been made, but much work remains to be done. A small but growing construction sector is developing. The tourist industry is relatively undeveloped; however, the government recognises that tourism can play a major role in economic development, and efforts are being made to increase this source of revenue. The Tonga Chamber of Commerce and Industry (TCCI), incorporated in 1996, endeavours to represent the interests of its members, private sector businesses, and to promote economic growth in the Kingdom.

EXRENAL SECTOR
Tonga's foreign policy as of January 2009 has establishing closer diplomatic and economic relations with Asia. Tonga retains cordial relations with the United States. Although it remains on good terms with the United Kingdom, the two countries do not maintain particularly close relations, and the United Kingdom closed its High Commission in Tonga in 2006. Tonga's relations with Oceania's regional powers, Australia and New Zealand, are good.
In 2005, the country became eligible to become a member of the World Trade Organization.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTERST GROUP
Politics of Tonga takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, where by the king is the head of state and the commander in chief of the arm forces. Tonga prime minister is appointed by the king from among the parliament.

ogechukwu onyia said...

FIJI
HISTORY
Fiji was settled before or around 3500 to 1000 BC. The first Europeansto land and live among the Fijians were shipwrecked sailors.
.The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman visited Fiji in 1643 while looking for the Great Southern Continent. Europeans settled on the islands permanently beginning in the 19th century. The first European settlers to Fiji were beachcombers, missionaries, whalers, and those engaged in the then booming sandalwood and trade. The majority of Fiji's islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago. Fiji has been inhabited since the second millennium BC, and was settled first by Austronesia’s and later by Melanesians with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century and after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji was a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as a Commonwealth realm. A republic was declared in 1987, following a series of coups d'état

SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Fiji is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles (2,000 km; 1,300 mi) northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. It is shown that household receives close to $3.7billion from various income sources. of this $2.143 billion was for permanent wages and salary.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
Resources found in Fiji includes; timber, gold, copper, fish. There are presence of forest which is their source of timber .Their human resource is low due to the low population of the nation.
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
The population of Fiji is mostly made up of native Fijians, who are Melanesians (54.3%), although many also have Polynesian ancestry, and Indo-Fijians (38.1%), descendants of Indian contract labourers brought to the islands by the British colonial powers in the 19th century. There is also a small but significant group of descendants of indentured labourers from the Solomon Islands.
Relationships between ethnic Fijians and Indo-Fijians in the political arena have often been strained, and the tension between the two communities has dominated politics in the islands for the past generation. The level of political tension varies among different regions of the country
Most of the population are Christian, while is Hindu, Muslim, non-religious, Sikh, and other religions The largest Christian denomination is the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotunda.

IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORSORS
Sectors such as the educational sector have been made free and compulsory at both primary and secondary level. The private and public sectors are both working towards achieving a stable economy and also to improve the well being of the people.

ogechukwu onyia said...

INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
The manufacturing industry contributes about 15.08% of the country’s GDP. The sector employs about 20% of the county’s workforce. They manufacture products such as textiles, food, beverages .
POLITICAL STEUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUP
Politics in Fiji normally take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic wherein the Prime Minister of Fiji is the head of government and the President the Head of State, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji, and the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.









NORWAY
HISTORY
Norway is a sovereign state and unitary monarchy territory. The first inhabitants were the Ahrens burg culture The earliest traces of human occupation in Norway are found along the coast, where the huge ice shelf of the last ice age first melted between 11,000 and 8,000 BC. The oldest finds are stone tools dating from 9,500 to 6,000 BC, discovered in Finn mark (Kosmas) in the north and Rangeland (Fusan) in the south-west.
SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) and a population of 5,258,317 (as of January 2017).[13] The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden (1,619 km or 1,006 mi long). Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. In Norway, the average household income per capital is $35739 a year. There is a considerable amount between the rich and the poor. The income level of Norway is high.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
The physical resources in Norway includes: gas, oil, lead, timber copper etc. they are known for their exportation of sea foods, mostly “stock fish”. they have a working population of about 3,425,000 people.

ogechukwu onyia said...


ETHINIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Norway comprises of different ethnic group which include the Norwegian which makes up 94.4% of the population. there is also the Sami they make up less than 1% of the population and the rest of the population is made up by migrants. Most of the population are Christians registered under church of Norway (Lutheran), few Catholics and Muslims.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR
The private and public sector aims at maintaining and improving the economy. For instance the health sector is free and as such citizens are provided with essential health care which raises the life expectancy of the nation.
EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
Norway maintains embassies in 82 countries. 60 countries maintain an embassy in Norway, all of them in the capital, Oslo.
Norway contributes to international development. In addition, it participated in the 1990s brokering of the Oslo Accords, an attempt to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE POWER AND INTEREST GROUP
Norway is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. From 1814,B c. 45% of men (25 years and older) had the right to vote. The Monarch officially retains executive power. However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the Monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government.

CONCLUSION
From the above analysis it is seen that Norway is a developed nation compared to the other two countries: Tonga and Fiji. It is said to be developed because of its stable economy and its ability to be able to provide more than the basic needs for it citizens. Tonga and Fiji on the other hand has are said to be developing because they don’t have a steady economy, due to the presence of war, high emigration rate etc .The basic needs of the people are not meet and the level of income is very low compared to that of Norway.

Esther Nzenwa Oluchukwu 2015/202894 said...

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE
ECONOMICS/GEOGRAPHY
THAILAND
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THAILAND
Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. The oldest known mention of their existence in the region by the exonym Siamese is in a 12th-century inscription at the Khmer temple complex of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, which refers to syam, or "dark brown", people. "Siam" may have originated from the Sanskrit śyāma "dark", referring to the relative skincolour of its native people. Chinese: pinyin: Xiānluó was the name for the northern kingdom centred on Sukhothai and Sawankhalok, but to the Thai themselves, the name of the country has always been Mueang Thai.
The Thai established their own states: Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom. These states fought each other and were under constant threat from the Khmers, Burma and Vietnam. Much later, the European colonial powers threatened in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but Thailand survived as the only Southeast Asian state to avoid European colonial rule because the French and the British decided it would be a neutral territory to avoid conflicts between their colonies. After the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand endured sixty years of almost permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected-government system. In 2014 there was yet another coup d'état.
On 13 October 2016, King BhumibolAdulyadej of Thailand died at the age of 88, in Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok. On the night of 1 December 2016, the fiftieth day after the death of Bhumibol, Regent PremTinsulanonda led the heads of the country's three branches of government to an audience with Vajiralongkorn to invite him to ascend to the throne as the tenth king of the Chakri dynasty.
The capital of Thailand is Bangkok, it is also their largest city. Their currency is Baht (฿) (THB).Their official language is Thai, the spoken language of the people is Isan, KamMueang, Pak Tai.
SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL Population of Thailand (2016 est) is 67.2 million. Highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found throughout large parts of the country, particularly east / northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country. The major cities like Bangkok (capital) 9.27 million, SamutPrakan 1.814 million. The population growth rate (2016 est.) is 0.32%

ESTHER NZENWA said...

The industry and service sectors produce about 90% of GDP. The agricultural sector, comprised mostly of small-scale farmers, contributes only 10% of GDP but employs about one-third of the labor force. Thailand has attracted an estimated 3.0-4.5 million migrant workers, mostly from neighboring countries.
Tourism and government spending - mostly on infrastructure and short-term stimulus measures – have helped to boost the economy, and The Bank of Thailand has been supportive, with several interest rate reductions.
GDP (official exchange rate): $406.8 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: Agriculture: 8.9%
Industry: 35.9%
Services: 55.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: Agriculture: 31.8%
Industry:16.7%
Services: 51.5% (2015 est.)
GDP
US$1.108 trillion (PPP; 2016)
US$404.824 billion (Nominal; 2016 est.)
GDP rank 28th (nominal) / 20th (PPP) (IMF, 2017)

GDP growth 0.9% (2014), 2.9% (2015),
3.2% (2016), 3.2% (2017)
GDP per capita US$15,319 (PPP; 2015)
US$5,771 (Nominal.)
GDP by sector Agriculture (8.4%), Industry (39.2%), Services (52.4%) (2012)
Inflation (CPI)
3.02% (Headline) (2012)
2.09% (Core) (2012)
Population below poverty line
7.2% (2015)

Labour force 39.41 million (2012)




PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
Thailand is rich in mineral resources such as tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Agriculture
Thailand has been the largest rice exporter in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labor force is employed in agriculture.
Developments in agriculture since the 1960s have supported Thailand's transition to an industrialised economy. As recently as 1980, agriculture supplied 70 percent of employment. Rice is the most important crop in the country. It is a major exporter of shrimp. Other crops include coconuts, corn, rubber, soybeans, sugarcane and tapioca.
Thailand is the world's third-largest seafood exporter. Overall fish exports were worth around US$3 billion in 2014, according to the Thai Frozen Foods Association. Thailand's fishing industry employs more than 300,000 persons.
Thailand is the world's second-largest exporter of gypsum (after Canada), although government policy limits gypsum exports to support prices. In 2003 Thailand produced more than 40 different minerals, with an annual value of about US$740 million. In September 2003, to encourage foreign investment in mining the government relaxed its restrictions on mining by foreign companies and reduced mineral royalties owed to the state

ESTHER NZENWA said...

Industry and manufacturing
In 2007 industry contributed 43.9 percent of GDP, employing 14 percent of the workforce. Industry expanded at an average annual rate of 3.4 percent from 1995 to 2005. The most important sub-sector of industry is manufacturing, which accounted for 34.5 percent of GDP in 2004.
Electrical and electronics
Electrical and electronics (E&E) equipment is Thailand's largest export sector, amounting to about 15 percent of total exports. In 2014 Thailand's E&E exports totalled US$55 billion. The E&E sector employed approximately 780,000 workers in 2015, representing 12.2 per cent of the total employment in manufacturing.
Thailand is the world's second-biggest maker of hard disk drives (HDDs) after China, with Western Digital and Seagate Technology among the biggest producers.
Automotive
Thailand is the ASEAN leader in automotive production and sales. The sector employed approximately 417,000 workers in 2015, representing 6.5 per cent of total employment across all manufacturing industries and accounting for roughly 10 percent of the country's GDP. In 2014, Thailand exported US$25.8 billion in automotive goods. As many as 73 percent of automotive sector workers in Thailand face a high risk of job loss due to automation.
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Ethnic groups in Thailand
Approximately 75 percent of the population are Thai, and 14 percent are ethnic Chinese. Other ethnic groups include Malay-speaking Muslims (4 percent), Khmers (1.3 percent), Soai, or Kui (1.3 percent), Karen (1.3 percent), and Indians and Pakistanis (.4 percent). There are maybe 100,000 people of Indian, Pakistani or South Asian descent. Westerners are known as farangs. Farang is the accepted word for a foreigner and doesn’t implicitly have negative connotations
In descending order, the largest (equal to or greater than 400,000) are a) 15,080,000 Lao (24.9 percent) consisting of the Thai Lao(14 million) and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei (400-500,000), Lao Lom (350,000), Lao Wiang/Klang (200,000), Lao Khrang (90,000), Lao Ngaew (30,000), and Lao Ti (10,000; b) six million KhonMuang (9.9 percent, also called Northern Thais); c) 4.5 million Pak Tai (7.5 percent, also called Southern Thais); d) 1.4 million Khmer Leu (2.3 percent, also called Northern Khmer); e) 900,000 Malay (1.5%); f) 500,000 Ngaw (0.8 percent); g) 470,000 Phu Thai (0.8 percent); h) 400,000 Kuy/Kuay (also known as Suay) (0.7 percent), and i) 350,000 Karen (0.6 percent). Khmer and Mon-Khmer make up approximately 6%, the Malays of southern Thailand make up around 3%. Among the groups categorized as hill tribes in the northern provinces, Hmong (Mien), Karen and other small hill tribes make up over 1%.
In official Thai documents the term "hill tribe" (chaokhao) began to appear in the 1960s. This term highlights a "hill and valley" dichotomy that is based on an ancient social relationship existing in most of northern and western Thailand, as well as in Sipsongpanna and northern Vietnam. For the most part the Dai/Tai/Thai occupied the more fertile intermontane basins and valleys, while the less powerful groups lived at the less rich higher elevations. This dichotomy was often accompanied by a master/serf relationship

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RELIGION IN THAILAND
Religion in Thailand is varied. There is no official state religion in the Thai constitution, which guarantees religious freedom for all Thai citizens, though the king is required by law to be TheravadaBuddhist. The main religion practised in Thailand is Buddhism, but there is a strong undercurrent of Hinduism with a class of brahmins having sacerdotal functions. The large Thai Chinese population also practisesChinese folk religions, including Taoism. The Chinese religious movement Yiguandao (Thai: Anuttharatham) spread to Thailand in the 1970s and it has grown so much in recent decades to come into conflict with Buddhism; it is reported that each year 200,000 Thais convert to the religion.Many other people, especially among the Isan ethnic group, practiseTai folk religions. A significant Muslim population, mostly constituted by Thai Malays, is present especially in the southern regions.
According to official census data over 90% of Thais follow Buddhism. However, the religious life of the country is more complex than how it is portrayed by such statistics. Of the large Thai Chinese population, most of those who follow Buddhism have been integrated into the dominant Theravada tradition, with only a negligible minority having retained Chinese Buddhism. Otherwise, a large part of the Thai Chinese have retained the practice of ethnic Chinese religion, including Taoism, Confucianism and Chinese salvationist religions (such as Yiguandao and the Church of Virtue). Despite being practised freely, these religions have no official recognition, and their followers are counted as Theravada Buddhists in statistical studies. Also, many Thai and Isanpractise their ethnic Tai folk religion.
Muslims are the second largest religious group in Thailand at 4% to 5% of the population. Thailand's southernmost provinces — Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and part of Songkhla and Chumphon — have large populations of Muslims, consisting of both ethnic Thai and Malay. Christians, mainly Catholics, represent just over 1% of the population. A small but influential community of Sikhs in Thailand and some Hindus, mostly live in the country's cities and are engaged in retail commerce. There is also a small Jewish community in Thailand, dating back to the 17th century.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR
THE PUBLIC SECTOR
The country bags no.1 spot as an exporter of rice, valuing not less than 6.5 million tons of milled rice per year. Rice is known as the most vital crop in the country and more than 50 percent of agricultural land is used for the rice production. The economy of Thailand is highly export-dependent. It became the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia, after Indonesia. The nation is the 4th richest nation in terms of GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei and Malaysia. 49% of Thailand’s total labour force is employed in agriculture sector.
Thai government implemented some plans to get the contribution of the private sector and also foreign investors in the alternative projects to operate them in accordance with the globally accepted standards. Through the attraction of foreign investors & private sector, the government got benefits with the advanced technology and a large sum of funds in order to make the projects a reality. Absolutely, the alternative of power generation projects has been the major factor in calculating the advancement and development of Thailand.
Ultimately, the foreign investors directly relate to the factor of advancement and development of the country. Research and development in infrastructure are the most essential factor in any country’s development process.

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THE PRIVATE SECTOR
Thailand has a private sector-led economy, with a relatively strong enabling business environment. Thailand ranked 18th in the World Bank’s 2013 Doing Business Report; 37th in the World Economic Forum’s 2013-2014 Global Competitiveness Report; 27th in the International Institute of Management Development’s 2013 World Competitiveness Yearbook; and 38th in the World Bank’s 2012 Logistics Performance Index.
The private sector plays a dominant role in the economy, with private consumption and investment contributing about 67% to gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012.
On the production side, industry has expanded and diversified significantly moving from 25% of GDP in 1975 to 41% in 2012, while agriculture’s share declined from 25% to 9 during the same period.
The vast majority of firms are small-and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). In 2012, SMEs comprised 99.76% of all firms; contributed 84% of jobs, were responsible for most growth in job creation, particularly in recent years; but represented only 40% of GDP. While large enterprises comprise only 0.24% of all firms, they account for 48% of GDP and 66% of manufacturing GDP (compared with 34% for SMEs). SMEs have had very limited participation in export industries; those involved tend to operate with low skills and technology. Large enterprises therefore drive the economy’s performance on international markets, while SMEs provide the vast majority of jobs. The government is therefore looking to the private sector to contribute to the financing needed for infrastructure, including through public–private partnership.


INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
Thailand’s industrial structure can be broken into the following; Automobiles and automotive parts (11%), financial services (9%), electric appliances and components (8%), tourism (6%),cement, auto manufacturing, heavy and light industries such as computers and parts, furniture, plastics, textiles and garments, beverages, tobacco, cement, jewelry and electric appliances, integrated circuits, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, palm oil, pineapple, livestock, fish products

EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
Thailand’s export partners includeUS 11.2%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.4%, Hong Kong 5.5%, Malaysia 4.8%, Australia 4.6%, Vietnam 4.2%, Singapore 4.1% (2016). Their exports pulled in $215.3 billion (2017 est.), $214.4 billion (2016 est.)
Their export commodities varies from automobiles and parts, computer and parts, jewelry and precious stones, polymers of ethylene in primary forms, refine fuels, electronic integrated circuits, chemical products, rice, fish products, rubber products, sugar, cassava, poultry, machinery and parts, iron and steel and their products
Thailand’s import partners include China 20.3%, Japan 15.4%, US 6.9%, Malaysia 5.9%, UAE 4% (2016). Their imports pulled in $194.7 billion (2017 est.), $202.7 billion (2016est.)
Their import commodities varies from machinery and parts, crude oil, electrical machinery and parts, chemicals, iron & steel and product, electronic integrated circuit, automobile’s parts, jewelry including silver bars and gold, computers and parts, electrical household appliances, soybean, soybean meal, wheat, cotton, dairy products.

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POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
Political parties and leaders
Chat Patthana Party or CPN (National Development Party) [WANNARAT Channukun]
Chat Thai Phatthana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [THEERA Wongsamut]
Mahachon Party or Mass Party [APHIRAT Sirinawin]
Matuphum Party (Motherland Party) [Gen. SONTHI Bunyaratkalin]
Phalang Chon Party (People Chonburi Power Party) [SONTHAYA Khunpluem]
Phumchai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [ANUTHIN Chanwirakun]
Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]
Prachathipatai Mai Party (New Democracy Party) [SURATIN Phichan]
Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [acting leader VIROT Paoin]
RakPrathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [acting leader Surapong WETCHAKORN]
RakSanti Party (Peace Conservation Party) [Pol. Lt. Gen. THAWIN Surachetphong]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Multicolor Group
People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
Student and People Network for Thailand's Reform or STR
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship




EL SALVADOR
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The history of El Salvador begins with several Mesoamerican nations, especially the Cuzcatlecs, as well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City. In 1821, the country achieved independence from Spain as part of the First Mexican Empire, only to further secede as part of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823. Upon the republic's dissolution in 1841, El Salvador became sovereign until forming a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898.
El Salvador's economy was historically dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant (añil in Spanish), the most important crop during the colonial period and followed thereafter by coffee, which by the early 20th century accounted for 90 percent of export earnings.
Before the commencement of the civil war in 1980, the Salvadoran economy revolved around three agricultural products: coffee (which was pre-eminent), sugar cane, and cotton. These defined the life of this small country that had a population of no more than 3 million inhabitants.
Eight business conglomerates now dominate economic life in El Salvador and they are largely owned by the descendants of original 14 families of the coffee oligarchy. Those 8 business groups are: GrupoCuscatlán, Banagrícola, BancoSalvadoreño, Banco de Comercio, GrupoAgrisal, GrupoPoma, Grupo de Sola, and Grupo Hill.
Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado named the new province for Jesus Christ – El Salvador ("The Savior"). The full name was "Provincia De Nuestro Señor Jesus Cristo, El Salvador Del Mundo" ("Province of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior of the World"), which was subsequently abbreviated to "El Salvador" (The Savior).

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SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
Self-identified Race Percent of population
Mestizo (Mezcla de Blanco con Indigena)
  86.3%
White/Caucasian
  12.7%
Indigenous Native American
  0.2%
Black
  0.1%
Other   0.6%
Total   100%
El Salvador's population was 6,344,722 in 2016, compared to 2,200,000 in 1950. In 2010 the percentage of the population below the age of 15 was 32.1%, 61% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.9% were 65 years or older.
The capital city of San Salvador has a population of about 2.1 million people. An estimated 42% of El Salvador's population live in rural areas. Urbanization has expanded at a phenomenal rate in El Salvador since the 1960s, with millions moving to the cities and creating associated problems for urban planning and services.
Antiguo Cuscatlán has the highest per capita income of all the cities in the country, and is a center of international investment.
GDP in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2008 was estimated at $25.895 billion USD. The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 64.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 24.7% (2008 est.). Agriculture represents only 11.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
The GDP grew after 1996 at an annual rate that averaged 3.2% real growth. The government committed to free market initiatives, and the 2007 GDP's real growth rate was 4.7%.
In December 1999, net international reserves equaled US $1.8 billion or roughly five months of imports. Having this hard currency buffer to work with, the Salvadoran government undertook a monetary integration plan beginning January 1, 2001 by which the U.S. dollar became legal tender alongside the Salvadoran colón, and all formal accounting was done in U.S. dollars. Thus, the government has formally limited the implementing of open market monetary policies to influence short-term variables in the economy. As of September 2007, net international reserves stood at $2.42 billion.Inflation has been steady and among the lowest in the region. Since 1997 inflation has averaged 3%, with recent years increasing to nearly 5%. As a result of the free trade agreements, from 2000 to 2006, total exports have grown 19% from $2.94 billion to $3.51 billion, and total imports have risen 54% from $4.95 billion to $7.63 billion. This has resulted in a 102% increase in the trade deficit, from $2.01 billion to $4.12 billion.

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PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
El Salvador has a long history of destructive earthquakes and volcaniceruptions. The capital San Salvador was destroyed in 1756 and 1854, and it suffered heavy damage in the 1919, 1982, and 1986 tremors. El Salvador has over twenty volcanoes, two of them, San Miguel and Izalco, active in recent years. From the early 19th century to the mid-1950s, Izalco erupted with a regularity that earned it the name "Lighthouse of the Pacific." Its brilliant flares were clearly visible for great distances at sea, and at night its glowing lava turned it into a brilliant luminous cone.
El Salvador has over 300 rivers, the most important of which is the Rio Lempa. Originating in Guatemala, the Rio Lempa cuts across the northern range of mountains, flows along much of the central plateau, and cuts through the southern volcanic range to empty into the Pacific. It is El Salvador's only navigable river.
There are several lakes enclosed by volcanic craters in El Salvador, the most important of which are Lake Ilopango (70 km²) and Lake Coatepeque (26 km²). Lake Güija is El Salvador's largest natural lake (44 km²).Two parallel mountain ranges cross El Salvador to the west with a central plateau between them and a narrow coastal plain hugging the Pacific. These physical features divide the country into two physiographic regions. The mountain ranges and central plateau, covering 85% of the land, comprise the interior highlands. The remaining coastal plains are referred to as the Pacific lowlands.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
The most important agricultural products in El Salvador are coffee, cotton, corn (maize), and sugarcane. Several species of palm and coconut trees grow in the coastal zone, and there are many varieties of tropical fruit, such as coconut, tamarind, melon, watermelon, and mango. Nontraditional agricultural products (e.g., jalapeño peppers, marigolds, okra, and pineapple) have increased in importance since the early 2000s. Nevertheless, coffee alone still accounts for a substantial part of the value of total agricultural production. Cattle raising is also an important activity.
Valuable wood is obtained from the cedar, mahogany, laurel, nispero, and madrecacao trees and is used for the manufacture of furniture. The trunk of the balsa tree yields excellent lumber as well as resin that is used in the manufacture of antiseptics and medicinal gums. It is also used for fuel.
Commercial fishing, regulated by the government, has added to the country’s export earnings. Most of the fish caught commercially or for sport come from offshore waters and coastal lagoons; they consist chiefly of crustaceans (including lobster and shrimp), mullet, snappers, jacks, groupers, sharks, and anchovies.
Resources and power
There is no mineral exploitation of significance in El Salvador. The main power sources, meeting most of the country’s needs, are the hydroelectric projects on the Lempa River 35 miles (56 km) northeast of San Salvador, which are administered by a government agency.


ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
El Salvador's population is composed of Mestizos, whites, and indigenous peoples. 12.7% of Salvadorans are white. A majority of Central European immigrants in El Salvador arrived during World War II as refugees from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Switzerland. There are also a small community of Jews, Palestinian Christians, and Arab Muslims (in particular Palestinians).
0.23% of the population are of full indigenous origin, the ethnic groups are Kakawira which represents 0.07% of the total country's population, then (Pipil) 0.06%, (Lenca) 0.04% and others minors groups 0.06%. Very few Amerindians have retained their customs and traditions, having over time assimilated into the dominant Mestizo/Spanish culture.
There is a small Afro-Salvadoran that is 0.13% of the total population, with Blacks having traditionally been prevented from immigrating via government policies.

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RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
The majority of the population in El Salvador is Christian. Roman Catholics (47%) and Protestants (33%) are the two major denominations in the country. Those not affiliated with any religious group amount to 17% of the population. The remainder of the population (3%) is made up of Jehovah's Witnesses, Hare Krishnas, Muslims, Jews, Buddhists, Latter-day Saints, and those adhering to indigenous religious beliefs. The number of evangelicals in the country is growing rapidly.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR
Fiscal policy has been one of the biggest challenges for the Salvadoran government. The 1992 peace accords committed the government to heavy expenditures for transition programs and social services. The stability adjustment programs (PAE, for the initials in Spanish) initiated by President Cristiani's administration committed the government to the privatization of banks, the pension system, electric and telephone companies. The total privatization of the pension system has implied a serious burden for the public finances, because the newly created private Pension Association Funds did not absorb coverage of retired pensioners covered in the old system. As a result, in July 2017, the Government of El Salvador wanted to take $500 millions from the privatized pension system to cover retired pensioners from the old not privatized system, but the Supreme Court of El Salvador declared this move unconstitutional.
The government has focused on improving the collection of its current revenues with a focus on indirect taxes. Leftist politicians criticize such a structure since indirect taxes (like the value added tax) affect everyone alike, whereas direct taxes can be weighed according to levels of income and are therefore fairer taxes. However, some basic goods are exempt from the indirect taxes. A 10% value-added tax (VAT), implemented in September 1992, was raised to 13% in July 1995. The VAT is the biggest source of revenue, accounting for about 52.3% of total tax revenues in 2004.
INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
As with other former colonies, El Salvador was considered a mono-export economy (an economy that depended heavily on one type of export) for many years. During colonial times, El Salvador was a thriving exporter of indigo, but after the invention of synthetic dyes in the 19th century, the newly created modern state turned to coffee as the main export.
San Miguel is an important economic center of El Salvador and home to the "Carnival of San Miguel", one of the biggest festivals of entertainment and food in Central America.
El Chorreron, El Salvador; tourism is the fastest-growing sector of the Salvadoran economy.
El Salvador has promoted an open trade and investment environment, and has embarked on a wave of privatization extending to telecommunications, electricity distribution, banking, and pension funds. In late 2006, the government and the Millennium Challenge Corporation signed a five-year, $461 million compact to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty in the country's northern region, the primary conflict zone during the civil war, through investments in education, public services, enterprise development, and transportation infrastructure. With the adoption of the US dollar as its currency in 2001, El Salvador lost control over monetary policy. Any counter-cyclical policy response to the downturn must be through fiscal policy, which is constrained by legislative requirements for a two-thirds majority to approve any international financing.

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EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
More than one-fifth of El Salvador’s imports are used for reexport (mostly apparel produced in maquiladoras). Among other imports are machinery parts, foodstuffs, petroleum, and chemical products. El Salvador’s main trading partner is the United States. Other partners include El Salvador’s Central American neighbours—particularly Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Nicaragua—and China. El Salvador entered into the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) with the United States in 2004.
El Salvador’s exports (2016 est) is $5.804 billion. Their export goods include offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, gold, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures. Main export partners are; United States 45.8%, Guatemala 14.9%, Honduras 9.6%, Nicaragua 5.8% (2016 est)
El Salvador’s imports (2016 est) is $10.44 billion. Their import goods are raw materials (such as thread from US ), consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity. Their import partners are United States 34.4%, Guatemala 10.8%, Mexico 6.8%, Colombia 5.7%, China 5.5%, Germany 4.0% (2016 est.)
It was estimated that 1,394,000 international tourists would visit El Salvador in 2014. Tourism contributed US$855.5 million to El Salvador's GDP in 2013. This represented 3.5% of total GDP.
Tourism directly supported 80,500 jobs in 2013. This represented 3.1% of total employment in El Salvador. In 2013, tourism indirectly supported 210,000 jobs, representing 8.1% of total employment in El Salvador.
El Salvador has surf tourism due to large waves from the Pacific Ocean.
Most North American and European tourists seek out El Salvador's beaches and nightlife. Besides these two attractions, El Salvador's tourism landscape is slightly different from those of other Central American countries. Because of its geographic size and urbanization there are not many nature-themed tourist destinations such as ecotours or archaeological sites open to the public. Surfing is a natural tourism sector that has gained popularity in recent years as Salvadoran beaches have become increasingly popular

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POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
The leading party of the right in El Salvador is the National Republican Alliance (AlianzaRepublicanaNacionalista—ARENA), organized in 1982 by Roberto D'Aubuisson. ARENA controlled the National Assembly until 1985, and its next leader, Alfredo Christiani, was elected to the presidency in 1989. Five years later, ARENA candidate Armando Calderón Sol became president. In the March 1997 parliamentary elections, ARENA's representation was reduced from 42 seats in the 84-member legislature to 28. In 1999, ARENA recovered and won the presidency again with 51.4% of the vote, but a year later its support fell to 36% in the National Assembly elections of March 2000. In March 2003, ARENA plummeted even further with 28% of the vote. However, in 2004, ARENA scored a victory when Elias Antonio Saca Gonzalez captured 57.7% of the vote, securing the fourth consecutive ARENA presidential win and extending his term for five years, until 2009. During the campaign, Saca stated his desire to work with other parties to tackle the violent street gangs, known as maras, and to make government more transparent. As one of the most pro-US governments in the hemisphere, Saca worked to promote economic ties with the United States through CAFTA and other similar free trade arrangements.
The Chapultepec Accords introduced a new force into El Salvador's electoral system: the FarabundoMartí National Liberation Front (FrenteFarabundoMartí de LiberaciónNacional—FMLN). Named for an insurgent leader of the 1930s, the FMLN was originally a paramilitary group in armed rebellion against the government. As part of the 1992 accords, the FMLN is now a legal party after having ceased its military operations. The FMLN-backed candidate, Ruben Zamora, was the runner-up in the 1994 presidential election, winning 24% of the vote. In the March 1997 legislative elections, the FMLN made significant gains, nearly doubling its representation in the Legislative Assembly, from 14 to 27 seats, and winning municipal elections in half the departmental capitals. In the March 2000 elections, the FMLN won 31 seats, shy of a majority but more than any other political party. In 2003, the FMLN increased its share of the vote to 34%, but did not win any additional seats in parliament. Expectations ran high that FMLN might secure the presidency in the 2004 elections, but its candidate, SchafikHanda, secured just 35.6% of the vote, more than 20% less than Saca.
The moderate Christian Democratic Party (PartidoDemócrata Cristiano—PDC) was formed in 1960. For three decades, it was associated with its leader and founder, José Napoleón Duarte.

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FRANCE

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FRANCE
The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls, the Aquitani, and the Belgae. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language.
France, officially French Republic, French France or RépubliqueFrançaise, country of northwestern Europe. Historically and culturally among the most important nations in the Western world, France has also played a highly significant role in international affairs, with former colonies in every corner of the globe. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Alps and the Pyrenees, France has long provided a geographic, economic, and linguistic bridge joining northern and southern Europe. It is Europe’s most important agricultural producer and one of the world’s leading industrial powers.
France is among the globe’s oldest nations, the product of an alliance of duchies and principalities under a single ruler in the Middle Ages. Today, as in that era, central authority is vested in the state, even though a measure of autonomy has been granted to the country’s régions in recent decades. The French people look to the state as the primary guardian of liberty, and the state in turn provides a generous program of amenities for its citizens, from free education to health care and pension plans. The capital and by far the most important city of France is Paris, one of the world’s preeminent cultural and commercial centres. A majestic city known as the ville lumière, or “city of light,” Paris has often been remade, most famously in the mid-19th century under the command of Georges-Eugène, Baron Haussman, who was committed to Napoleon III’s vision of a modern city free of the choleric swamps and congested alleys of old, with broad avenues and a regular plan. Paris is now a sprawling metropolis, one of Europe’s largest conurbations, but its historic heart can still be traversed in an evening’s walk. Confident that their city stood at the very centre of the world, Parisians were once given to referring to their country as having two parts, Paris and le désert, the wasteland beyond it. Metropolitan Paris has now extended far beyond its ancient suburbs into the countryside, however, and nearly every French town and village now numbers a retiree or two driven from the city by the high cost of living, so that, in a sense, Paris has come to embrace the desert and the desert Paris. Among France’s other major cities are Lyon, located along an ancient Rhône valley trade route linking the North Sea and the Mediterranean; Marseille, a multiethnic port on the Mediterranean founded as an entrepôt for Greek and Carthaginian traders in the 6th century bce; Nantes, an industrial centre and deepwaterharbour along the Atlantic coast; and Bordeaux, located in southwestern France along the Garonne River.

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SIZE AND INCOME LEVEL
In 2017, the population of France is estimated at 64.98 million, which ranks 20th in the world.
According to a 2011 report by the American Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), France's GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is similar to that of the UK, with just over US$35,000 per head. To explain why French per capita GDP is lower than that of the United States, the economist Paul Krugman stated that "French workers are roughly as productive as US workers", but that the French have allegedly a lower workforce participation rate and "when they work, they work fewer hours". According to Krugman, the difference is due to the French making "different choices about retirement and leisure".
French employment rates for 15–64 years is one of the lowest of the OECD countries: in 2012, only 71% of the French population aged 15–64 years were in employment, compared to 74% in Japan, 77% in the UK, 73% in the US and 77% in Germany. This gap is due to the low employment rate for 15–24 years old: 38% in 2012, compared to 47% in the OECD. Neoliberal economists attribute the low employment rate, particularly evident among young people, to allegedly high minimum wages that would prevent low productivity workers from easily entering the labour market.
Everyday, about 80,000 French citizens are commuting to work in neighbouring Luxembourg, making it the biggest cross-border workforce group in the whole of the European Union. They are attracted by much higher wages for the different job groups than in their own country and the lack of skilled labour in the booming Luxembourgish economy.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
Agriculture
France’s extensive land area—of which more than half is arable or pastoral land and another quarter is wooded—presents broad opportunities for agriculture and forestry. The country’s varied relief and soils and contrasting climatic zones further enhance this potential. Rainfall is plentiful throughout most of France, so water supply is not generally a problem. An ample fish supply in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea provides an additional resource.
Agriculture employs relatively few people—about 3 percent of the labour force—and makes only a small contribution to GDP—about 2 percent. Yet France is the EU’s leading agricultural nation, accounting for more than one-fifth of the total value of output, and alone is responsible for more than one-third of the EU’s production of oilseeds, cereals, and wine. France also is a major world exporter of agricultural commodities, and approximately one-eighth of the total value of the country’s visible exports is related to agriculture and associated food and drink products.
France has a usable agricultural area of nearly 74 million acres (30 million hectares), more than three-fifths of which is used for arable farming (requiring plowing or tillage), followed by permanent grassland (about one-third) and permanent crops such as vines and orchards (about one-twentieth). Areas in which arable farming is dominant lie mostly in the northern and western regions of the country, centred on the Paris Basin. Permanent grassland is common in upland and mountainous areas such as the Massif Central, the Alps, and the Vosges, although it is also a notable feature of the western région of Normandy. Conversely, the major areas devoted to permanent cultivation lie in Mediterranean regions.

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Fruits and wine making
Vines, fruits, and vegetables cover only a limited area but represent more than one-fourth of the total value of agricultural output. France is probably more famous for its wines than any other country in the world. Viticulture and wine making are concentrated principally in Languedoc-Roussillon and in the Bordeaux area, but production also occurs in Provence, Alsace, the Rhône and Loire valleys, Poitou-Charentes, and the Champagne region. There has been a marked fall in the production of vin ordinaire, a trend related to EU policy, which favours an increase in the output of quality wines. Fruit production (mainly of apples, pears, and peaches) is largely concentrated in the Rhône and Garonne valleys and in the Mediterranean region. Vegetables are also grown in the lower Rhône and Mediterranean areas, but a large part of output comes from western France (Brittany) and the southwest and the northern région of Hauts-de-France, where sugar beets and potatoes are produced.
Forestry
With more than 57,000 square miles (148,000 square km) of woodland, France possesses one of the largest afforested areas in western Europe, offering direct employment to more than 80,000 people. Forested areas are unevenly distributed, with the majority lying to the east of a line from Bordeaux to the Luxembourg border. Aquitaine and Franche-Comté have a particularly dense forest cover. This vast resource is, however, generally underexploited, partly because of the multitude of private owners, many of whom are uninterested in the commercial management of their estates. Less than one-fourth of the afforested area is controlled by the National Office of Forests.

Fishing
Despite the extent of France’s coastlines and its numerous ports, the French fishing industry remains relatively small. Annual catches have averaged about 700,000 tons since the mid-1970s, and by the 21st century there were fewer than 16,500 fishermen. The industry’s problems are related to its fragmented character and to inadequate modernization of boats and port facilities, as well as to overfishing and pollution. Activity is now concentrated in the port of Boulogne in Nord–Pas-de-Calais and to a lesser degree in ports in Brittany such as Concarneau, Lorient, and Le Guilvinic. France is also known for its aquaculture, with activity increasing over recent years along the coastal waters of western France. Oyster beds are found particularly in the southwest, centred on Marennes-Oléron.
Resources and power
Compared with its agricultural resources, the country is far less well-endowed with energy resources. Coal reserves are estimated at about 140 million tons, but French coal suffered from being difficult and expensive to mine and from its mediocre quality. In 1958 annual production amounted to some 60 million tons; 40 years later this total had dropped to less than 6 million tons; and in 2004 the last coal mine was shuttered. Imported coal had long supplemented indigenous production. Imports originate mainly from Australia, the United States, South Africa, and Germany.

ESTHER NZENWA said...

Other energy resources are in short supply. Natural gas was first exploited in southwestern France (near Lacq) in 1957. Production then increased substantially, only to decline after 1978 as reserves became exhausted. By the late 1990s, production was negligible, requiring a high level of imports, principally from the North Sea (Norway and the Netherlands), Algeria, and Russia. France has few oil reserves, and production from wells in Aquitaine and the Paris Basin is extremely limited. Uranium is mined in the Massif Central, and, although recoverable reserves are estimated at approximately 50,000 tons, more than half of the annual consumption has to be imported. France, however, does possess fast-moving rivers flowing out of highland areas that provide it with an ample hydroelectric resource.
Minerals
The metal industry is poorly supplied by indigenous raw materials, although traditionally France was an important producer of iron ore and bauxite. Iron ore output exceeded 60 million tons in the early 1960s, originating principally in Lorraine; but production has now ceased, despite the continued existence of reserves. Low in metal content and difficult to agglomerate, Lorraine ores were thus long supplemented and have now been replaced by richer overseas supplies from such countries as Brazil, Sweden, and Australia. Bauxite production is negligible, though other mineralized ores, such as those containing lead, zinc, and silver, are mined in very small quantities. Greater amounts of potash (mined in Alsace), sodium chloride (from mines in Lorraine and Franche-Comté and from salt marshes in western and southern France), and sulfur (derived from natural gas in Aquitaine) are produced, but again the trend is toward declining output as reserves are depleted. The supply of stone, sand, and gravel is relatively ubiquitous.

ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
Ethnic groups
The French are, paradoxically, strongly conscious of belonging to a single nation, but they hardly constitute a unified ethnic group by any scientific gauge. Before the official discovery of the Americas at the end of the 15th century, France, located on the western extremity of the Old World, was regarded for centuries by Europeans as being near the edge of the known world. Generations of different migrants traveling by way of the Mediterranean from the Middle East and Africa and through Europe from Central Asia and the Nordic lands settled permanently in France, forming a variegated grouping, almost like a series of geologic strata, since they were unable to migrate any farther. Perhaps the oldest reflection of these migrations is furnished by the Basque people, who live in an isolated area west of the Pyrenees in both Spain and France, who speak a language unrelated to other European languages, and whose origin remains unclear. The Celtic tribes, known to the Romans as Gauls, spread from central Europe in the period 500 bce–500 ce to provide France with a major component of its population, especially in the centre and west. At the fall of the Roman Empire, there was a powerful penetration of Germanic (Teutonic) peoples, especially in northern and eastern France. The incursion of the Norsemen (Vikings) brought further Germanic influence. In addition to these many migrations, France was, over the centuries, the field of numerous battles and of prolonged occupations before becoming, in the 19th and especially in the 20th century, the prime recipient of foreign immigration into Europe, adding still other mixtures to the ethnic melting pot.

ESTHER NZENWA said...

Religion
About three-fifths of the French people belong to the Roman Catholic Church. Only a minority, however, regularly participate in religious worship; practice is greatest among the middle classes. The northwest (Brittany-Vendée), the east (Lorraine, Vosges, Alsace, Jura, Lyonnais, and the northern Alps), the north (Flanders), the Basque Country, and the region south of the Massif Central have a higher percentage of practicing Roman Catholics than the rest of the country. Recruitment of priests has become more difficult, even though the church, historically autonomous, is very progressive and ecumenical.
Reflecting the presence of immigrants from North Africa, Algeria, and Morocco, France has one of Europe’s largest Muslim populations: an estimated 5,000,000 Muslims, a sizable percentage of them living in and around Marseille in southeastern France, as well as in Paris and Lyon. Protestants, who number 700,000, belong to several different denominations. They are numerous in Alsace, in the northern Jura, in the southeastern Massif Central, and in the central Atlantic region. There are more than 700,000 adherents of Judaism, concentrated in Greater Paris, Marseille, and Alsace and the large eastern towns. In addition to the religious groups, there also are several societies of freethinkers, of which the most famous is the French Masonry. Large numbers, however, especially among the working classes and young population, profess no religious belief.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR
The public sector in France first assumed importance in the post-World War II transition period of 1944–46 with a series of nationalizations that included major banks such as the National Bank of Paris (BanqueNationale de Paris; BNP) and Crédit Lyonnais, large industrial companies such as Renault, and public services such as gas and electricity. Little change took place after that until 1982, when the then Socialist government introduced an extensive program of nationalization. As a result, the enlarged public sector contained more than one-fifth of industrial employment, and more than four-fifths of credit facilities were controlled by state-owned banking or financial institutions. Since that period successive right-wing and, more recently, left-of-centre governments have returned most enterprises to the private sector; state ownership is primarily concentrated in transport, defense, and broadcasting.
Despite the dominance of the private sector, the tradition of a mixed economy in France is well established. Successive governments have intervened to protect or promote different types of economic activity, as has been clearly reflected in the country’s national plans and nationalized industries. In the decades following World War II, the French economy was guided by a succession of national plans, each covering a span of approximately four to five years and designed to indicate rather than impose growth targets and development strategies.
.

ESTHER NZENWA said...

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
The leading industrial sectors in France are telecommunications (including communication satellites), aerospace and defense, ship building (naval and specialist ships), pharmaceuticals, construction and civil engineering, chemicals, textiles, and automobile production.
Research and development spending is also high in France at 2.26% of GDP, the fourth-highest in the OECD
France is the world-leading country in nuclear energy, home of global energy giants Areva, EDF and GDF Suez: nuclear power now accounts for about 78% of the country's electricity production, up from only 8% in 1973, 24% in 1980, and 75% in 1990. Nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities. Due to its heavy investment in nuclear power, France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialized countries in the world.
On the basis of employment and turnover, seven branches of manufacturing stand out as particularly important: vehicles, chemicals, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, electronics, food, and textiles. The vehicle industry is dominated by the activities of the two automobile manufacturers, Peugeot SA (including Citroën) and Renault, which together produce nearly four million cars annually. Automobile production generates a substantial number of direct jobs as well as employment in subsidiary industries, such as the major tire manufacturer Michelin. France also possesses an important industry for the manufacture of railway locomotives and rolling stock, for which the expanding high-speed train (train à grandevitesse; TGV) network represents a major market.
Within the chemical industry, manufacturing ranges from basic organic and inorganic products to fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other parachemical items, including perfumes. Because of the capital-intensive nature of these activities, a dominant role is played by large manufacturers such as Rhône-Poulenc. Extensive research is carried out in this field. Basic chemical production is concentrated in areas offering access to raw materials, such as Nord–Pas-de-Calais, Étang-de-Berre, and Rhône-Alpes, whereas pharmaceutical production is more closely related to major market areas and research centres, notably Île-de-France.

ESTHER NZENWA said...

The metallurgical industry, dominated by the production of steel, experienced major restructuring in the late 1970s and the ’80s as demand fell and competition from other international producers increased. Originally concentrated in Lorraine because of the presence of iron ore, steel production shifted to the coastal sites of Dunkirk and Fos-sur-Mer, which relied on imported ore and coal. France is also an important producer of aluminum, notably through the Pechiney group. Such basic metal industries support a diverse range of engineering activities, spread widely throughout France but with important concentrations in the highly urbanized and industrialized régions of Île-de-France and Auvergne–Rhône-Alpes. Similar features characterize the electrical engineering and electronics industries. France is a major manufacturer of professional electronics, such as radar equipment, but is weakly represented in the field of consumer electronics, which has led to a high level of imports. The country also has a number of high-tech aerospace industries, which manufacture aircraft, missiles, satellites, and related launch systems. These industries are concentrated in the Paris region and in the southwest around Toulouse and Bordeaux.
Food and beverage industries represent a large branch of French manufacturing, reflecting the considerable volume and diversity of agricultural production. Although present in most regions, food manufacturers are particularly concentrated in major urban market areas and in western agricultural regions such as Brittany, Pays de la Loire, and Basse-Normandie. The beverage sector is dominant in the main wine-growing areas of northern and northeastern France; it represents an important source of exports.
Textile and clothing industries have experienced a long period of decline in the face of strong foreign competition, with substantial job losses and plant closures affecting the major production areas of northern France and Rhône-Alpes (textiles), as well as Île-de-France (clothing). Unlike other major industrial branches, these activities remain characterized by small firms.
A varied group of construction and civil engineering industries employs about one-fourth of the labour in the industrial sector. Activity and employment have fluctuated considerably in relation to changing government and private investment programs and the varying demand for new homes. This sector is characterized by the coexistence of a large number of small firms with a limited number of large companies, many of which work on civil engineering contracts outside France.


EXTERNAL DEPENDENCE
France is the second-largest trading nation in Europe (after Germany). Its foreign trade balance for goods had been in surplus from 1992 until 2001, reaching $25.4 billion (25.4 G$) in 1998; however, the French balance of trade was hit by the economic downturn, and went into the red in 2000, reaching a US$15bn deficit in 2003. Total trade for 1998 amounted to $730 billion, or 50% of GDP—imports plus exports of goods and services. Trade with European Union countries accounts for 60% of French trade.
In 1998, US–France trade stood at about $47 billion – goods only. According to French trade data, US exports accounted for 8.7% – about $25 billion – of France's total imports. US industrial chemicals, aircraft and engines, electronic components, telecommunications, computer software, computers and peripherals, analytical and scientific instrumentation, medical instruments and supplies, broadcasting equipment, and programming and franchising are particularly attractive to French importers.
The principal French exports to the US are aircraft and engines, beverages, electrical equipment, chemicals, cosmetics, luxury products and perfume. France is the ninth-largest trading partner of the US.
France is the 6th largest export economy in the world. In 2016, France exported $485B and imported $540B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $54.9B. In 2016 the GDP of France was $2.47T and its GDP per capita was $41.5k.

ESTHER NZENWA said...

France is the 6th largest export economy in the world. In 2016, France exported $485B and imported $540B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $54.9B. In 2016 the GDP of France was $2.47T and its GDP per capita was $41.5k.
The top exports of France are Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft ($45B), Packaged Medicaments ($22.7B), Cars ($18.4B), Vehicle Parts ($14.7B) and Unspecified ($11.7B), using the 1992 revision of the HS (Harmonized System) classification. Its top imports are Cars ($31.7B), Crude Petroleum ($17.9B), Aircraft Parts ($15.4B), Refined Petroleum ($15B) and Packaged Medicaments ($14.5B).
The top export destinations of France are Germany ($78.9B), Spain ($36.6B), the United States ($36.1B), Italy ($35.7B) and the United Kingdom ($34.4B). The top import origins are Germany ($110B), Belgium ($61.3B), Italy ($48.6B), Spain ($42.6B) and the Netherlands ($36.1B).
POLITICAL STRUCTURE, POWER AND INTEREST GROUPS
President: Emmanuel Macron
Prime minister: Édouard Philippe
The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The nation declares itself to be an "indivisible, secular, democratic, and social Republic".[1] The constitution provides for a separation of powers and proclaims France's "attachment to the Rights of Man and the principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789."
The political system of France consists of an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic and the Government. The Government consists of the Prime Minister and ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, and is responsible to Parliament. The government, including the Prime Minister, can be revoked by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, through a "censure motion"; this ensures that the Prime Minister is always supported by a majority of the lower house (which, on most topics, has prominence over the upper house).
Parliament comprises the National Assembly and the Senate. It passes statutes and votes on the budget; it controls the action of the executive through formal questioning on the floor of the houses of Parliament and by establishing commissions of inquiry. The constitutionality of the statutes is checked by the Constitutional Council, members of which are appointed by the President of the Republic, the President of the National Assembly, and the President of the Senate. Former presidents of the Republic also are members of the Council.
The independent judiciary is based upon civil law system which evolved from the Napoleonic codes. It is divided into the judicial branch (dealing with civil law and criminal law) and the administrative branch (dealing with appeals against executive decisions), each with their own independent supreme court of appeal: the Court of Cassation for the judicial courts and the Conseild'Etat for the administrative courts.[2] The French government includes various bodies that check abuses of power and independent agencies.
France is a unitary state. However, its administrative subdivisions—regions, departments and communes—have various legal functions, and the national government is prohibited from intruding into their normal operations.

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